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2 3 ;35(J 












INDEX . 513 







THE Sixth Oration is a sermon or rather a scolding 
addressed to the New Cynics, and especially to one 
of their number who had ventured to defame the 
memory of Diogenes. In the fourth Christian 
century the Cynic mode of life was adopted by 
many, but the vast majority were illiterate men 
who imitated the Cynic shamelessness of manners 
but not the genuine discipline, the self-sufficiency 
(avTapKtia) which had ennobled the lives of Antis- 
thenes, Diogenes and Crates. To the virtues of 
these great men Julian endeavours to recall the 
worthless Cynics of his day. In the two centuries 
that had elapsed since Lucian wrote, for the edifica- 
tion of degenerate Cynics, 1 the Life of the Cynic 
Demonax, the dignified and witty friend of Epictetus, 
the followers of that sect had still further deter- 
iorated. The New Cynics may be compared with 
the worst type of mendicant friar of the Middle 
Ages ; and Julian saw in their assumption of 
the outward signs of Cynicism, the coarse cloak, 
the staff and wallet, and long hair, the same hypo- 
crisy and greed that characterised certain of the 
Christian monks of his day. 2 The resemblances 

1 Cf. Bernays, Lukian und die Kyniker, Berlin, 1879. 

2 224 c. 


between the Christians and the Cynics had already 
been pointed out by Aristides, 1 and while in Julian's 
eyes they were equally impious, he has an additional 
grievance against the Cynics in that they brought 
discredit on philosophy. Like the Christians they 
were unlettered,, they were disrespectful to the gods 
whom Julian was trying to restore, they had flattered 
and fawned on Constantius, and far from practising 
the austerities of Diogenes they were no better than 
parasites on society. 

In this as in the Seventh Oration Julian's aim 
is to reform the New Cynics, but still more to 
demonstrate the essential unity of philosophy. He 
sympathised profoundly with the tenets of Cynicism, 
and ranked Diogenes with Socrates as a moral 
teacher. He reminds the Cynics whom he satirises 
that the famous admonition of Diogenes to " counter- 
mark " 2 or " forge " a new coinage is not to be taken 
as an excuse for license and impudence, but like 
the Delphic precept "Know Thyself" warns all 
philosophers to accept no traditional authority, no 
convention that has not been examined and approved 
by the reason of the individual. His conviction 
that all philosophical tenets are in harmony if 
rightly understood, gives a peculiar earnestness 
to his Apologia for Diogenes. The reference in 
the first paragraph to the summer solstice seems 
to indicate that the Oration was written before 
Julian left Constantinople in order to prepare 
for the Persian campaign. 

1 Aristides, Orations 402 D. 

2 The precise meaning of the phrase is uncertain ; it has 
been suggested that it arose from the custom of altering or 
' ' countermarking " coins so as to adapt them for the regular 
currency ; see 192 c, Oration 1. 208 D. 

B 2 



"A.vco TTOTa/jLwv, TOVTO Srj TO Trjs Trapoi/jiias. dvr^p 
Kuz/ttfo? Aioyevrj (j)rjo~l /cevoBo^ov, /cal ^v^po\ov- 
relv ov ySouXerat, cr<j)6Spa eppwf^evo^ TO crw/j,a KOI 
<r$>pi r ywv /cal rrjv ri\iKiav dfc/jid^ayv, &)? av fJ^rf rt, 
tca/cbv \dfiy, KOI ravra rov 0ov rals 
T/)O7rat9 ijSrj Trpocnovros. d\\a /cal rrjv 
rov 7ro\v7ro8os KWfJLwbel /cai $i]Gi TOV Aioyevrj T?}? 
az/ota? /cal K6voSoias eKTerifcevai l/cavas l 
axTTrep VTTO fcwveiov TT}? rpo(j)rj^ 
OVTCO TToppco TTOV <7O0ta? \avi>i, ware kiri 

OTt KCLKOV o OdvaTO^. TOVTO Be dyvoeiv 
o <jo<^o? ^w/cpaTrjs, d\\a icai //-CT 
ztcelvov &io<yvrj<;. appwerovvTi yovv, (p'aviv, 
[jLa/cpav /cal $>varavd\Y)'n"rov dppwcrTiav 

v 6 A.toyevr)<> eiirtov el (f)i\ov B 
vTrovpyias. OVTWS ovSev wero Seivbv 

iKafan Naber adds. 


BEHOLD the rivers are flowing backwards, 1 as 
the proverb says ! Here is a Cynic who says 
that Diogenes 2 was conceited, and who refuses 
to take cold baths for fear they may injure him, 
though he has a very strong constitution and is 
lusty and in the prime of life, and this too though 
the Sun-god is now nearing the summer solstice. 
Moreover he even ridicules the eating of octopus 
and says that Diogenes paid a sufficient penalty 
for his folly and vanity in that he perished of 
this diet 3 as though by a draught of hemlock. 
So far indeed is he advanced in wisdom that he 
knows for certain that death is an evil. Yet this 
even the wise Socrates thought he did not know, 
yes and after him Diogenes as well. At any rate 
when Antisthenes 4 was suffering from a long and 
incurable illness Diogenes handed him a dagger 
with these words, (i In case you need the aid of 

1 A proverb signifying that all is topsy-turvy : cf. Euri- 
pides, Medea 413 &vw irora/jiwi' ifpwv x<*>poC<n irayai. 

2 Of Sinope : he was the pupil of Antisthenes and is said 
to have lived in a jar in the Metroum, the temple of the 
Mother of the Gods at Athens ; he died 323 B.C. 

3 For the tradition that Diogenes died of eating a raw 
octopus cf. Lucian, Sale of Creeds 10. 

4 A pupil of Socrates and founder of the Cynic sect. 


e/ceivo? ovBe d\yewbv TOV OdvaTOv. <xXX' rj/Jbels ol 
TO (TKrjTTTpov e/ceWev 7rapa\af36vTS VTTO /juei^ovos 
o~o(f)ia<> icrjjiev on %a\eTrov o OdvaTOS, KOI TO 
vocreiv SeivoTepov avTOV (f)a/j,ev l TOV OavaTOV, TO 
piyovv oe xaXeTTWTepov TOV vocretv. 6 /j,ev yap 
voa&v fjLO\aKM<$ e'<r$' ore OepaTreveTai, wcrre 

aXXft>9 re /cav y TrX-ovcno^. eOeacrd/jL'tjv TOL KOL C 
avrbs vrj Ata TpvfywvTas Tiva<$ ev rai? voaois /zaX- 
\ov r) TOVTOVS CLVTOVS vyiaivovras' KCL'ITOL >ye KOL 
Tore \ajjL7rpa)<> Tpv(f)Ci)v. o@ev pot KOI TrapecrTr) Trpos 
TWV eraipmv elrrelv, co? rourot? CL^LVOV r)v 
yeveaOai /JiaKKov /} SecrTroTa^?, real ireve- 
TOV Kpivov yvfJLVOTepois ovcriv r/ rr\ovTlv 
wairep vvv. rj yap av eTrava-avTO voaovvTes a/jia 
KOI Tpv<f>a)VTs. TO pel* oij vocroTvfyelv /cal voait]- D 
\evecr0ai, Tpv^rfKw^ OVTMCTL Tives ev Ka\a> TTOIOVV- 
Tai' dvrfp Se TOV Kpvovs dve^o/Jievo^ teal 0d\7ros 
tcapTepwv ov-ftl /cal TWV voaovvTwv dd\i(*)Tepov 
TrpaTTei; d\yel yovv aTrapafLvOrjTa. 

AeO/?o ovv TyyLtei? vrrep TMV KVVIKWV ovrocra &i- 
Sacrtcd^wv ^Kovcra^&v ev KOLVW KaTdOwfJiev cricoTreiv 

TOi? 7rl TOV ftLOV lOVGL TOVTOV Ot? 1 fJbV 7Tia- 

Oelev, ev olSa, ovSev o'L ye vvv eTn^eipovvTe^ 182 ecrovTai ^eipov^' aTreiOovvTes Be el pv 
TI \a/ji7rpbv Kal cre/j,vbv eTriTrjbeva-eiav, vrrep- 
(})(t)vovvTs TOV \6yov TOV r)/jieTpov, OVTI rot? 

1 (f>ap.fv Hertlein suggests, (pacri MSS, 


a friend." So convinced was he that there is 
nothing terrible or grievous in death. But we 
who have inherited his staff know out of our greater 
wisdom that death is a calamity. And we say 
that sickness is even more terrible than death, 
and cold harder to bear than sickness. For the 
man who is sick is often tenderly nursed, so that 
his ill-health is straightway converted into a luxury, 
especially if he be rich. Indeed I myself, by Zeus, 
have observed that certain persons are more luxurious 
in sickness than in health, though even in health 
they were conspicuous for luxury. And so it once 
occurred to me to say to certain of my friends 
that it were better for those men to be servants 
than masters, and to be poor and more naked 
than the lily of the field l than to be rich as 
they now are. For they would have ceased being 
at once sick and luxurious. The fact is that some 
people think it a fine thing to make a display of 
their ailments and to play the part of luxurious 
invalids. But, says someone, is not a man who has 
to endure cold and to support heat really more 
miserable than the sick ? Well, at any rate he has 
no comforts to mitigate his sufferings. 

Come now, let me set down for the benefit of 
the public what I learned from my teachers about 
the Cynics, so that all who are entering on this 
mode of life may consider it. And if they are 
convinced by what I say, those who are now 
aiming to be Cynics will, I am sure, be none 
the worse for it : and if they are unconvinced 
but cherish aims that are brilliant and noble, 
and set themselves above my argument not in 

* A proverb, but Julian may allude to Matthew 6. 28. 


d\\d rot? epyois, ovBev e/unroSiov o ye 
olcrei \6yov el Be VTTO \i^eia^ rj 
ij, TO /cecf)d\ai,ov 'iv e?7TO) %vve\(0v ev 
79 crw/jLaTi/crjs rjBov^ BeBov\wfjLevoi, TWV 
\6ya)v oXiywprjaeiai' TrpoaKaTayeXdaavTes, w&Trep B 
eviore TWV TraiSevTrjpiwv /cal TWV SifcacrTr)pi(i)V ol 
Kvves rot? TTpOTTvkaioiS Trpocrovpova-iv, ov fypovrls 
f \7r7roK\ei&r)' /cal yap ovSe TWV icvvi&ia>V rj/jilv 
jjie\ei ra rotavra 7r\rjfji/jLe\ovvTMV. Sevpo ovv 
avwOev ev /ce<f)a\ai,oi<; Sie^eXOwpev e'$e% rov 
\6<yov, iva VTrep eKdarov TO Trpocrrj/cov aTT.o&iBovTes 
avroi re evfco\coTpov aTrepyaadyfjLeOa TOV&' oirep 
Btevotjd'rjijLev /cal aol Troirjdw^ev ev7rapaKO\ovOr)TOV. 
OVKOVV eTreiSrj TOV KWidfJiov etSo? TI ^tXocro^a? C 
elvai a-vpftefirjKev, OVTI <j>av\oTaTOV ovSe a 
TOV, a\\a T049 /cpaTicTTOis evdfJLL\ 
irpOTepov VTrep avTij? prjreov rj/JLtv e'crrt 

'H TWV deWV 669 dvQpWTTOVS SoO"t9 CLfJia 

Trvpl Sia TipofirjOew^ KaTaTrejjifydeicra l e rf\.iov 
/zero, 7779 'Rpjjiov yuept8o9 ov% erepop eVrt Trapa 
Trjv TOV \6yov /cal vov Suu>o/tqy' 6 yap rot 
Tlpo/jLr)6ev<>, rj irdvTa eTTiTpoTrevovaa TCL OVTJTCI 
irpovoia, Trvevfjua evOepfjiov wcnrep opyavov viro- D 
/3aXXof<ra TTJ (frvcrei, anraai /jLeTeBco/cev dcrw/jid- 
TOV \6yov fj,Tea"% Se e/caaTOV ovirep rj&vvaTO, 
TCL fjiev d^rv)(a aw/jiara rr}9 e^ea>9 fJiovov, TCL (puTa 
KOI rr9 0)79 2 TCL ^a>a Be ^9, o Be 

Qt'iffa Reiske would add. 
2 rrjs C w ^s Wright auparos Hertlein, MSS. Petavius 
sxispects corruption. 



words only but in deeds, then my discourse will 
at any rate put no hindrance in their way. But 
if there are others already enslaved by greed or 
self-indulgence, or to sum it up briefly in a single 
phrase, by the pleasures of the body, and they there- 
fore neglect my words or even laugh them down just 
as dogs sometimes defile the front porticoes of schools 
and law-courts, " 'Tis all one to Hippocleides," l 
for indeed we take no notice of puppies who 
behave in this fashion. Come then let me pursue 
my argument under headings from the beginning 
in due order, so that by giving every question 
its proper treatment I may myself more conveniently 
achieve what I have in mind and may make it 
more easy for you also to follow. And since it 
is a fact that Cynicism is a branch of philosophy, 
and by no means the most insignificant or least 
honourable, but rivalling the noblest, I must first 
say a few words about philosophy itself. 

The gift of the gods sent down to mankind with 
the glowing flame of fire 2 from the sun through the 
agency of Prometheus along with the blessings that 
we owe to Hermes 3 is no other than the bestowal of 
reason and mind. For Prometheus, the Forethought 
that guides all things mortaTB^nhtusing nTlo~naTiIre 
a fiery breath to serve as an operative cause, gave 
to all things a share in incorporeal reason. And 
each thing took what share it could ; lifeless bodies 
only a state of existence ; plants received life besides, 

1 Herodotus 6. 129 ; Hippocleides, when told by Cleisthenes 
that by his unbecoming method of dancing he had "danced 
away his marriage," made this answer which became a 

2 An echo of Plato, Philebus 16 c ; cf. Themistius 338 c. 

3 e.g. eloquence, commerce, and social intercourse. 


real Xoyiicfjs ^^X^?- elo~\ [lev ovv ol 
otovrai Bid rovrwv rrdvrwv rfKeiv (f)vo~iv, elcrl 
8e OL KOI tear elSo? ravra Siafyepeiv. a\\a /urJTrco 
rovro, /jbd\\ov Se /jirjSe ev ra> vvv \6yro rovro ee- 
ra^ea-00), 7r\r]V eiceivov X^P iV > ^ ri > r ^l v $Ck>oa-o<$>tav 183 
ei@\ wcnrep rives viroK-a^avovai, re^vrjv re^vcov 
KOI eTrKrTtjiJLrjv eTricrTrj/jiayv, etre oyu-ottocrti/ 6e& l Kara 
TO Svvarov, eW\ OTrep o Hu^to? 6^77, TO F 
aavTov V7ro~\,d(3oi Tt?, ov$ei> Sioio'ei Trpo? 
\6joi>' cLTTCLVia yap ravra fyaiverai TT/OO? 
fcal fjbd\a olKebws e^ovTa. 

'Apgoo/jieQa Se Trpwrov djro TOV YvwOi o-avrov, 
7TL&r) /col Oelov ean rovro TO 
OVKOVV 6 <yi<yvwcnctov avrov e'lcrerai /zei/ rcepl 
elcrerai 8e teal rcepl crco/xttTO?. /cal rovro OVK 
dp/ceaei JJLOVOV, to? eanv avOpwrros ^v^r) xpw/j,evrj 
o-co/jiari, fJuiOeiv, d\\d KOI avrrjs r^ ^f%r}? eV- 
e\evo~erai rrjv ovaiav, erceira dvi'xyevaei Ta? 
&vvd/jiis. /cal ovSe rovro JJLOVOV dp/ceo-ei avrut, 
d\\d Kai, el ri TT}? ^X^ ev ^^ lv e '" Ti ^p^lrrov 
KOI Oeiorepov, orrep $r) irdvres d$i$dKrws 7rei66- 
fj&voi 6elov n elvai vofjii^ofjiev, KOI rovro eviSpv- C 
o~6ai rrdvres ovpavw KOIV&S V7ro\afi^dvofjiev. emcov 
Se avOis T? dp-%as rov awfjiaros aice^erai, etVe 
avvOerov el're drr\ovv eo~rw elra 
vrrep re dpfjiovia^ avrov KOI rrddovs /cal 
/cal rcdvrwv avrXw? &v Seirai TT/QO? 
eTU/^Xex/ret 8e TO fiera rovro /cal appals 

1 6t$ Klimek, Bern- Hertlein, MSS, 


and animals soul,, and man a reasoning soul. Now 
some think that a single substance is the basis of 
all these, and others that they differ essentially ac- 
cording to their species. But this question we must 
not discuss as yet, or rather not at all in the present 
discourse, and we need only say that whether one 
regards philosophy, as some people do, as the 
art of arts and the science of sciences or as an 
effort to become like God, as far as one may, or 
whether, as the Pythian oracle said, it means " Know 
thyself," will make no difference to my argument. 
For all these definitions are evidently very closely 
related to one another. 

However, let us begin with " Know thyself," 
since this precept is divinely inspired. 1 It follows 
that he who knows himself will know not only about 
his soul but his body also. And it will not be enough 
to know that a man is a soul employing a body, but 
he will also investigate the essential nature of the 
soul, and then trace out its faculties. And not even 
this alone will be enough for him, but in addition he 
will investigate whatever exists in us nobler and 
more divine than the soul, that something which we 
all believe in without being taught and regard as 
divine, and all in common suppose to be established 
in the heavens. Then again, as he investigates the 
first principles of the body he will observe whether 
it is composite or simple ; then proceeding sys- 
tematically he will observe its harmony and the 
influences that affect it and its capacity and, in a 
word, all that it needs to ensure its permanence. 
And in the next place he will also observe the first 

1 Of. 188B; Juvenal, Satire* 11. 27; E caelo descendit 
yvuQt, ffeavr6v. 



olov larpi/cris, yewpyias, erepwv TOIOVTWV. ov /Jirjv D 
ov&e TWV d%prio~Twv Kal TrepiTT&v TI TravTairacrLV 
eirel Kal ravTa l Trpo? KoXafceuav TOV 
T}? ^f%^9 rj/^wv eTnvevorjrcu. TTpoa- 
\iirapr\(jai /jiev yap TOUTCH? airoKvr)a-ei 
olo/jievos TO TOIOVTOV, TO &oKovv e^coSe? ev 

(j)VywV TO S' 0\OV OTTOia CLTTa &OK6L 

dpfjiOTTei TT}? tyvx^ A t ^/ 3ecrt ^ ^ K dyvorfcrei. 

Srj, el /j,r) TO eavTov yvwvai iraa^ /j,ev 

7rdcrr)<s Be Te^vrj^ rjyeiTai T6 a/jia Kal TOW? KaOoXov 

\6yov<$ (TweiK^^e. TCL Te yap Oeia $ia T^? evovcr^ 184 

rj/jilv Oeias fjuepibos TCL Te 6vr)Ta Sia Tt} 

jjioipas TTpo? TouTot? ^TTpocn]KeLV e$>r) TO 

TOVTWV q>ov elSevai, TOV av6 pwirov^ , 2 TW fjiev tfaO' 

GKCLdTOV 6vr)TQV, TO) TTdVTl $ dOdvaTOV, Kal /jbeVTOl 

Kal TOV eva Kal TOV Ka0 y eKacrTOv avyKecaOai, K 
OvriTrfS Kal ddavaTov fMepuBos. 

"OTL jjievTOi Kal TO TU> 6ew KaTa Svva/jLiv O/JLOIOV- 
&6ai OVK a\\o TL CCTTLV PI TO TTJV e(j)iKTrjv dvQpw- 
Troi? yvwcriv T&V ovTcov 7repi7roir)(racr0aL,7rp68ri\ov 
evrevQev. ov yap eVt TrXovTW ^prj/jbaTcov TO Qtiov B 
/jiaKapL^ofAev ovSe eV a\\q> Ttvl TWV vofjbi^o^evwv 
dyaOwv, aXX' OTrep "O/JLypos $r)<Ti, 

0eol Be T6 TrdvTa laaai, 
Kal Trepl Ato? 
Zeu? TrpOTepos yeyovei KOL 7T\eiova rjSei' 

1 ravra Hertlein suggests, TO. MSS. 

2 TrpoayKetv HvdptaTfov, Hertlein suggests, cf. Maximus of 
Tyre 4. 7 ; J-^TJ TO. /j.fra^v TOV <pov flvai r'bv &vQpu>itov MSS. 



principles of certain arts by which the body is 
assisted to that permanence, for instance, medicine, 
husbandry and the like. And of such arts as are 
useless and superfluous he will not be wholly 
ignorant, since these too have been devised to 
humour the emotional part of our souls. For 
though he will avoid the persistent study of these 
last, because he thinks such persistent study disgrace- 
ful, and will avoid what seems to involve hard work 
in those subjects ; nevertheless he will not, generally 
speaking, remain in ignorance of their apparent 
nature and what parts of the soul they suit. Reflect 
therefore, whether self-knowledge does not control 
every science and every art, and moreover whether 
it does not include the knowledge of universals. For 
to know things divine through the divine part in 
us, and mortal things too through the part of us 
that is mortal this the oracle declared to be the 
duty of the living organism that is midway between 
these, namely man ; because individually he is 
mortal, but regarded as a whole he is immortal, and 
moreover, singly and individually, is compounded of 
a mortal and an immortal part. 

Further, that to make oneself like God as far as 
possible is nothing else than to acquire such know- 
ledge of the essential nature of things as is attainable 
by mankind, is evident from the following. It is not 
on the score of abundance of possessions that we 
count the divine nature happy, nor on the score of 
any other of those things that are commonly believed 
to be advantages, but it is because, as Homer says, 
" The gods know all things " ; l and indeed he says 
also of Zeus, "But Zeus was older and wiser." 2 
1 Odytaey 4. 379. 2 Iliad 13. 355. 



jap rjfjbwv ol Oeol Siafyepovaiv. r^yelrai C 
'yap IV&>9 /cal avTols TWV KO\MV TO auTovs yiva)- 
oaw Br) /cpeiTTOves r){ia>v elai rrjv ovo~iav, 
yvovTes eavTov? la-^ovai fte\Ti6v(t)v yvw- 
ovv fjijtiv rrjv tyikoa-ofyiav et? TroXXa 
/j,r)Be et? 7ro\\a Tfj,i'ra), /j,a\\ov Be JJLT) 
TroXXa? CK yLtta? 7rotLTO). toa7Tp yap a\r)6eia /JLLO,, 
ovrco Be KOI $i\oao<$>ia pia- Oav/jLaarov Be ovBev, 
el Kar aXXa? /cal aXXa? 0801/9 eir avrrjv Tropevo- 
fjieOa. eirel KCUV, el rt? 6e\OL TWV ^evwv rj va\ fj,a D 
Ata rwv irakai TTO\IT&V e7rave\ 6i? A^^a?, 
Bvvairo /jLev /cal Tr\elv /cal fta$ieiv, oBevcov Be 
olfjiaL Bia yrjs rj rat? TrXaretat? Xprja-Oai Xeax^opot? 
rj rat? arpairol^ teal awTo/AOis 6Boi<?' real 7r\eiv 
fievroi Bvvarbv irapa rovs atytaXou?, /cal Brj KOI 
Kara rbv Tlv\iov yepovra refjLvovra 7re\ayo? fieaov. 
fjirj Be rovro rt? ri^lv irpocfrepeTa). el Tive<$ TWV Kar 
IQVTWV ra? 6Bov<> d7r7r\avrj@ / r)crav /cal a\- 
TTOV yevo/Jievoi, KaOdnrep VTTO TT}? Kip/cr;? ^18 
TWV Aa)TO(f)dyQ)V rjBovfjs rj Bogy? 77 rtz/o? aXXof 
Be\ea(T@VTes, a,Tre\ei<f)6r)crav TOV Trpocra) ftaBl^eiv 
/cal e<pLKveia0ai, TOV reXou?, roi'9 TrpcoTev&avTas Be 
ev e/cdcTTrj TWV alpeaewv (T/coTreiTO), /cal TrdvTa 
evprjo'et, crvfjb<fxava. 

Ov/covv o fjiev ev AeX^oi? ^609 TO Yv&di aravTov 
Trpoayopevei, 'Hpd/cXetTo? Be " eBifycrdfArjv eu-ewu- 
TOZ/," aXXa /cal HvOayopa? ol re CLTT 
l^e^pL eo<f)pd(TTOv TO /caTa Bvva/Aiv o/ 
6e) (fraai, >cal yap /cal 'Ay3tcrTOTeX^9. o yap ^y 


For it is in knowledge that the gods surpass ourselves. 
And it may well be that with them also what ranks 
as noblest is self-knowledge. In proportion then as 
they are nobler than we in their essential nature, that 
self-knowledge of theirs is a knowledge of higher 
things. Therefore, I say, let no one divide philosophy 
into many kinds or cut it up into many parts, or 
rather let no one make it out to be plural instead of 
one. For even as truth is one, so too philosophy is 
one. But it is not surprising that we travel to it 
now by one road, now by another. For if any 
stranger, or, by Zeus, any one of her oldest in- 
habitants wished to go up to Athens, he could either 
sail or go by road, and if he travelled by land he 
could, I suppose, take either the broad highways or 
the paths and roads that are short cuts. And 
moreover he could either sail along the coasts or, 
like the old man of Pylos, 1 " cleave the open sea." 
And let no one try to refute me by pointing out that 
some philosophers in travelling by those very roads 
have been known to lose their way, and arriving 
in some other place have been captivated, as though 
by Circe or the Lotus-Eaters, that is to say by 
pleasure or opinion or some other bait, and so have 
failed to go straight forward and attain their goal. 
Rather he must consider those who in every one of 
the philosophic sects did attain the highest rank, and 
he will find that all their doctrines agree. 

Therefore the god at Delphi proclaims, " Know 
Thyself," and Heracleitus says, " I searched my- 
self"; 2 and Pythagoras also and his school and his 
followers down to Theophrastus, bid us become like 
God as far as possible, yes and Aristotle too. For what 

1 Nestor ; Odyssey 3. 174. 2 Heracleitus fr. 80. 


TTore, rovro 6 0ebs dei. ye\oiov ovv av eir) rbv 
Oeov eavrbv pr) el&evai,' KOpiSf) yap ovBev eio-erai 
TWV a\X(DV, elirep eavrbv dyvooir)- irdvra yap 
eanv, CLTrep KOI ev eav7& /cal Trap eavrw 
TWV OTTCDO-OVV OVTWV ra? at'rta?, el're aOavdrwv 
, etre eiriK^pwv ov OvrjTas ovSe 7riKij- 
povs, dibiovs Se Kai pevovcras del KOI at TOUTO^? 
elalv alriai, r^9 deiyeveaias. d\\ OVTO? JJLCV o C 
Xo^yo? ecrrl /j,eia)v. 

f 'On Se fJLia re e&Tiv d\tf&eia Kal (^tXoao^ia pia 
Kal ravrrjs elalv epa&Tal j~ u^nravr^ wv re vTre/uvrj- 
Trporepov a>v re ev Sitcy vvv etVotyu-t av 
, rov9 rov Ktrt6ft>9 oycttX^ra? \eyco, o't ra? 
Ibovres diro^i^pacr KOVO as TO \iav dicpai- 
<f>ve<> /cal /caOapbv rfjs e\ev0epias TOV KVVOS ecr/ce- 

avrbv oxyrrep ol/j,ai 7rapa7rerdcrfjLa(Ttv D 
ia Kal rf} xprj/jLaTiarifcf) Kal rfj TT/JO? rrjv 
yvvaiKa avvoSto Kal 7rat8oT po<f)ia, Iv olpai rat? 
Tro\e(Tiv avTQV eyyvOev eTricmja'aMTi fyiikaKa' on 
&e rb Yv&Oi (Tavrbv Ke<pd\aiov ridevrai <f)i\ocro(f)- 
ta?, ov /JLOVOV % &v KaT/3d\\ovro 
vTrep avrov TOVTOV Treicr^e/r?? av, eiTrep 



we are sometimes, God is always. 1 It would there- 
fore be absurd that God should not know himself. 
For he will know nothing at all about other things if 
he be ignorant of himself. For he is himself every- 
thing, seeing that in himself and near himself he 
keeps the causes of all things that in any way what- 
ever have existence, whether they be immortal 
causes of things immortal,, or causes of perishable 
things, though themselves not mortal or perishable ; 
for imperishable and ever-abiding are the causes 
of perpetual generation for the perishable world. 
But this line of argument is too lofty for the 

Now truth is one and philosophy is one, and they 
whom I just now spoke of are its lovers one and all ; 
and also they whom I ought in fairness to mention now 
by name, I mean the disciples of the man of Citium. 2 
For when they saw that the cities of Greece were 
averse to the excessive plainness and simplicity of the 
Cynic's freedom of manners, they hedged him about 
with screens as it were, I mean with maxims on the 
management of the household and business and 
intercourse with one's wife and the rearing of 
children, to the end, I believe, that they might make 
him the intimate guardian of the public welfare. 3 
And that they too held the maxim " Know Thyself" 
to be the first principle of their philosophy you may 
believe, if you will, not only from the works that 
they composed on this very subject, but even more 

1 Cf . Oration 4. 143 A. 

- Zeno of Citium in Cyprus, the founder of the Stoic 

3 Julian seems to mean that Zeno and the Stoics could not 
accept without modification the manner of life advocated by 
the Cynic Crates. 



d\\d TTO\V 7T\eov drro rov Tr}< 

TO yap 6/jLO\oyovfjLevw^ %rjv rfj cfrvcrei, T\O9 eiroirj- 186 

cravro, ovTrep ov^ olov re rv^elv rov dyvoovvra, 

Tt9 Kal O7TOtO9 7T<f>VKeV' 6 ydft dyVOWV OO"Tt9 

ecrrlv, OVK e'lcrerat BrJTrovOev o, n Trpdrreiv eavrcp 
wcrrrep ovo' o l rov aiBrjpov dyvowv 
i, elre avrw repveiv eire fj,r) rrpocrt^Kei, Kal 
orov Bel r& criBrfpa) 7Ty009 TO BvvacrOai, TO eavrov 
d\\' on fjbev 1} (f)c\oao(f)ia fjiia re ecrrt Kal 
67TO9 elirelv evo$ nvos e^ie/jievoi 080*9 eVl 
rovro Bia<j)6pot,s rjXdov, aTroxpr) rocravra vvv elrrelv. B 
virep Be rov Kvvio~fj,ov o-KCTrreov en? 

Et /j,ev ovv eTreTToirjro Tot9 dvBpdcn fjLerd rivos 
d\\d /jLr) fierd Trai,Bi,d$ rd crvyypd/^/jiara, 

irepl rov irpdyfjiaros e^erd^eiv rov 
cvavriov Kal, el /JLCV e(f>aivero rol<$ Trd\aiol$ oy 
yovvra, ^rou ^rev^o/jbaprvpiMv rjfuv 
el &e /Jir), rore e^opi^eiv avrd rri<$ aKofjs wcnrep 
\\0rjva2oi rd -(jrevSij ypd/jifiara rov Mrjrptoov. 
errel Be ovBev 'eariv, &>9 e^v, roiovrov ai re yap C 
6pv\ovfjLevai Aioyevovs rpaya)Biai, <&i\l(TKOv rivos 
Alyivijrov \eyovrai, elvat, Kai, el Aioyevovs Brj 3 
elev, ovBei.> drojrov ecrri rov crofyov rrai^eiv, eirel 
Kal rovro rro\\ol fyaivovrai rwv (j}L\0(r6(j)cov 

1 ou8' 6 Hertlein suggests, ovSe MSS. 

2 eri Hertlein suggests, tfdrj Reiske, tarlv MSS. 

3 8-J/ Hertlein suggests, 5e MSS. 



from what they made the end and aim of their 
philosophic teaching. For this end of theirs was life 
in harmony with nature, and this it is impossible for 
any man to attain who does not know who and of 
what nature he is. For a man who does not know 
himself will certainly not know what it is becoming 
for him to do ; just as he who does not know the 
nature of iron will not know whether it is suitable 
to cut with or not, and how iron must be treated so 
that it may be put to its proper use. For the 
moment however I have said enough to show that 
philosophy is one, and that, to speak generally, all 
philosophers have a single aim though they arrive 
at that aim by different roads. And now let us 
consider the Cynic philosophy. 

If the Cynics had composed treatises with any 
serious purpose and not merely with a frivolous aim, 
it would have been proper for my opponent to be 
guided by these and to try in each case to refute 
the opinions that I hold on the subject ; and then, 
if they proved to be in harmony with those original 
doctrines, he could not attack me for bearing 
false witness ; but if they proved not to be in 
harmony, then he could have barred my opinions 
from a hearing, as the Athenians barred spurious 
documents from the Metroum. 1 But, as I said, 
nothing of that sort exists. For the much-talked-of 
tragedies of Diogenes are now said to be the work 
of a certain Philiscus 2 of Aegina ; though even if 
they were by Diogenes there would be nothing out 
of the way in a wise man's jesting, since many 
philosophers have been known to do so. For 

1 Cf. Oration 5. 159 B. 2 Cf. Oration 7. 210 D, 212 A. 

r 9 
c 2 


eye\a roi, (ftaai, fcal 
opwv a-TTOvBd&vras TOU? dvOpwirovs' fjurj Brj TT/OO? 
ra? TraiBids OVTMV d7ro{3\7ra)/jiv, wffTrep ol 
jjuavOdveiv n crTTovBalov rjKLara ep&vres, TroXet D 
7rapa/3d\\ovTs evBau/jiovi, 7ro\\wv pep iepwv, 
Se aTroppiJTCov reXerw^ ir\ijpei, Kai 
ev&ov ipea)i> dyvwv ev d<yvo2<s fievbvTwv 
%(i)piois' avrov Be eve/ca 7ro\\dfas rovrov, \eyco 
Be rov KaOapeveiv TO, eccra) irdvra, rd 
Kal /BSeXvpd KCLI (j)av\a T>}? TroXew? a 
\ovrpd Br)fji6o'ia KCU ^a/^airvTrela 
Kal iravra aTrXw? ra roiavra' elra d%pL rovrov 
yevo/mevoi eicrw /jurj TrapiaaLV. 2 6 fjiev yap rot? 
Toiovrois evTV^wv, elra rovro olrjOels eivai rrjv 181 
iroKtv aO\io$ fJiev aTrotyvycov, d&\i(t)Tpo<; 8e Kara) 
, egov vTrepftavTa /AiKpov ISelv rov ^wKparr)' 
ydp eKeivots eyo) rot? prfpacriv, ot? 
;? i'rraivwv HiWKpdrr). ^fju yap Brj rrjv 
K.vviKrjv <f)i~\oao(l)iav o/jLOLOTdTrjv elvai rot? Set- 
-TOVTOLS rot? ev roi? epjj,oy\,v<peLoi,s KaOtj- 
, ovGTivas epyd^ovrau ol Brj/^Lovpyol crvp- 

TJ auXou? e^ovras' o'l &i%d&e s ^LOi^Oevre^ B 
evBov fyaivovrai dyd\jjt>ara e^oi/re? Oe&v. a>9 av 
ovv fjir) TOIOVTOV TL 7rd0a)fji6v, ova eirai^e ravra 
avrov ecrTrovSaKeval, vo^ia-avre^' ecrn /Jiev ydp ri, 
Kal ev eKeivois OVK d^prja-rov, o Ku^tcr/io? Be ecrriv 

1 ctTreXTjAa/cJo-t Naber, aire\r)\dKa<n Hertlein, MSS. 

2 irapla<riv Cobet, irapiaffiv Hertlein, MSS. 

3 oi S^x^Sf Hertlein suggests, cf. Symposium 215, ol Se 




Democritus also, we are told, used to laugh when 
he saw men taking things seriously. Well then 
I say we must not pay any attention to their 
frivolous writings, like men who have n desire at 
all to learn anything of serious interest. Such men 
when they arrive at a prosperous city abounding in 
sacrifices and secret rites of many kinds, and con- 
taining within it countless holy priests who dwell in 
the sacred enclosures, priests who for this very 
purpose, I mean in order to purify everything that is 
within their gates, have expelled all that is sordid 
and superfluous and vicious from the city, public 
baths and brothels, and retail shops, and everything 
of the sort without exception : such men, I say, 
having come as far as the quarter where all such 
things are, do not enter the city itself. Surely a 
man who, when he comes upon the things that have 
been expelled, thinks that this is the city, is de- 
spicable indeed if he depart on the instant, but still 
more despicable if he stay in that lower region, when 
he might by taking but a step across the threshold 
behold Socrates himself. For I will borrow those 
famous phrases of Alcibiades in his praise of Socrates, 1 
and I assert that the Cynic philosophy is very like 
those images of Silenus that sit in the shops of the 
statuaries, which the craftsmen make with pipes or 
flutes in their hands, but when you open them you 
see that inside they contain statues of the gods. 
Accordingly, that we may not make that sort of 
mistake and think that his jesting was sober earnest 
(for though there is a certain use even in those jests, 
yet Cynicism itself is something very different, as I 

1 Plato, Symposium 215. 



erepov, a>? avri/ca /&d\a Sei^ai Treipdcro/jiai,' Sevpo 
Lowfiev e<efv}? CLTTO TWV epywv, wo-rrep al efy'xyev- 
ovcrai Kvves ^eraOeovcn TO, Brjpia. 

'Hye/jLova /JLCV ovv ov pdSiov evpelv, e<f> ov 
avevey/cai xpr) irpwrov avro, el KCLI TLVGS VTTO- C 
\afjL/3dvova-iv 'AvriaOevei rovro KOI Aioyevei 
jrpocrijKeiv. TOVTO yovv eoiicev Qlvofjuaos OVK 
droTrws \eyeiv 6 KWKT/XO? ovre ^ A.vTta6evL(Tfi6^ 
ecrriv ovre A.LOy6ViafJi6<>. Xeyovcri [Jiev <yap ol 
yevvaiorepoi TMV KVVWV, on teal 6 /ueya? 
tocrirep ovv rwv a\\a)v ayad&v 
KareaTij, ovrco Se KOL TOVTOV rov ftiov 
TO /meyia'Tov 2 Kare\t7Tv dvdpcoTroi 

rcov Oe&v Kal rwv et? Qdav \r]%iv 
ev<f)r)/jieiv ede\a)v ireiOo^ai [lev KOI Trpb 


ftapftdpois OVTO) (f)i\oa-0(f)fjo-ai' 3 avTrj yap rj (j)t,\o- 
<ro<f)ia KOivr) TTW? eoi/cev elvau Kal (ftvaiKcoTdTrj Kal 
ouS' rjaTivocrovv 7rpay/jLaTias' d\\a 
/JLOVOV e\eo~6ai TCL crirovbaia aper^? ITTL- 
ia Kal <l>vyf) KaKias, KOI OVTC /StySXou? dveXigai, 
Set fjbvpias' TroXvfjLadia ydp, fyairl, vbov ov 
SiodaKei' OVTG d\\o Tt TWV TOIOVTWV rraOeiv, oaa 
Kal ola 7rda"%ov(TLV ol Sta TWV a\kwv alpeaewv 

, aXAa dTro^prj JAOVOV 8vo raura TOV TlvOiov 188 

1 Before orfrtoj Cobet omits ns. 

2 Before KaTe\nrev Cobet omits ovros. 

3 ouTo> <^i\o(ro^7jorat Reiske suggests, lacuna Hertlein, MSS. 



shall presently try to prove), let us consider it in due 
course from its actual practice- and pursue it like 
hounds that track down wild beasts in the chase. 

Now the founder of this philosophy to whom we 
are to attribute it, in the first instance., is not easy to 
discover, even though some think that the title 
belongs to Antisthenes and Diogenes. At least the 
saying of Oenomaus l seems to be not without good 
grounds : " The Cynic philosophy is neither 
Antisthenism nor Diogenism." Moreover the better 
sort of Cynics assert that in addition to the other 
blessings bestowed on us by mighty Heracles, it was 
he who bequeathed to mankind the noblest example 
of this mode of life. 2 But for my part, while I 
desire to speak with due reverence of the gods and 
of those who have attained to their functions, I still 
believe that even before Heracles, not only among 
the Greeks but among the barbarians also, there 
were men who practised this philosophy. For it seems 
to be in some ways a universal philosophy, and the 
most natural, and to demand no special study what- 
soever. But it is enough simply to choose the 
honourable by desiring virtue and avoiding evil ; and 
so there is no need to turn over countless books. 
For as the saying goes, "Much learning does not 
teach men to have understanding." 3 Nor is it 
necessary to subject oneself to any part of such a 
discipline as they must undergo who enter other 
philosophic sects. Nay it is enough merely to 
hearken to the Pythian god when he enjoins these 

1 Of Gadara, a Cynic philosopher whose date is probably 
the second century A.D.; cf. 199 A, 209 B, 210 D, 212 A. 

2 Lucian, Sale of Creeds 8, makes Diogenes say that he had 
modelled himself on Heracles. 

3 Heracleitus fr. 16, By water. 



Trapaivovvros a/cova-ai, TO TvwOu vavrov /ecu 
Tlapa^dpa^ov rb i^o/uoy-ta* 7re<f)r)Vv ovv 

fa'koffoQias ocnrep ol^ai rol 

ecrTrj T>V /caXwv diravrtov euVfo?, o T^? 
KOLVOS rjyefjLwv /cal vofjioOer^ KOI /3a- 
vs, o ev AeX<xH<? ^eo?, oz^ eTreiSr) /A?) $e/cu? i]v 
TI ia\a6elv, ovSe rj kioyevovs eTnTYjSeioTrjs e\a0e. 
Be avrov ov% axnrep TOU? aXXou? 
evreivwv rrjv Trapalveaiv, aXX' epyp B 

O,TI {3ov\erai cru/x/SoXt/cw? ^ta Svoiv 
ovo/J.droiv, TLapa%dpa%ov eiTroav TO v6fjbi<T/Aa> TO 
yap Yv&Qt, aawrov OVK erceivw povov^ aXXa KOI 
TOK aXXot9 (f>rj /cal Xeyet, irpoKeirai yap olfiau 
TOT) Teyu-ez^ou?. rjvp^/ca/^ev Srj rbv dpxrjyeTrjv TT}? 
(f)i\oa-o(j)ia$, w? TTOV teal 6 Bai/M>vto<i <f>j]cn,v 'Ia/-t- 
aXXa fcal TOU? Kopvcfraiovs eV avrij, 
vrj /cal Aioyevrj /cal Kpdrrjra, ol? TOU 
ftlov (T/coTTO? 77 v at TeXo? auTou? ol/i-at yv&vai 
ical rwv Kevwv vTrepi&eiv So^cov, d\rj0eia$ Se, ^ 
irdvrwv JJLCV dyaftwv Oeois, Trdvrwv Se dvO pwirois 
rjyelrai, 0X77, (pacriv, 7rt,$pdacr0ai, ry Siavoia, C 
77? ot/x<x< al nXaTft)^ /cal TlvOayopas /cal S<w- 
Kpdrrjs oi re e/c rov [lepiTrdrov /cal Tirjvwv evetca 
Trdvra virefjietvav TTOVOV, avrovs re eOeXovres 
yvwvai /cal prj tcevals erceaBai B6^ai<f, aXXa rrjv 
ev TO?? ovcnv d\,TJ0eiav dvi%Vva-ai. 

1 /j.6vov Hertlein suggests, irp&rov MSS. 


two precepts, " Know Thyself," and " Falsify the 
common currency." l Hence it becomes evident to 
us that the founder of this philosophy is he who, I / 
believe, is the cause of all the blessings that ihe^fi 
Greeks enjoy, the universal leader, law-giver and 
king of Hellas, I mean the god of Delphi. 2 And 
since it was not permitted that he should be in 
ignorance of aught, the peculiar fitness of Diogenes 
did not escape his notice. And he made him incline 
to that philosophy, not by urging his commands in 
words alone, as he does for other men, but in very 
deed he instructed him symbolically as to what he 
willed, in two words, when he said, "Falsify the 
common currency." For "Know Thyself" he 
addressed not only to Diogenes, but to other men 
also and still does : for it stands there engraved in 
front of his shrine. And so we have at last dis- 
covered the founder of this philosophy, even as the 
divine lamblichus also declares, yes, and we have dis- 
covered its leading men as well, namely Antisthenes 
and Diogenes and Crates ; 3 the aim and end of 
whose lives was, I think, to know themselves, to 
despise vain opinions, and to lay hold of truth with 
their whole understanding ; for truth, alike for gods 
and men, is the beginning of every good thing ; 4 and 
it was, I think, for her sake that Plato and 
Pythagoras and Socrates and the Peripatetic 
philosophers and Zeno spared no pains, because they 
wished to know themselves, and not to follow vain 
opinions but to track down truth among all things 
that are. 

1 Cf. Oration 7. 208 D, 211 B, 211 c. 2 Apollo. 

3 Of Thebes, the Cynic philosopher, a pupil of Diogenes ; 
he lived in the latter half of the fourth century B.Q. 

4 Plato, Laws 730 B. 



4>e/oe ovv, eTreiBi] TreQrjvev ov/c a\\o /JLCT 
Bevcras TlXdrcov, Tepov Be Aio^e^?, ev Be TI /cal 
el <yovv epoLTo Tt9 TOV aofyov Tl\dTcova "TO 
o-avTov TTOO-QV vevopircas afyov" ev olBa on 
vTos ai> (frt'jaeie, /cal \eyei Be ev 'AXKiftidoy D 
Sevpo Br) TO yttera TOVTO (f>pdcrov r)/niv s & 

teal Oewv e/cyove " Ttz/a TpoTcov 
ra? TWV 7ro\\wi> SiaKelcrOai Sofa?," Tavrd 
Te epei /cal ert vryoo? TOVTOLS 6\ov rj/MV e r rriTd1~Gi 
Stapptj&rjv dvayvwvai TOV KpiTwva Sid\oyov, ov 
<paiveTaL Trapaivwv ^WKpaT^ /uiijo'ev <f>povTi^etv 
j^/i-a? TWV TOIOVTWV (prjal jovv " 'AXXa TL r)/j,iv, 
w /j,a/cdpL KpiTWv, OVTCI) T?}? TWV 7ro\\wv Sof?;? 189 
etra ^///et? TOVTCOV vTrepibovTes aTTOTei- 
real dirocTTrav av$pa<> d\,\tj- 

\wv e0e\ofjiev, 01)9 o T.^}? dX^Oeua^ avvrfyayev 
epco<f 77 re TT}? 0^779 vTrepotyia /cal rj vr/309 
ro^ %fj\ov T7}9 dpeTrjs ^vfATrvoia; el Be 
fjuev eSoge /cal Sta TWV \6ycov avTa e 
Aioyevei Be dTre^pr) TCL epya, Bid TOVTO a%i6<$ GCTTLV 
vcfi v/jbtov dicoveiv ;a/ca>9 ; opa Be /j,r) /cal TOVTO 
avTO TW TravTl /cpeLTTov ecrTiv, eVet /cal Tl\aTa)v 

TCL vyypdfM[jLaTa. "Qv <ydp B 

" ^vyypa/AfAa ovBev ovS' 
ecrTai, ra Be vvv (fiepojAevd e&Ti ^w/cpaTOvs, dvBpbs; 



And now., since it has become evident that 
Plato was not pursuing one aim and Diogenes 
another, but their end was one and the same : 
suppose one should inquire of the wise Plato : 
What value do you set on the precept " Know 
Thyself" ? I am very sure that he would answer 
that it is worth everything, and indeed he says 
so in the Alcibiades. 1 Come then tell us next, 
divine Plato, scion of the gods, how one ought 
to be disposed towards the opinions of the many ? 
He will give the same answer, and moreover he will 
expressly enjoin on us to read his dialogue the 
Crito, 2 where Socrates is shown warning us not 
to take heed of such things. At any rate what 
he says is : " But why, my dear good Crito, are 
we so concerned about the opinion of the multitude?" 
And now are we to ignore all this evidence, and 
without further question fence off from one another 
and force apart men whom the passion for truth, 
the scorn of opinion, and unanimity in zeal for 
virtue have joined together ? And if Plato chose 
to achieve his aim through words, whereas for 
Diogenes deeds sufficed, does the latter on that 
account deserve to be criticised by you ? Nay, 
consider whether that same method of his be 
not in every respect superior; since we see that 
Plato for himself forswore written compositions. 
" For " he says, 3 " there are no writings by Plato 
nor ever will be, and what now pass current as 
his are the work of Socrates, the ever fair and 

1 Alcibiades i. 129 A. 2 Crito 44 c. 

3 Epistle 2. 314 c ; Julian quotes from memory and slightly 
alters the original ; Plato meant that in his dialogues he had 
suppressed his own personality in favour of Socrates. 



Kakov /cal veov." ri ovv rj/jieis ov/c etc rwv epywv 
rov Aioyevovs a-Korrovfjbev avrbv rov 

OCTTt? CCrriV; 

OvtCOVV 7T6l,8r) (TCOyLtttTO? /Apr) 

olov 6(f)0a\ijLQL, Tro&e?, ^6fc/?69, aXXa Se 

rpfyes, ow^es, pvTros, TOIOVTWV 
yevos, wv avev crw/^a avOp&TTivov 
yavov elvai, irorepov ov ye\ol6<? eanv 6 fjLeprj C 
vofjiio-as ovv%as rj rpi^a^ rj pvTrov /cat ra SvacoSrj 

TWV 7TplTTO)/JidTa)V, X\' OV Ttt Tl/jiKOTara KOi 

(TTrovSaia, irpoyrov fjbv ra ala'd'r)T / )jpLa KOL TOVTCOV 
CLVTWV arra crvveo-ews rjfuv eaTi fjia\\ov atria, 
olov 6(f)Oa'\,/Jiov^, a/cods; virovpyei yap ravra 
7T/90? <J)p6vr)criv elre eyfcaropaypvyfjievr) rfj ^v^fj, 
a>? av 6arrov /caOapOeiaa Bvvairo ry KaOapa 
KOI dicwrfra) rov (frpovelv Sui/ayuet, etVe, 
olovrai, KaOdrrep Bt b^erwv roiovrwv 
TT}? i|ru%>}9. av\\eyova-a yap, <f)aai, D 
ra /card /z-e/?o? alaOrjfJiara /cal avve^ovcra rfj 
/Avrfftr) yevva r9 emarri^a^. eyut Be, el pr) n 
roiovrov TJV ev6eov i) re\eiov e/jLTroSi^o/jievov 8e" 
vrc a\\a)V 7ro\\a)V /cal rronci\a)v ) o ra)i> e/cro? 
Troteirai, rrjv dvriXyfyw, ov& av Bvvarbv olpai 
yevecrOai rwv alad^rwv rrjv 3 dvri\rj^lriv. aXX' 
OUT09 fJ<v 6 Xoyo? ov rot? vvv irpoa-ij/cei. 

Atovre/? erravaicreov eVt ra fieprj TT)? (>i\oaro<f)Las 190 
TT}? Kvvucfjs. fyaivovrai fiev Brj /cal ovrou 

1 T7? Ka6ap!f. x.P^o"0at Hertlein suggests, rp ye ws apxfi MSS., 

2 Se Hertlein suggests. 3 TT\V Naber suggests. 



fever young." Why then should we not from 
the practice of Diogenes study the character of 
the Cynic philosophy ? 

Now the body consists of certain parts such 
as eyes, feet and hands, but there are besides 
other parts, hair, nails, ordure, a whole class of 
accessories of that sort without which the human 
body cannot exist. Then is it not absurd for a 
man to take into account such parts, I mean hair 
or nails or ordure or such unpleasant accessories, 
rather than those parts that are most precious 
and important, in the first place, for instance, 
the organs of perception, and among these more 
especially the instruments whereby we apprehend, 
namely the eyes and ears? For these aid the 
soul to think intelligently, whether it be buried 
deep in the body and they enable it to purify itself 
more readily and to use its pure and steadfast faculty 
of thought, or whether, as some think, it is through 
them that the soul enters in as though by channels. 1 
For, as we are told, by collecting individual 
perceptions and linking them through the memory 
she brings forth the sciences. And for my own 
part, I think that if there were not something 
of this sort, either incomplete in itself or perfect 
but hindered by other things many and various, 
which brings about our apprehension of externals, 
it would not even be possible for us to apprehend 
the objects of sense-perception. But this line of 
argument has little to do with the present question. 

Accordingly we must go back to the divisions of 
the Cynic philosophy. For the Cynics also seem to 

1 Cf. Lucretius, De Rerum Nat lira 3. 359 foil; Sextus 
Empiricus, Adverms Mathematicos 7. 350. 




teal DXaro)^, 0ea)pr)fiaTt,K?jv re KCU 
avTo TOVTO 1 avvevres Brj\ovoTi Kal votfaavres, 
ft>5 oi/ceiov eo~Tiv dvdpwTros (f)V(rei irpd^ei Kal 
7ricrTr)/jLr). el Se T?}? (j)Vo~iKrj<i rrjv Oeaypiav 2 
ej;K\tvav, ovbev TOVTO TT/OO? TOV \6yov. eTrei Kal 
^wKpaTrjs Kal TrXeto^e? aXXot Oewpia /j,ev <pai- 
vovrai, ^prj&dfjuevoi 7ro\\fj, ravrr) Be OVK a\\ou 
d\\d TT}? Trpd^eo)^' eVet Kal TO eavrbv 
TOVTO evo/JLicrav, TO /jLaOeiv aKpift&s, TL B 
aTToSoTeov ^v^fj, TL Be o~(i)/jt,aTi' aTreSocrav Se 3 

L. fyalvowrai o~rj ovv apervfv e 

, drv^lav, eXevdepiav, efw yevopevoi 
6vov, <$ei\ia<;, &eio-t,Saifj,ovias. 
TavTa VTrep avTwv Siavoov/jieQa, 

Kal Kvfteveiv Trepl TO? ^tXTaTot? VTTO- 
\a/ji/3dvofjiev, OVTWS inrepiSovTas TOV a-wfia'ros, C 
W9 o ^WKpaT'rjs e(f)r} \eywv 6p6ws /LteXeTT/z; elvai 
Qavdrov Trjv fyiKoaofyiav. TOVTO eKelvou KaO 

?/ 5 C 1 f >t*-\ \ ^-\ ^ 

r)/jiepav eTTtT^oeuo^re? ov ^XcoTot //-aXXoi' 
d6\LOi $e Tives Kal Traz^TeXw? dvorjTOi 

TOVTOf9; ov% a>9 auTO? evra?, Kevooas eveK 
Kal yap 7 TTW? VTTO TWV a\\wv eTryvovvro co^u- 

1 avrb -rovro Hertlein suggests, avrov MSS. 

2 rV Oevpiav Hertlein suggests, Trpbs ri)v Oewptav MSS 
Becapias Petavius. 

:i Sf after otTre'Soo-ai' Hertlein suggests, re MSS. 

4 SOKOV(TIV Hertlein suggests, SOKOVO-IV, MSS. 

5 8e Hertlein suggests, 8^ MSS. 

6 TOVTOUS ; o\>x &s Hertlein suggests, TOVTOVS, ws MSS. 

7 Kal yap Hertlein suggests, /carrot MSS. 


have thought that there were two branches of 
philosophy, as did Aristotle and Plato, namely 
speculative and practical, evidently because they 
had observed and understood that man is by 
nature suited both to action and to the pursuit of 
knowledge. And though they avoided the study of 
natural philosophy, that does not affect the argument. 
For Socrates and many others also, as we know, 
devoted themselves to speculation, but it was solely 
for practical ends. For they thought that even self- 
knowledge meant learning precisely what must be 
assigned to the soul, and what to the body. And to 
the soul they naturally assigned supremacy, and to 
the body subjection. This seems to be the reason 
why they practised virtue, self-control, modesty and 
freedom, and why they shunned all forms of envy, 
cowardice and superstition. But this, you will say, is 
not the view that we hold about them, for we are to 
think that they were not in earnest, and that they 
hazarded what is most precious 1 in thus despising the 
body ; as Socrates did when he declared, and rightly, 
that philosophy is a preparation for death. 2 And 
since this was the aim that the Cynics pursued daily, 
we need not emulate them any more than the others, 
but we are to think them miserable beings and 
altogether foolish. But why was it that they 
endured those hardships ? Surely not from ostenta- 
tion, as you declared. For how could they win 

Plato, Protagoras 314 A. 2 Phaedo 81 A. 



epofjievoL arapKia; KCLITOI ovSe avTos errai- 
el. TOV yovv TOLOVTOV Tpifiwva Kal TTJV D 
>, wo~7rep at ypatyal TWV dvBpwv, dTrofjuaov- 
eW o fjiijoe avTos dgidyacrTov vTro^a/JL/Sdvei^, 
TOVTO evooKi/jieiv olei rrapa T& TC\r}Qei', Kal el? 
r) BevTepos eTryvet, TOTG, TT\elv S' ovv rj oe/ca 
VTTO T/y? vavTias fcai {3oe\vpias oLecrTpa- 
(f>r)aav TOV o~TO/jLa%ov KOI aTrocrLTOi yeyovacriv, 
avTovs ol OepaTcovTes dveKaftov oo"/xat? Kal 
Kal TrefJLixao'iv. ourco? 6 K\eivb<$ ^pco? epyw 191 
VT^aro ye\oiM /j,ev dv6p<i)Trois TOLOVTOIS, 

Oloi vvv /SpoTOi elaiv, 

OVK dyevvel Se, yita TOU? Oeovs, el TLS avTo /cara 
e^rjyijaaiTo avvecriv. OTrep yap o 
VTrep avTov <$>r)o~iv, OTL TO> 6eS> 
XaTpeiav eKTe\elv ev TU> TOV SoOevTa 
VTrep avTov Kaia Tcavra CTKOTTWV e^eTa^eiv TOV 
TIKOV r)o~Trdo~aTO ftiov, TOVTO Kal AioyevrjS 
crvveLO(0s eavTW, TrvOo^prjo-TOv ovaav Trjv 
(j)L\ocro^>Lav, epyois wero Seiv e'feXe7%e^ irdvTa 
Kal /AT) Soai$ aXXwi^, TVYOV ^iev d\ijueo~t, TV^OV 
$e tyevbeo-i Trpoo~7re7rov0evai. OVKOVV ov&e el TL 
Tlv0ay6pa$ efyrj, ovSe el Ti? aXXo? rw Tlv&ayopa 
TrapaTr\TJo~ios, d%ioTrio~TO<; eSoKCi TO> kioyevet. 
TOV yap Oeov, dvOpanrwv Se l ovoeva r/}? <f)i\o- 
o~o(f)Las dp^rjybv erreTroirjTO. TL SrJTa TOVTO, C 
epet?, TT/>O? Trjv TOV TroXuTroSo? eSco&ijv; eyu> O~OL 

Trjv aapKofyayiav ol /Aev dv0pot)7roLS V7ro\aa- 
j3dvovo~L KaTa (>VO~LV, ol Be rjKicrTa TOVTO epyd^e- 

1 Sf after avQp(i>Tr(av Hertlein suggests. 


applause from other men by eating raw meat ? 
Certainly you yourself do not applaud them for this. 
At any rate, when you imitate one of those Cynics 
by carrying a staff and wearing your hair long, as it 
is shown in their pictures, do you think that you there- 
by gain a reputation with the crowd, though you do 
not yourself think those habits worthy of admiration ? 
One or two, indeed, used to applaud him in his own 
day, but more than ten times ten thousand had their 
stomachs turned by nausea and loathing, and went 
fasting until their attendants revived them with per- 
fumes and myrrh and cakes. So greatly did that re- 
nowned hero shock them by an act which seems absurd 
to men "of such sort as mortals now are," l though, 
by the gods, it was not ignoble, if one should explain 
it according to the intention of Diogenes. For just as 
Socrates said of himself that he embraced the life of 
cross-examining because he believed that he could 
perform his service to the god only by examining in 
all its bearings the meaning of the oracle that had 
been uttered concerning him, so I think Diogenes 
also, because he was convinced that philosophy was 
ordained by the Pythian oracle, believed that he 
ought to test everything by facts and not be influenced 
by the opinions of others, which may be true and 
may be false. Accordingly Diogenes did not think 
that every statement of Pythagoras, or any man like 
Pythagoras, was necessarily true. For he held that 
God and no human being is the founder of philosophy. 
And pray what, you will say, has this to do with the 
eating of octopus ? I will tell you. 

To eat meat some regard as natural to man, while 
others think that to follow this practice is not at all 

1 Hind 5. r>04. 


VOL. II. L> 


aQai irpoa-rjKeiv dvd } pa>7T(p Stavoovvrai, teal TTO\VS 
o 7Tpl TOVTOV avaXwrai l \6yos. e6e\ovTi ovv 
(Toi pr) padvpelv eo~/jLol Trepl TOV TOIOVTOV /3i/3\a)V 
(fravijo-ovTai. TOVTOVS Aioyevjjs efeXe7%ety wero 
oeiv. oievoijdr) yovv OVTW^- el /J,V 
reuTft)? eaOiaiV ri? crap/cas, w&Trep oiftai 
d\\a)v ercacrrov Orjpiwv, ot? TOVTO eveiftev r) 
a^Xa/3w9 avro teal a^67ra%^co9, /jid\\ov Se teal 
//.era TT}? rov crw/JLaTOS w^eXeta? epyd^ono, Kara 
(frvatv elvai TTCLVTMS rr)v aaptco^ayiav vireXaftev 
el &e T? evrevdev yevoiro ftXdftr), ov%l TOVTO 
dvdpwTrov TO epyov Tcra)? evofjucrev, aXX' dcfre/cTeov 
Kara icaTOS avTov. el? jLev ovv av eiij 


Xo^o?, er 6/309 ^e oltceioTepo? T& ^vviafjiw, el Trepl 

TOV reXou? avTov TrpoTepov 6Ti o~a^edTepov $ie\- 

<ydp nroiovvTai TO TeXo9* TOVTO 8e 192 
IGOV eVrl TW Oeov <yvi<rOai. alaOavo/jievos ovv 
vTov At076^9 eV yL6ez^ rot9 aXXot9 aTtaaiv 
vs, VTTO Se rr}9 TOiavTr)<s eowSfj? JJLOVOV OpaT- 
teal vavTi^vTos teal Sogy tcevfj yLtaXXoz^ 2 
r) Xo7&) 8eSov\a)/jLevov adpices yap elcriv ovSev 
rjTTOV, Kav /jLVpidrcis aura9 etyijo-y, KOLV vTTOTpifj,- 
fjiaai /Jivpiois rt9 at"T9 KapvKevarj' teal TavT^ 
avTov d<pe\ea0ai /cal tcaTaaTrja-aL TravTUTra<riv 
e^dvTr] T7)9 Bei\ias <>rf0'r) ^prfvai. Sei\ia ydpeamv, B 
ev laQi, TO yovv TOIOVTOV. ejrel 77/309 r 
$6pov el crapKMV rj^frr) fjievwv diTTOfJieda, TOV 


Hertlein suggests, SelKVvrat MSS. 
/.iu\\oi> Hertlein suggests, p&vov A1SS. 


appropriate for man, and this question has been 
much debated. And if you are willing to make the 
effort, you can see with your own eyes swarms of 
books on the subject. These Diogenes thought it 
his duty to refute. At any rate his own view was as 
follows. If one can eat meat without taking too 
much trouble to prepare it, as can all other animals 
to whom nature has assigned this diet, and can do it 
without harm or discomfort, or rather with actual 
benefit to the body, then he thought that eating 
meat is entirely in accordance with nature. But if 
harm came of it, then he apparently thought that 
the practice is not appropriate for man, and that he 
must abstain from it by all means. Here then you 
have a theory on this question, though perhaps it is 
too far-fetched : but here is another more akin to 
Cynicism, only I must first describe more clearly the 
end and aim of that philosophy. 

Freedom from emotion they regard as the end 
and aim ; and this is equivalent to becoming a god. 
Now perhaps Diogenes observed that in the case of 
all other foods he himself had no particular sensa- 
tions, and that only raw meat gave him indigestion 
and nausea, and took this for a proof that he was 
enslaved to vain opinion rather than reason ; for 
flesh is none the less flesh, even though you cook it 
any number of times or season it with any number 
of sauces. This, I say, was why he thought he ought 
to rid and free himself altogether of this cowardice ; 
for you may be sure that this sort of thing is 
cowardice. And in the name of the Law-Giving 
goddess, 1 tell me why if we used cooked meats we do 

1 Demeter, who regulated the customs of civilised life, 
especially agriculture : her festival was the Thesmophoria. 


D 2 


real aTrXw? auras Trpoo-ffrepo/jieOa, fypdaov 
ov jap e^e9 erepov elirelv rj on OVTCO vevofji- 
IGTCLI Kal OVTOJ crvveidicraeOa. ov yap Brj Trplv fJiev 
e^rjdfivai {3Be\vpd irefyvicev, e^rrfOevra Be yeyovev 
avTwv dyvorepa. ri Bijra e^pijv Trpdrreiv TOV ye 
Trapa Oeov ra^devra KaOdjrep a-rparijyov TTCLV pev 
e^6\eiv TO v6ai<rua, \o<yw Se Kal d\r)0eia Kplvai 
rd irpdyuaTa; Trepi&eiv aiirov viro ravrrj^ TT}? 
evo^Kovfjievov, co? vofjii^eiv on Kpeas U6V 
e\jrr)dev dyvov real eSwSi/jiov, arj KarepyaaOev 
Be V7TO rov Trvpbs {ivcrapov TTW? l Kal /38e\vpov; 
el fjivijuwv; OVTWS el cnrovftalos ; o? TOGOVTOV 
wv TW Kevo86i;w, Kara are (frdvai, Aioyevei, 
Kar e/j,e 8e r& o-irovoaiordra) Oepdirovri, teal 
TOV HV&LOV, ryv TOV TroXuTroSo? 

0' OTL %et/?a? 'LKOLTO, 
<? ye MV, ov TWV iepzwv, d\\d TWL> 7ra/ji- 

olaai TWV Ta\i\aiwv TCL prjuaTa. 193 
ae TraprjXOev einrziv, QTI Kal Traz/re? dv6- 
TC\rj(j-Lov oiKovvTe? ^aXarr?;?, ^77 Be Tives 
Troppci), ovBe 6epfjLi]vavTes KaTappo<f>ovo~iv 
oaTpea Kal TrdvTct ^TrXw? ra ToiavTa' 
elra CKCIVOVS fjuev L7roXa/x/Sa^ei9 %rj~\,ct>TOvs, a6\LOv 
Be Kal /3Be\vpov rjyf) Aioyevr), Kal OVK evvoels, &>? 
ovBev (JiaX\ov TavTa eKeivwv ecrrl aapKia' 

1 7ra)9 Hertlein suggests, foots MSS. 


not eat them in their natural state also ? You can 
give me no other answer than that this has become a 
custom and a habit with us. For surely we cannot 
say that before meat is cooked it is disgusting and 
that by being cooked it becomes purer than it was 
by nature. What then was it right for him to do 
who had been appointed by God like a general in 
command to do away with the common currency and 
to judge all questions by the criterion of reason and 
truth ? Ought he to have shut his eyes and been so 
far fettered by this general opinion as to believe that 
flesh by being cooked becomes pure and fit for food, 
but that when it has not been acted upon by fire 
it is somehow abominable and loathsome ? Is this 
the sort of memory you have ? Is this your zeal 
for truth ? For though you so severely criticised 
J2ipgenesJ;he vain-glorious, as you call him though 
I call him the most zealous servant and vassal of the 
Pythian god for eating octopus, you yourself have 
devoured endless pickled food, " Fish and birds and 
whateVer else might come to hand." l For you 
are an Egyptian, though not of the priestly caste, 
but of the omnivorous type whose habit it is to eat 
everything " even as the green herb." 2 You recog- 
nise, I suppose, the words of the Galilaeans. I 
almost omitted to say that all men who live near the 
sea, and even some who live at a distance from it, 
swallow down sea-urchins, oysters and in general 
everything of the kind without even heating them. 
And then you think they are enviable, whereas you 
regard Diogenes as contemptible and disgusting, and 
you do not perceive that those shell-fish are flesh 
just as much as what he ate ? Except perhaps that 

1 Odyssey 12. 331. 2 Genesis 9. 3. 



l'<7&>9 ravra etceivwv biatyepet, rw ra /j>ev eivai 
/jbaXOa/cd, TO, oe (TK\r)pbrepa. avails <yovv 
eari teal 7ro\V7rov$ waTrep KLi>a, e/jb^lrv^a Se B 
ecrrt, teal ra ocrrpaKoSep/jia KaOdirep KOI ovros' 
r)$6Tai yovv KOI \V7relrai, o TMV efji^v^wv 
fjL(i\La-rd ea-riv 'l&iov. eVo^Xetro) 8e /Jbri^ev rj/jias rj 
TtXarwviKr) ravvv So^a e/x'v^L'^a viroXa/jL^dvova'a 
Kal ra <f)vrd. aXX' on /JLEV ovn a\oyov l ov$e 
ovBe davvrjOes V/MV 6 <yevvalo<> elpyd- 
el j^rj r<w (TK\vjpOTepw Kal fjba\a- 
Kcorepco, rjSovf) re \aifjbov Kal dtfiia ra rouavrd 
rt? e^erd^oi, 7rp68r)\ov olpai TOt9 OTTWCTOVV eire- 
(rOau \6yw Svva/jLVOi$. OVK dpa rrjv wfjuotyayiav 
/3&e\vrrecr6e ol ra 7rapa7r\rjcria Spw^re?, OVK ejrl C 
rwv dvai/JLO)v ^bvov ^qiwv, d\\d Kal ejrl rwv alfjua 
Kal rovrw Se tVa)? %>ia<$>epea6e 77/309 
, on o [Jbev a7rXw9 raura Kal Kara fyvcnv 
%prjvai Trpocr^epeaOaL, d\crl Se v/Jbeis Kal 
dprvvavres rjSovfy eveKa, rrjv'<f)vcrLV 
07Tft)9 (Bido-ria-0e. Kal or) rovro peis eVl roaovrov 

T?)9 KvviKrjs Se $i\oao(f)ias crKOTrbs /JLCV ecrri D 
Kal reXo9, wcrvre/) orj Kal rcda-Y]^ <J)i\oa-o(j)ia<;, TO 
evSai/jLovelv, TO Be evSai/Jioveiv ev rq> ^,r\v Kara 
fyvcnv, aXXa /nrj Trpbs Ta9 rwv TTO\\WV oo^a^. eVel 
Kal TOi9 (frvrols V Trpdrreiv o~v [JifSaivei Kal pevroi 
Kal ^000^9 rrao'LV, orai> rov Kara fyvaiv eKaarov 

Kal ev 

0/309, TO 
avrovs MffTrep 7re<f)VKa(Ti Kal eavrwv elvai. OVKOVV 194 

1 OVTI &\oyoi> Hertlein suggests, ou x aA67r ^ I/ 


they differ in so far as the octopus is soft and shell- 
fish are harder. At any rate the octopus is bloodless,, 
like hard-shelled fish, but the latter too are animate 
things like the octopus. At least they feel pleasure 
and pain, which is the peculiar characteristic of 
animate things. And here we must not be put out 
by Plato's theory 1 that plants also are animated by 
soul. But it is now, I think, evident to those who 
are in any way able to follow an argument, that what 
the excellent Diogenes did was not out of the way 
or irregular or contrary to our habits, that is if we do 
not in such cases apply the criterion of hardness and 
softness, but judge rather by the pleasure or distaste 
of the palate. And so it is not after all the eating 
of raw food that disgusts you, since you do the like, 
not only in the case of bloodless animals but also 
of those that have blood. But perhaps there is also 
this difference between you and Diogenes, that he 
thought he ought to eat such food just as it was and 
in the natural state, whereas you think you must 
first prepare it with salt and many other things 
to make it agreeable and so do violence to nature. 
I have now said enough on this subject. 

Now the end and aim of the Cynic philosophy, 
as indeed of every philosophy, is happiness, but 
happiness that consists in living according to 
nature and not according to the opinions of the 
multitude. For plants too are considered to do well, 
and indeed all animals also, when without hindrance 
each attains the end designed for it by nature. Nay, 
even among the gods this is the definition of happi- 
ness, that their state should be according to their 
nature, and that they should be independent. And 
1 Timaeus 77 B. 



KOI Tot9 dvOpwTTois ov% eTZpwOi TTOV TIJV evoai- 
fjioviav dTroKKpv/jL/JLvr]v TrpocrrjKei 7ro\VTrpay/j,oveiv' 
aero? ovBe 7r\dravo<; ovBe d\\o TL TWV OVTCOV 

(f)VTWV Xpvaa Trepiepyd&Tai Trrepa KOI 
(j)v\\a, ovoe OTTO)? dpyvpovs cfet TOW? 
rj ra 7T\fjKrpa KOI /cevrpa 
dBafjidvTiva, d\~)C ol<> avrd 
/c6(TfjLr](r, ravTa el pa)/j,a\ea KOI TT/OO? ra^;o9 av- 
roi? ^7 TT/JO? d\KrjV vTTOvpyovvra Trpoayevoiro, 
/jid\iara av ev Trpdrreiv vo^i^oi teal ev0r)vel(T0ai. B 
7TW? ovv ov yeXoiov, el' T^? avOpwTros yeyovws e^oy 
TTOV Tr)V ev^aijjiomav TrepiepydcraiTO, TT\OVTOV KOI 
yevos teal (f>i\wv ^vvapiv /cdl Trdvra aTrXw? ra 
rotavra rov Trai^ro? a%ia vopi^tov ; el jj,ev ovv 
f)fMV rj (frvcus Mcnrep rot? ^o? avrb TOVTO 
JJLOVOV, TO crcoyLtara KOI tyv)(a$ e^eiv 

ra/?a7rX?;crta9, axrre /j,r)&V 7r\eov TTO\V- 

, ijpfcei \onrov, waTrep rd \oi7rd wa, C 
rot? o-wyaart/cot? dpKelaOai TrXeoveKTij/Aaa-iv, ev- 
ravOd TTOV TO evSai/jioveiv iroKvirpayiJiovovcriv. 
CTrel Be rjfjilv ovSev TL TrapaTrXvjo-ia ^v^rj rot? aX- 
Xot? eveaTrapTdi %a>oi<>, dXX' etre /car' overlay Sia- 
cfrepovcra etre ovaia pev dSidfyopos, evepyeia 8e 
fJiovrj tcpeiTTcov, wcrTrep ol/xat TO KaOapov ij&i} 
%pvaiov TOV crvjjLTrecfrvp/jLevov TTJ -^ra/xyu-ft)' \ey6Tai 
yap /col OWTO9 o Xo<yo9 Trepl T^? tyv%r)<> 0)9 d\r)0r)<$ 
VTTO Tivd&v rj/jieis by ovv 7TiBrj avvHTfJiev avTois D 
ov<Ti TWV wwv ^vveTWTepow fcaTa yap TOV YLpco- 
Tayopov fjivdov e/ceivois fiev rj (pvais waTrep 



so too in the case of human beings we must not be 
busy about happiness as if it were hidden away out- 
side ourselves. Neither the eagle nor the plane tree 
nor anything else that has life, whether plant or 
animal,, vainly troubles itself about wings or leaves of 
gold or that its shoots may be of silver or its stings 
and spurs of iron, or rather of adamant ; but where 
nature in the beginning has adorned them with such 
things, they consider that, if only they are strong and 
serviceable for speed or defence, they themselves are 
fortunate and well provided. Then is it not absurd 
when a human being tries to find happiness somewhere 
outside himself, and thinks that wealth and birth 
and the influence of friends, and generally speaking 
everything of that sort is of the utmost importance ? 
If however nature had bestowed on us only what 
she has bestowed on other animals, I mean the 
possession of bodies and souls like theirs, so that we 
need concern ourselves with nothing beyond, then it 
would suffice for us, as for all other animals, to con- 
tent ourselves with physical advantages, and to pursue 
happiness within this field. But in us has been 
implanted a soul that in no way resembles other 
animals ; and whether it be different in essence, or 
not different in essence but superior in its activity 
only, just as, I suppose, pure gold is superior 
to gold alloyed with sand, for some people hold 
this theory to be true of the soul, at any rate 
we surely know that we are more intelligent 
than other animals. For according to the myth in 
the Protagoras, 1 nature dealt with them very gener- 

1 Plato, Protagoras 321 A, B ; Plato however says that the 
theft of fire by Prometheus saved mankind, and that later 
Zeus bestowed on them the political art. 

4 1 


dyav (friXori/jLws real /jieyaXoBwpws 
{)fMV Be dvrl rrdvrwv ere Ato? o vovs dBoOrf rrjv 
evBaifjioviav evravOa Oereov, ev rw /cpariara) KOI 
cnrovBaLordra) rwv ev TJIMV. 

^Korcei Bij, rauT/7? el pr) yLtaXto-ra rr)? jrpoaipe- 
crea)? r)v Atoye^;?, o? TO yuep crwyu-a rot? 
dveS^v Trapel^ev, LVCL avro r^9 <pvaa)$ 
Tepov KUTacn^ar], TrpaTTeiv Be rj^iov JJLOVOV oTrocra 195 
av <pavf) rrp \6yaf Trpatcrea, rou? Be e'/e rou 
e/jLTTiTTTOVTas rfj tyv-xf} Oopvftovs, ola 
r)/jLas dvayKa^ei rovrl TO Trepi/cei/uLevov 
aurou %dpiv 7To\V7rpay/jioveiv, ovSe ev fiepei 
7rpo<TLTO. VTTO $6 TCLVTrjs T^? daKr](TU>s o dvrjp 
oi/Tft) fiev ecr^ev dvSpelov TO aw^a w? ovBels olf^ai 
TMV TOU? (TTetyaviTas d^wvLcrafJbevwv, OVTO) Be Bie- B 
re0r) r^v ^v^rfv, ware evBai/jioveiv, ware ftavi- 
\eveiv ovBev e\arrov, el jirj fcal TrXeoi^, 009 01 rore 
eitoOeaav \e<yeiv f '&\\rives, rov fjiy 

TOV Tleparjv \eyovTes. dpd aou fjiucpa 

> \ 

"A7roXt9, CLOLKOS, Trarpi&o? edrepy^evo 
OVK bfioKov, ov Bpaxfj-riv, e^wv 1 ovft 

aXX' ovBe /jid^av, 979 'E7rtofyoo9 evTropwv ovBe TMV 
0ewv (j)t](Tiv et9 ev&aijAovias \6<yov eXarrovaOai, 
7T/309 jJiev TOU9 Oeovs OVK epi^wv, rov BOKOVVTOS Be C 
T0t9 dvOpwrrois evBai/Aovecrrdrov evBai/JLOvearrepov 
^MV Kal e\ye t^r)v evBaifjiovecrTepov. el Be arciarel^, 

1 ex<vv ov8' oiKtrriv Kaibel, OVK oiKtTrjv (X <av Hertlein, MSS. ; 
Hertlein prints the second verse as prose. 



ously and bountifully, like a mother,, but to com- 
pensate for all this, mind was bestowed on us by 
Zeus. Therefore in our minds, in the best and 
noblest part of us, we must say that happiness 

Now consider whether Diogenes did not above all 
other men profess this belief, since he freely exposed 
his body to hardships so that he might make it 
stronger than it was by nature. He allowed himself 
to act only as the light of reason shows us that we 
ought to act ; and the perturbations that attack the 
soul and are derived from the body, to which this 
envelope of ours often constrains us for its sake to 
pay too much attention, he did not take into account 
at all. Thus by means of this discipline the man 
made his body more vigorous, I believe, than that of 
any who have contended for the prize of a crown in 
the games : and his soul was so disposed that he was 
happy and a king no less if not even more than the 
Great King, as the Greeks used to call him in those 
days, by which they meant the king of Persia. Then 
does he seem to you of no importance, this man who 
was " cityless, homeless, a man without a country, 
owning not an obol, not a drachma, not a single 
slave," 1 nay, not even a loaf of bread and Epicurus 
says that if he have bread enough and to spare he is 
not inferior to the gods on the score of happiness. 
Not that Diogenes tried to rival the gods, but he 
lived more happily than one who is counted the 
happiest of men, and he used actually to assert that 
he lived more happily than such a man. And if you 

1 Cf. Letter to Themistius 256 B ; Nauck, Adespota 
Fragmeuta 6 ; Diogenes Laertius, 6. 38, says that this was a 
favourite quotation of Diogenes ; its source is unknown. 



epyw rreipaOeis eiceivov rov (Biov KOI ov TM 

rrpwrov avrov Sid rwv \6ywv 

IJLV. dpd oroi So/eel rcov rrdvrwv dyaOwv dvOpw- 
7TO19 r)yelcr6ai, rovrwv 8rj TWV 7ro\vdpv\rJTQ)v, 
eXevOepiav; TTW? yap ov (f)ij(rei<>; eirel real ra D 

KOI TrXoOro? KOL yevos /cal crco/x-aro? 
teal tfttXXo? Kai TrdvTCL aTrXw? TO. roiavra 
>}9 \v6epias ov rov SOKOVVTOS rjvTV%rjKevai, 
rov Krrjo-afjievov Se avrov eanv ajaOd; riva ovv 
v7ro\a/j,/3dvofjL6i> rov SovXov; apa fjitj rrore efceivov, 
bv av irpiwfjieOa Spa^/jiMV dpyvplov roawv i] fjivalv 
SVOLV 77 ^pvaiov ararrjpwv Sefca; epels 8iJ7rov0ev 
rovrov eivai d\tj0(o^ SovXov. apa Si* avro rovro, 
on TO dpyvpiov vrrep avrov rS> 7T(i)\ovvri tcara- 
jSej3\r)Kai.iev; ovrw /Aevrav eiev ol/cerai real OTTO- 1 
crof9 rwv at^yaaXwra)^ \vrpovjJLe6a. Kairoi /cal 
ol VO/JLOL rovrois ttTroSeSw/cacrt rrjv e\V0epiav 
a(i)6el<Jtv o'iKaBe, teal T^/zet? avrovs 
ov% tW Sov\evo~(t)o-i,v, aXX' 'iva WO~LV 
opas &)? ov% Ircavov eo~nv dpyvpiov Kara/3a\e2v e? 
TO drrofyrjvai rov \vrpw9evra 8ov\ov, aXX' 
eo-nv ft)? dXtjOws SoOXo?, ov /cvpios eanv 
Trpoa-avaytcdo-ai, rrpdrreiv o,n av Ke\evr), Kal fj,rj 
f3ov\6/jLVov Ko\acrai fcai, TO Xeyo/Aevov vrro rov 


opa ST) TO fjiera rovro, el fir) /cvpioi rrdvres f)fJL&v B 
eio~iv, 01)9 dvay/calov rj/jilv Oeparreveiv, iva /jLrjSev 
a tco\a^o[Jievoi Trap 9 avrwv, 



do not believe me, try his mode of life in deed and 
not in word, and you will perceive the truth. 

Come, let us first test it by reasoning. You think, 
do you not, that for mankind freedom is the beginning 
of all good things, 1 I mean of course what people are 
always calling good ? How can you deny it ? For 
property, money, birth, physical strength, beauty and 
in a word everything of the sort when divorced from 
freedom are surely blessings that belong, not to him 
who merely seems to enjoy them, but to him who is 
that man's master ? Whom then are we to regard as a 
slave? Shall it be him whom we buy for so many silver 
drachmas, for two minae or for ten staters 2 of gold ? 
Probably you will say that such a man is truly a 
slave. And why ? Is it because we have paid down 
money for him to the seller? But in that case the 
prisoners of war whom we ransom would be slaves. 
And yet the law on the one hand grants these their 
freedom when they have come safe home, and we on 
the other hand ransom them not that they may 
become slaves, but that they may be free. Do you 
see then that in order to make a ransomed man a 
slave it is not enough to pay down a sum of money, 
but that man is truly a slave over whom another man 
has power to compel him to do whatever he orders, 
and if he refuse, to punish him and in the words of 
the poet "to inflict grievous pains upon him"? 3 Then 
consider next whether we have not as many masters 
as there are persons whom we are obliged to con- 
ciliate in order not to suffer pain or annoyance from 
being punished by them ? Or do you think that the 

1 Cf. 188 c, Plato, Laws 730 B. 

2 The stater or Daric was worth about a sovereign. 

3 Iliad 5. 766. 



>; TOVTO oiei Ko\a(nv /JLOVOV, el T/9 eTravaTeivouevos 
Trjv ftaKTTjpiav KadiKOiTO TOV ol/cerov; /cairot ye 
TOLOVTOV ovBe ol rpa^vraroi TMV SecnroTcov CTTL 


ap/cet TroXXa/a? Kal airei^Y]. /JL^TTOTC ovv, w <j)i\, C 

vojjLiarjs elvai e\,ev6epo<s, a%pi<; ov 

crov Kal TO, evepOev yaa-rpbs ol re rov 

ra Trpo? rj&ovrjv Kal raura 1 aTTOKwKvcrai, 

KOL el TOVTWV 8e yevoio Kpeirrcov, ea)? av $ov\evr)<? 

rat? TWV TTO\\WV So^ais, OVTTW rr}? e\ev6epias 

eOuryes ov$e eyeixKo rov veKrapos, 

Ov /J,a TOP ev a-TepvoHriv e/nois Trapa&bvra 

tcai, ov TOVTO (f>rj/Jii, co? aTrepvdpidcrai, Xp?) 77/909 D 
Kal TrpaTTeiv TO, fjurf irpaKTea' aXX' wv 
a Kal oaa TrpaTToaev, /JLTJ Sia TO rot? 
Keiv (TTrovSaia 7rct)9 2 rf </>ai)A,a, Bia 
TOVTO TrpaTTw/jiev Kal aTre^M/^eOa, aXX' OTI TW 
\6<yq) Kal TW ev rjfjiiv dew, TOUT' eaTl TO> vw, TavTa 
evTiv aTropprjTa. TOU9 [i>ev ovv TTO\\OVS ovBev Ka)\vei, 
Ta?9 Koivals eTreaQai So^aw dfieivov jap TOVTO 

TOV TravTCLTracriv aTrepvdpidv eyovcn <yap avdpw- 19' 
. / \ ^ //i r > ^ * > \ t\ Vo 

(pvcrei 7T/9O9 aXrjaeiav oiKeiws' avopi be rjorj 

vovv %a)VTi Kal TOL9 opdovs evpeiv T Svva- 
Kal Kplvau Xoyou? Trpoa-rjKei TO TrapaTrav 

ovSev eTreadau Tols vojaoJLevoL^ VTTO TMV 

ev Te Kal ^elpov 


avra Hertlein suggests, raCra MSS. 
TO>? Hertlein suggests, Traj/rws MSS. 


only sort of punishment is when a man lifts up his 
stick against a slave and strikes him ? Yet not even 
the harshest masters do this in the case of all their 
slaves,, but a word or a threat is often enough. Then 
never think, my friend, that you are free while your 
belly rules you and the part below the belly, since 
you will then have masters who can either furnish 
you the means of pleasure or deprive you of them ; 
and even though you should prove yourself superior 
to these, so long as you are a slave to the opinions of 
the many you have not yet approached freedom or 
tasted its nectar, " I swear by him who set in my 
breast the mystery of the Four ! " l But I do not 
mean by this that we ought to be shameless before 
all men and to do what we ought not ; but all that 
we refrain from and all that we do let us not do or 
refrain from, merely because it seems to the multitude 
somehow honourable or base, but because it is for- 
bidden by reason and the god within us, that is, the 
mind. 2 As for the multitude there is no reason why 
they should not follow common opinions, for that is 
better than that they should be altogether shameless, 
and indeed mankind is predisposed to the truth by 
nature. But a man who has attained to a life in 
accordance with intelligence and is able to discover 
and estimate right reasons, ought on no account 
whatever to follow the views held by the many about 
good and bad conduct. 

1 An oath used by the Pythagoreans, who regarded the 
tetrad, the sum of the first four numbers, as symbolical 
of all proportion and perfection; cf. Aetios, Placita 1. 7. 
Pythagoras, Aureum Carmen 47, Mullach va /j.a rbv a/j.Tpa 

irapa86vTa TerpaKrvv. 

Cf. Oration 268 D ; Euripides fr. 1007 Nauck 6 i/oCy yap 
v fffriv tv IKCIO-TW 0eJy ; lamblichus, Prolrepticus 8. 138. 



OVKOVV 7rei,Brj TO fJieV <7TL TT) 

OeioTepov, o 6V; vovv Kal fypovrjaiv (f>a/j,ev Kal 
\6yov TOV criyd)/jivov, ov K)jpv ICTTLV o Bia TT}? 

<J)(JL>VT)$ OVTOal \6yOS TTpoicDV 6% OVOfMaTWV Kai 

pijfj,drcov, erepov Be TI TOVTW avve^evKTai rroitciXov 
real TravroBaTTov, opyf) icai eTriQvfjLia ^vfju^i^e^ TI B 

KOI 7TO\VK(j)dKoV 07)piov, OV 7TpOT6pOV %pr) 7T/30? 

ra? Solfa? TWV TroXXwj/ are^co? opav KOI a&ia- 
Ty3e7TTft)9, irplv av TovTO Ba/jLaffajfiev TO Orjplov teal 
V7ra/covaai> TM Trap* rjfjuv 0fo, fj.a\\ov Be 
TOVTO yap 7ro\\ol TOV Aioyevovs %r}\a)Tal 
l eyevovTO TcavTopeKTai teal /jitapol /cal 
TWV Orjpicov ovBe evo<> /cpeiTTovs, OTL Be OVK e/uo? o 

XoyO? (TTi, TCptoTOV epJOV 6yOW O~Ol ^tO^eVOV^, 6^6 C 

a> rye\d<TovTai jj,ev ol 7roXX.oi, ejjiol Be elvai Bo/cel 

. eTreiBr) yap Tt? T&V vewv ev 
Kal TOV Aioyevovs, drreTrapBev, errd 
rj (3aKT7]pia 0a9* elTa, w icdOapfJLa, 
TOV Bfjfjioo'ia TCL TOtavTa Oapaelv 

weTO %prjvai TrpoTepov fjBovfjs Kal Ovfj-ov KpeiTTOva 
yeveo~6ai, Trplv* errl TO TekeioTaTov e\0elv TWV 

yv, d7roBvcrd/j,vov rrpos T? TWV D 
B6as at /jivpicov KaKwv aiTiai yivovTat, 

TOi? 7ToXXoi9. 

OVK olaOa O7TW9 TO^ fJ^ev veovs T/}9 
^uXocro0ta9 array ovcnv, aXXa eV aXXoi? TWV 

1 (^TjAwral f'aa-ai'Tes Hertleiii suggests, frXuffavres MSS. 

2 trp}i> Hertlein suggests, Kal rpirov MSS. 



Since therefore one part of our souls is more 
divine,, which we call mind and intelligence and 
silent reason, whose herald is this speech of ours 
made up of words and phrases and uttered through 
the voice ; and since there is yoked therewith 
another part of the soul which is changeful and 
multiform, something composite of anger and appetite, 
a many-headed monster, we ought not to look 
steadily and unswervingly at the opinions of the 
multitude until we have tamed this wild beast and 
persuaded it to obey the god within us, or rather 
the divine part. For this it is that many disciples 
of Diogenes have ignored, and hence have become 
rapacious and depraved and no better than any 
one of the brute beasts. And to prove that this is 
not my own theory, 1 first I will relate to you some- 
thing that Diogenes did, which the many will 
ridicule but to me it seems most dignified. Once 
when, in a crowd of people among whom was 
Diogenes, a certain youth made an unseemly noise, 
Diogenes struck him with his staff and said " And 
so, vile wretch, though you have done nothing 
that would give you the right to take such liberties 
in public, you are beginning here and before us 
to show your scorn of opinion ? " So convinced 
was he that a man ought to subdue pleasure and 
passion before he proceeds to the final encounter of 
all 2 and strips to wrestle with those opinions which 
to the multitude are the cause of evils innumerable. 

Do you not know how people lure away the young 
from philosophy by continually uttering now one 

1 Euripides fr. 488 ; M isopogon 358 D. 

2 Cf. Oration 1. 40 B, 2. 74 c, notes. 




<$)i\ocro<f)a)v 0pv\ovvTe<?; ol YLvdayopov Kal 
riXaTa>z;o9 Kal 'A/OicrroreXoi^ %opevTal yvtjaioi 
70777-69 elvau \eyovTai Kal (rofao-Tal Kal TCTV^W- 
/jievoL Kal (frap/jiaKeis. TWV KVVIKWV el TTOV TI$ 198 
yeyove aTrovBalos, e\ivb<s BoKel- /jue/jLvrj^ai yovv 

eyd) 7TOT6 TpO(f)(i)S CLTTOVTOS 7T/309 /U-6, CirClS}) TOV 

eTalpov ei&ev ^\<biK\ea avyuripdv eyovTa Trjv 
i \ / \ / < / / 

Kai KaTeppcoyoTa ra aTepva i/JiaTiov Te 

acn (>av\ov ev 8eivq> xei/AWVi' Tt9 apa 
TOVTOV 6t9 TavTrjv TTepteTpe^e Trjv (TVJJL- 
v<^ 779 avTos /Jiev e\eeiv6s, eKeeivoTepoi, Be 
ol 7raT6y069 avTov, OpetyavTes <rvv eVtyu-eXeta Kal 

TraiBevaavTes a>9 eveBeveTo cnrovBaiws, 6 Be OVTCO B 

/ > > i > s-v 

vvv 7repiep%Tai, TravTa a<p6i9, ovoev TWV Trpocrai- 

TOVVTOJV KpeiTTWv; eKeuvov fjiev ovv eyw OVK olB' 
07ra)9 rore KaTipa)vevo~d/jL7]v ev fjievTOi ye IcrOi 
TavTa Kal l vTrep TWV d\r)dws KVVWV TOU9 TroXXot'9 
Biavoov/jievovs. Kal ov TOVTO Betvov eaTiv, aXX' 
opas OTL Kal irXovTov dyairav TreiOovai Kal Treviav 
uia-eiv Kal Trjv yacnepa OepaTreveiv Kal TOV 
<rc6yuaT09 eveKa TrdvTa viro^eveiv TTOVOV Kal 
TTtaiveiv TOV TTJS ^^779 Bea-fjiov Kal TpaTre^av 
TrapaTideo-Qat 7ro\VTe\rj Kal fi'rjBeTroTe vvKTCop C 
Ka&evBeiv /JLOVOV, d\\a TO, ToiavTa iravra Bpdv ev 
TCO (7/coTft) \avOdvovTa; TOVTO OVK ecrrt TOV Tap- 
Tapov %eipov; ov fte\Tiov eaTiv VTTO Trjv XdpvftBtv 
Kal TOV KWKVTOV Kal /Jivpias opyvids KaTci 7779 
Bvvai, 77 Trecrelv et9 TOIOVTOV (Biov alBoiois Kal 
Bov\evovTa, Kal ovBe TOVTOIS a7rXa)9 
TOL Orjpia, Trpdy/jbaTa Be e%ei,v, a>9 av Kal 

1 raCra Kal Hertlein suggests, Kal raCra MSS. 



slander and then another against all the philosophers 
in turn ? The genuine disciples of Pythagoras and 
Plato juad-jjristptle are called sorcerers and sophists 
and conceited and quacks. If here and there among 
the Cynics one is really virtuous he is regarded with 
pity. For instance I remember that once my tutor 
said to me when he saw my fellow-pupil Iphicles with 
his hair unkempt and his clothes in tatters on his 
chest and wearing a wretched cloak in severe winter 
weather : " What evil genius can have plunged 
him into this sad state which makes not only 
him pitiable but even more so his parents who 
reared him with care and gave him the best education 
they could ! And now he goes about in this condition,, 
neglecting everything and no better than a beggar ! " 
At the time I answered him with some pleasantry 
or other. But I assure you that the multitude hold 
these views about genuine Cynics also. And that 
is not so dreadful, but do you see that they 
persuade them to love wealth, to hate poverty, 
to minister to the belly, to endure any toil for the 
body's sake, to fatten that prison of the soul, to 
keep up an expensive table, never to sleep alone 
at night, 1 provided only that they do all this in 
the dark and are not found out ? Is not this worse 
than Tartarus ? Is it not better to sink beneath 
Charybdis and Cocytus or ten thousand fathoms 
deep in the earth 2 than to fall into a life like 
this, enslaved to lust and appetite, and not even 
to these simply and openly, like the beasts, but 
to take pains so that when we act thus we may 

1 Cf. Plato, Epistles 326 B. 

2 An echo of Xenophon, Anabasis 7. 1. 29. 



\d6oifjLev V7TO TO) 

Ka'lTOl TTOCTft) KpeiTTOV CL7T '%ea '6 ] dl TTaVTCi'TTaGiV D 

O.VTMV; el Be /j,rj pdBwv, ol Aioyevov? VOJJLOI teal 
Kpar^ro? vTrep TOVTWV OVK aTtyitacrTeor epwra 
\veu XtyLto?, av Se rovTO) ^prfO-daL JJLT] 
OVK olaOa, OTL ravra eirpa^av eicelvoi TO) 
6$bv eureXeta?; ov jap e/c rwv 
frrjcrlv 6<yevr)$, ol rvpavvoi, aXX' e/c 199 
SeiTTVOvvrcov TToX^TeXw?. KOI o Kparr)? fjievroi 
vfivov et? rrjv EureXetazr 

Xai/06, 6ea BeaTrotva, (T0(f)wv dv&pwv dyaTrrj/jia, 
EiVreXir), K\ii>rjs eyyove ^wfypoo~vvr)<$. 

or) /JLTJ Kara TOV Qlvofiaov 6 KVWV dvaiofa 
dvaia"XvvTOs /jirjoe vTrepOTrr^ Trdvrwv opov 
delwv re KOI dvdpwirlvwv, dXXd 6v~\,a{3r)<? ^ev TO, 

TO delov, wcnrep Aioyevvjs' eTreiaOt) yovv B 
TO) livOia), /cal ov /jLT/ne\r)(7i> avrw Treia- 
el Be, OTL jjir] Trpocrrjei, jjUjSe eOepajreve roi*? 
veto? fjirjBe TO, dyaX/jLCLTa fj,r)Se TOV$ ftw/jiovs, oierai 
rt? a^eor^ro? elvcLi cry/Ae'iov, OVK op6w<$ vo^i^ei' 
r)V yap ovSev avrw rwv TOIOVTWV, ov Xiftavwros, ov 
o-TrovSij, OVK dpyvpiov, Wev avra Trpiairo. el Be 
evbei Trepl dewv opOws, rjpicei TOVTO /JLOVOV avrfj yap 
eOepdireve' 2 rfj tyvxfj, BiBovs olpai rd 
r&v eavrov, TO KaOoaLwaat, T^V eavrov 
Bid TWV evvoiMV. direpvOpLaTW Be pi]- C 
7r6/jievo<> ru> \6y(p 
KaTao~Trjo~dTCt) TO 

1 Svvy Hertlein suggests, cf. Diogenes Laertius 6. 5. 2 ; 

2 (depdireve Hertlein suggests, (depdirfvcre MSS. 



be hidden under cover of darkness ? And yet 
how much better is it to refrain altogether from all 
this ! And if that be difficult the rules of Diogenes 
and Crates on these matters are not to be despised : 
" Fasting quenches desire, and if you cannot 
fast, hang yourself." l Do you not know that those 
great men lived as they did in order to introduce 
among men the way of plain living? " For/' says 
Diogenes, " it is not among men who live on bread 
that you will find tyrants, but among those who eat 
costly dinners." Moreover Crates wrote a hymn 
to Plain Living : " Hail, goddess and Queen, darling h 
of wise men, Plain Living, child of glorious Tern- vj 
perance." 2 Then let not the Cynic be like Oenomaus I 
shameless or impudent, or a scorner of everything 
human and divine, but reverent towards sacred things, 
like Diogenes. For he obeyed the Pythian oracle nor 
did he repent of his obedience. But if anyone 
supposes that because he did not visit the temples 
or worship statues or altars this is a sign of .impiety, 
he does not think rightly. For Diogenes possessed 
nothing that is usually offered, incense or libations 
or money to buy them with. But if he held right 
opinions about the gods, that in itself was enough. 
For he worshipped them with his whole soul, thus 
offering them as I think the most precious of his 
possessions, the dedication of his soul through his 
thoughts. Let not the Cynic be shameless, but led by 
reason let him first make subservient to himself the 
emotional part of his soul so that he may entirely do 

1 Diogenes Laertius 6. 86 ; Palatine Anthology 9. 497 ; 
Julian paraphrases the verses of Crates, of. Crates fr. 14, 
Diels. 2 Palatine Anthology 10. 104. 



7-7)9 tyvxfjs fJibpiov, ware Travrdfraa-iv efeXeti* 

avrb /cal fjirj^e OTI /cparel rwv rjSovwv elbevai. 

et9 rovro jap apeivov e\9elv, e/9 TO xai, el 

77.9 ra roiavra, 0X0)9 a^vorfaat' TOVTO Be 

OUK aXXo)? r) Bia royv ^vfxvacnw 

r (va Se /JLIJ rt? V7ro\d/3r) yae ravra aXXw? \e r yei,i' ) 

K ra)i> Traiyviwv Kparrj-ros 0X170- aoi Trapaypdtyw D 

fcal Ztrjvbs 'OXuyu.TrtoL' dy\aa reKva, 
Movtrat IlteptSe?, K\vre /JLOL ev^o/jievM' 

ael cru^e%ft)9 Sore yacrrepi, r^re fJioi alel 
\irbv edr]Ke ftiov. 

i) <y\v/cepbv 

K\vrd, KavOdpov 

os T* a^ei/o? ^prj/Jiara /^atoyae^o?, 200 

'AXXa SiKaioavvrjs ^re^ew real TT\OVTOV dyei- 

Twv Se Tfft)^ 'Eijirv /cal Moucra? /Xa 

Ou bcnrdvat, 1 ? rpv^epal^, aXX' dperais 6criai$. 

el xprf croi Trepl TOVTWV ypd(f)iv, e%(0 TrXetom TOU B 
wv Se TO) Xat^ow^et IlXoL'Ta^ft) roy 
Ti jBLov ovbev etc Trapepyou 
Serfcrei rbv avSpa. 
*AXX' eiravlw [Jiev GTT eicelvo 7rd\iv, on %pr) TOV 

tcwi^eiv avry Trporepov eTriri/jidv C 

1 oAySor Wright, cf. 213s, O/TOJ/ MSS., Hertlein. 
3 a7ej>etf Cobet, ayivetv Hertlein, MSS. 



away with it and not even be aware that he is superior 
to pleasures. For it is nobler to attain to this, I 
mean to complete ignorance whether one has any 
such emotions. And this comes to us only through 
training. And that none may think I say this at 
random I will add for your benefit a few lines from 
the lighter verse of Crates : l " Glorious children of 
Memory and Olympian Zeus, ye Muses of Pieria, 
hearken to my prayer! Give me without ceasing 
victuals for my belly which has always made my life 
frugal and free from slavery. ... To my friends 
make me useful rather than agreeable. As for 
money I desire not to amass conspicuous wealth, 
seeking after the wealth of the beetle or the sub- 
stance of the ant ; nay, I desire to possess justice 
and to collect riches that are easily carried, easily 
acquired, of great avail for virtue. If I may but win 
these I will propitiate Hermes and the holy Muses 
not with costly dainties but with pious virtues." If 
it be of any use to write for you about such things I 
could recite still more maxims by this same Crates. 
But if you will read Plutarch of Chaeronea, who 
wrote his Life, there will be no need for you to learn 
his character superficially from me. 

But let me go back to what I said before, that he 
who is entering on the career of a Cynic ought first 

1 I.e. parodies such as the verses here quoted which parody 
Solon's prayer fr. 12, Bergk ; cf. 2.13 B. 



KOI %\e<Y%eiv KOI fir) KO\a,Keveiv, d\\a 
e^erd^eiv o, TL /jLaXta-ra avTov aicpipws, el rfj 
7ro\VT\eia TWV GITIU>V ^aupei, el crrpco/z.^? Setrat 
el ripr)? rj 80^779 earlv rjTTCov, el TOVTO 
TO TrepL^XeirecrOai Kal, el KOI Kevov e'ir], 
oyLtw? vofJLi^ei. /jirjSe et? crvfjurepK^opav 
v Ka0v(f)ei,(T0a), 1 yevecrOa) Be rpv^fjs fjurjbe D 
a/cpw, <j)a(ri, rw SarcrvXa), ea)? av avrrjv Tra^reXw? 
Trarrja-r). rare tfSr) Kal rwv TOIOVTWV, av Trpoa- 
TT/TTTT;, Oiyeiv ovbev Kw\vet. ejrel Kal 
ravpcov CLKOVCO TOV? daOevea-repovs 
TT)? dye\tj<; Kal Ka6* eavroix; vefjbOjjLevovs dyeipeiv 
rrjv LO-'XVV ev pepec Kal Kar O\LJOV, eltf OUTO>? 
eTTievai, Kal 7rpOKa\ela6ai Kal TJ}? dyeXvjs d^ia- 
T049 TTpOKare^ovo-Lv, co? fjid\\ov dgiw- 
Trpoi&TaaOai. ocrrt? ovv Kvvi^eiv ede\ei, 
TOV Tptftwva /jiijre Trjv irrjpav /jbijre rrjv /3aK- 201 

Kal TTJV KO^V dyairdra) povov, 'iv w<T7rep 

ftaSify Kovpeiwv Kal SiSaa-KaXeicov evSeei 
Kal dypd/jL/jLaros, d\\d TOV \6yov OVTI 
TOV dKr)TTTpov Kal Tr)v evaTaaiv dvTL T 
TI}? KVVIKYJS vTToXa/A/BaveTCt) (f)L\,0(TO(f)ias 
Trapprja-ia Be %pr)(rTov avTy 
7re<j)VKev afyos eTTiBei^ajjievq), wcnrep 

Kal Aioyevijs, 01 Traaav pev 
Kal eiTe TraiBidv eiTe irapoiviav %/o^ fydvai B 

1 Ka6v<pel(r0<a Hertlein suggests, Ka.9tia()<a MSS. 


to censure severely and cross-examine himself, and 
without any self-flattery ask himself the following 
questions in precise terms : whether he enjoys 
expensive food ; whether he cannot do without a 
soft bed ; whether he is the slave of rewards and the 
opinion of men ; whether it is his ambition to attract 
public notice and even though that be an empty 
honour l he still thinks it worth while. Nevertheless 
he must not let himself drift with the current of the 
mob or touch vulgar pleasure even with the tip of 
his finger, as the saying is, until he has succeeded 
in trampling on it; then and not before he may 
permit himself to dip into that sort of thing if it 
come his way. For instance I am told that bulls 
which are weaker than the rest separate themselves 
from the herd and pasture alone while they store up 
their strength in every part of their bodies by 
degrees, until they rejoin the herd in good condition, 
and then they challenge its leaders to contend with 
them, in confidence that they are more fit to take the 
lead. Therefore let him who wishes to be a Cynic 
philosopher not adopt merely their long cloak or 
wallet or staff or their way of wearing the hair, as 
though he were like a man walking imshaved and 
illiterate in a village that lacked barbers' shops and 
schools, but let him consider that reason rather than 
a staff and a certain plan of life rather than a wallet 
are the mintmarks of the Cynic philosophy. And 
freedom of speech he must not employ until he have 
first proved how much he is worth, as I believe was 
the case with Crates and Diogenes. For they were 
so far from bearing with a bad grace any threat of 

1 An echo of Euripides, Phoenissae 551, Trepifi\eirf(r6ai 

Tl/J-lOV, Kfv'bv fAfV OVV, 



TOCTOVTOV a7rea")(pv TOV vaKOws eveytcev, 
jiev VTTO TWV KaTaTTOVTiorTwv 6 

6 K^oar^? Be eBrj/Jioaieve rrjv ovcrtav, elra 
TO awfJLa /3Xa/3el? eaKwirrev eavrbv et? rrjv 


eTropeveTO Se eVl ra? TWV (f>i\a)v ecrrta? a/cX?/ro? 
tcai l KeK\,r,evos, 8iaX\,d(r(Tcov rou? 

Be ov fjiTa Tn/cpias, d\\a yw,era ^aptro?, 01)^ iW C 

Be e0e\a)v avTOVs re CKCLVOVS Kal TOVS di 

Kal ov TOVTO r)v TO 7rporjyov/j,evov avTols 
aXX', oirep e^ijv, ea~K07rovv OTTW? avTol /juev 
evBai/AOVrjaovo'iv,' 2 ' e/LteXe Be avTols T&V a\\wv TOCT- 
OVTOV oaov ^vvieaav ol^ai (frvGei KQIVWVIKQV Kal 

7TO\iTlKOV %WOV TOV avdpWTTOV elvai, Kal TOL/9 (TV/JL- 

u>(f)e\r}crav ov rot? TrapaBeiyfjuacn 
>, aXXa Kal rot? Xo<yo$. ocrrt? ovv av eOe\r) D 
elvai Kal (nrovBaios dvrjp, avTov 

{iev TT}? tyvxfis ciiravTa eK Trdarjs TO, 
1, opd& Be eTTiTpeyas TO, Ka& eavTov \6yy 
Kal vw Kv(3epvda-0w. K(f)d\aiov yap rjv, 0)9 eyw 
oljjLai, TOVTO Trjs kioyevovs <^Xocro0ta9. 

Et Be eTaipa Trore Trpoar^XOev 6 dvrjp- 
Kal TOVTO TV%OV aira% r) ovBe a7rag 
OTav rj/Mv Ta aXXa KaTa TOV Aioyevrj yevrjTai 20! 

1 Before KCKA^eVos Cobet adds Kal ; cf. Oration 8. 250 c. 

2 evSaifj.ovf]ffovffiv Hertlejn suggests, fvSat/j.ov-fiffoixri.v MSS. 


fortune, whether one call such threats caprice or 
wanton insult, that once when he had been captured 
by pirates Diogenes joked with them ; as for Crates 
he gave his property to the state, and being 
physically deformed he made fun of his own lame 
leg and hunched shoulders. But when his friends 
gave an entertainment he used to go, whether 
invited or not, 1 and would reconcile his nearest 
friends if he learned that they had quarrelled. 
He used to reprove them not harshly but with 
a charming manner and not so as to seem to 
persecute those whom he wished to reform, but 
as though he wished to be of use both to them 
and to the bystanders. 

Yet this was not the chief end and aim of those 
Cynics, but as 1 said their main concern was how 
they might themselves attain to happiness and, as I 
think, they occupied themselves with other men only 
iri so far as they comprehended that man is by nature 
a social and political animal ; and so they aided their 
fellow-citizens, not only by practising but by 
preaching as well. Then let him who wishes to be 
a Cynic, earnest and sincere, first take himself in 
hand like Diogenes and Crates, and expel from his 
own soul and from every part of it all passions and 
desires, and entrust all his affairs to reason and 
intelligence and steer his course by them. For this 
in my opinion was the sum and substance of the 
philosophy of Diogenes. 

And if Diogenes did sometimes visit a courtesan 

though even this happened only once perhaps or 

not even once let him who would be a Cynic first 

satisfy us that he is, like Diogenes, a man of solid 

1 Thucydides 1. 118. 



dv avTO) l (fravf) Kal TOLOVTOV TL 
fyavepws ev o(jf>#aX//,ot9 rravTrnv, ov /jLe/A^o- 
ovSe aiTiaa-o/jbeOa. irporepov /JLCVTOI Trjv 
f)/jLiv eTTibei^dfAevos ev^dOeiav Kal rrjv 
Kal rr)V ev rot? aXXoi? aTracriv e\ev- 
Oepiav, avrdp/ceiav, SiKaioa-vvrjv, 

e d\6yw<; Troielv eVel Kal ravra TT}? B 
crrl fyiKoGofyias oiKeia' Trareira) rv(f>ov, 

rwv rd pev dvajKaia r^9 
epya Kpwjnovrwv ev <JKOTW' (firj/jul 8e TWV 
ray/jidTcov ra? eKKpiaew ev fjuecrais Se rat? 
Kal rat? ir6\ea-iv eTnrijSevovTwv rd fiiaiorara Kal 
fjjjuwv oiKeta rfj (frvcrei, ^prjfidrcov 

TOIOVTWV avp$>eTtt>$>wv Trpayfjidrajv. eVel Kal 

eire aTreTrapbev e'lre dTreirdT^aev eire C 
TL TOLOVTOV eTrpa^ev, wairep ovv \e r yova'Lv, 
ev dyopa, rov eKelvwv irarayv rv(j)ov eTroiei, 
K(ov avTovs, on TToXXw (/)av\6repa Kal 
repa rovroov e7riTr)Sevov(ri. rd pev <ydp ecrnv rj 
Trdai Kara $v<riv, rd 8e &>? eVo? el'jrelv ovSevi, 
Trdvra Be etc Biaa'rpo^rjtf eTTiTrjSeverai. 

'AXX' ol vvv TOV Aioyevovs ^rjXwral TO pacrTOV 
Kal Kov(f)6rarov \6/jLevoi TO KpeiTTov OVK elSov 
av TC eKeivwv elvai cre/jLVOTepos eOe\wv d7T7r\avtj- 

1 aury Cohet, OUT a> Hertlein, MSS. 

2 Spav, Petavius, <pdvai Hertlein, MSS. 



worth; and then if he see fit to do that sort of thing 
openly and in the sight of all men, we shall not 
reproach him with it or accuse him. First however 
we must see him display the ability to learn and the 
quick wit of Diogenes,, and in all other relations he 
must show the same independence., self-sufficiency, 
justice, moderation, piety, gratitude, and the same 
extreme carefulness not to act at random or without 
a purpose or irrationally. For these too are cha- 
racteristic of the philosophy of Diogenes. Then let 
him trample on vaingloriousness, let him ridicule 
those who though they conceal in darkness the 
necessary functions of our nature for instance the 
secretion of what is superfluous yet in the centre 
of the market-place and of our cities carry on 
practices that are most brutal and by no means akin 
to our nature, for instance robbery of money, false 
accusations, unjust indictments, and the pursuit of 
other rascally business of the same sort. On the 
other hand when Diogenes made unseemly noises or 
obeyed the call of nature or did anything else of 
that sort in the market-place, as they say he did, he 
did so because he was trying to trample on the 
conceit of the men I have just mentioned, and to 
teach them that their practices were far more sordid 
and insupportable than his own. For what he did 
was in accordance with the nature of all of us, but 
theirs accorded with no man's real nature, one may 
say, but were all due to moral depravity. 

In our own day, however, the imitators of 
Diogenes have chosen only what is easiest and least 
burdensome and have failed to see his nobler side. 
And as for you, in your desire to be more dignified 



#779 TOGOVTOV T?}9 Aioyevovs Trpoaipecrews, Mare 
avrov e\eeii>bv evo/jiicras. el Be rovrois yu,ei> r)rclo~- 
T6t9 vrcep dv&pbs \eyo/jievoL<f, bv ol 7rdvre<; f 'Ei\\7jve<i 
Tore edav/jLaaav /JLCTCL ^w/cpdrvj /cal TLvdayopav 
eirl H.\drwvo$ KOI 'A/otcTTOTeXou?, ov yeyovev 
d/cpoarr)? 6 rov a-co^povea-rdrov /cal 

KaQrjye/Jiwv, ov? ovte et/co? YJV 

Trepl az^Spo? OUTCO <pav\ov, OTTOIOV &v 
$, w (3e\TL(TT, lVa>? dv TI Tr\eov 203 
irepl avrov teal iroppwrepw 
T/}? e'yLtTretpta? rdv&pos. riva yap OVK e!~6 
TWV 'EXX^ft)^ r) At07evou9 /caprepia, 
OUK efa> /xe^aXo-v/rL'^ta? ovaa, /cal (f>i\07rovla; 
e/cdOevSev dvr^p 7rl cmftdSos ev rq> iriOw /3e\Tt,ov 
rf yu,e7a? ftaaikeys VTTO rot? eTTL^pvaoL^ opotyoi? ev 
rf) /jidXdaKrj /c\ivrj, ijaQie rrjv jjia^av rjSiov rj <TV vvv 
ra? %i/ce\i/ca<; eV^tet? rpaTre^a?, e\overo ^v^pw l B 
TO awfjia 7rpo9 depa ^ypaivwv dvrl T&V oOoviwv, 
ol? a-v dTTOfjidrrr}, (f>i\O(TO(})a)Tare. Trdvv aoi 
TrpoarjKei Kw^wbelv e/celvov, on /careipyda-ci) rov 
He/of yv, a>9 o e^o-TO/cXr}?, rj rov kapelov, 009 o 
Ma/ceBwv 'AXefa^S/309. el ajM/cpa r9 6tft\ovs 
efjt,e\eras waTrep rj/jiels ol TroXm/eol ical 

aXX' OVK eo-ri aoi rovrwv ovoev, a>9 e/jiol Bo/cet, 

1 tyvxpy Naber, deppf Hertlein, MSS. 


than those early Cynics you have strayed so far from 
Diogenes' plan of life that you thought him an object 
of pity. But if you did not believe all this that I 
say about a man whom all the Greeks in the 
generation of Plato and Aristotle admired next to 
Socrates and Pythagoras, a man whose pupil was the 
teacher of the most modest and most wise Zeno, and 
it is not likely that they were all deceived about a man 
as contemptible as you make him out to be in your 
travesty , well, in that case, my dear sir, perhaps you 
might have studied his character more carefully and 
you would have progressed further in your knowledge 
of the man. Was there, I ask, a single Greek who 
was not amazed by the endurance of Diogenes 
and by his perseverance, which had in it a truly 
royal greatness of soul ? The man used to sleep in 
his jar on a~bed of leaves more soundly than the 
Great King on his soft couch under a gilded roof ; he 
used to eat his crust 1 with a better appetite than 
you now eat your Sicilian courses 2 ; he used to bathe 
his body in cold water and dry himself in the open 
air instead of with the linen towels with which you 
rub yourself down, my most philosophic friend ! It 
becomes you well to ridicule him because, 1 suppose, 
like Themistocles you conquered Xerxes, or Darius 
like Alexander of Macedon. But if you had the 
least habit of reading books as I do, though I am a 
statesman and engrossed in public affairs, you would 
know how much Alexander is said to have admired 
Diogenes' greatness of soul. But you care little, I 
suppose, for any of these things. How should you 

1 Of. Dio Chrysostom, Oration 6. 12, Arnim. 

2 A proverb ; Sicily was famous for good cooking ; cf . 
Plato, jKepti&ftc 404 D ; Horace, Odts 1. 1. 18, " Siculae dapes." 



7rb6ev; TroXXoO <ye /cal Set' <yvvai/cwv 
v/jLafcas <$>i\oi'Lic6yv l /3iov. 
Et fj,ev ovv o Xo7O? Ti 7r\eov eTToirjaev, OVK C/JLOV 
fjia\\ov TI (rov ea-Ti /cepBov el Se ov&ev Trepatvofjiev 
etc TOV 7rapa%pfjfAa 7Tpl TWV TOIOVTWV a7rvevcrrl 
TO 8rj \ey6fjievov a-vveipavres' ecrrt <yap Trdpepyov 
fjfjLepaiv Svoiv, o>? Iffaaiv at Movcrcu, [laXkov Be 
/cal (TV 2 auro9* Trapa/jLeverco fj,ev croi 
irpbadev eyvco/ceis, fjfuv B ov //-era/LteX?^(7et 
et? TOV avSpa ev 

1 fyiXoveiKwv Hertlein suggests, (piXuv veKpkv, MSS. 

2 (TV Reiske adds, TrapajweveTw /xev aoi Reiske conjectures, 
lacuna Hertlein, MSS. 



care ? Far from it ! 1 You admire and emulate the 
life of wretched women. 

However, if my discourse has improved you at all 
you will have gained more than I. But even if I 
accomplish nothing at the moment by writing on 
such a great subject thus hastily, and, as the saying is, 
without taking breath 2 for I gave to it only the 
leisure of two days, as the Muses or rather you your- 
self will bear me witness then do you abide by 
your former opinions, but I at any rate shall never 
regret having spoken of that great man with due 

1 Demosthenes, De Corona 47. 

2 Demosthenes, De Corona, 308, cf. Vol. 1. Oration 5. 178 D. 




THE Seventh Oration is directed against the 
Cynic Heracleios, who had ventured to recite before 
an audience when Julian was present a myth 
or allegory in which the gods were irreverently 
handled. Julian raises the question whether fables 
and myths are suitable for a Cynic discourse. He 
names the regular divisions of philosophy and decides 
that the use of myths may properly be allowed only 
to ethical philosophers and writers on theology : 
that myth is intended always as a means of religious 
teaching and should be addressed to children and 
those whose intellect does not allow them to 
envisage the truth without some such assistance. 
In Sallust's treatise On the Gods and the World he 
gives much the same account of the proper function 
of myths and divides them into five species, giving 
examples of each. " To wish to teach the whole 
truth about the gods to all produces contempt 
in the foolish, because they cannot understand, 
and lack of zeal in the good ; whereas to conceal 
the truth by myths prevents the contempt of the 
foolish and compels the good to practise philosophy." 1 
This is precisely the opinion of Julian as expressed 

1 Murray's translation of Sallust in Four Stages of Greek 
Religion, New York, 1912 r 



in the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Orations. Though 
both Julian and Sallust explain the myths away they 
are never rationalistic, and never offer the least excuse 
for scepticism. Julian's explanation of the Semele 
myth, 1 which makes Semele an inspired prophetess 
and not the mother of Dionysus, tends to the 
greater glory of the god. The conclusion is that 
Heracleios should not have used myth at all, but 
in any case he used the wrong sort and wrote 
in the wrong spirit. He should have used such 
a myth as that composed by Prodicus the sophist 
on the Choice of Heracles at the Crossroads, an 
allegory which is more than once cited by Julian 
and was a favourite illustration in later Greek 
literature. 2 

To show Heraclius what he might have written 
with propriety Julian adds a parable of his own 
modelled on that of Prodicus. In this he himself 
plays the part of a second Heracles, and takes 
the opportunity to vilify Constantius and point out 
his own mission of reformer and restorer of order 
and religion to the Empire. Throughout the parable 
there are striking resemblances with the First 
Oration of Dio Chrysostom, and Asmus 3 has made 
a detailed comparison of the two writers to prove 
that Julian wrote with Dio before him. In many 
of these parallels both Julian and Dio can be traced 
to a common classical source, usually Plato, but there 
is no doubt that Julian was thoroughly familiar 

1 Oration 7, 219. , 2 Cf. Vol. I, Oration 2. 56 i>. 

3 Asmus, Julian nnd Dion Chrysostomus, 1895 ; cf. 
Praechter, Archiv fur Gexchichte. der Philosophie 5. Dion 
Ghrysostomus ah Quelle Julians. Julian only once mentions 
Dio by name, Oration 7^212 c. 



with the work of Dio and often used the same 
illustrations. Themistius 1 however uses the Prodicus 
myth in much the same words as Dio, and it is 
imitated also by Maximus of Tyre. 2 

In conclusion Julian praises the earlier Cynics 
and criticises the later, in much the same words as 
he had used in the Sixth Oration. 

1 Themistius, 280 A. 

2 Maximus of Tyre, Dissertation 20. 



T H TroXXa yiverai ev /jLa/cpm %p6vq)' rovro ere 
rr;? KCD/JLq)8ias dtcrj/coori, fJLOi irpwr^v 7rf)\6ev K/3oij- 
(rcu, oTrrjviica 7rapaK\^0VT6<? r]KpowfJL0a 
OVTL ropbv ovbe yevvaiov V\O,KTOVVTOS, aXX' 
at TirQai pvOovs aSovros teal ov& TOVTOVS 

Trapa^pijfjia fjbev ovv 7rfj\0e fjioi 
StaXvcrat rov crv\Xoyov evrel 8e B 
wcnrep ev Oedrpw Kfo^wSov/jLevcov'HpaKXeov^ 
/cal Aiovvcrov irapa ra)v KWJ^W^MV atcoveiv, ov rov 
) aXXa TWV <TWi\.ey [Aevwv Xapiv vTre- 
, /j,d\\ov B, el -)(prj TI KOI veavitcwrepov 
etTrelv, r)^wv avrwv eve/co, /cal rov /JLT) $OKiv VTTO 

yw/aXXo^ rj Siavoias evaeftovs /cal C 
wcnrep at TreXetciSe?, VTTO rwv prj- 
a-oftrjOel? ava,rrrr}vcu. epevov Be etceivo 
TT/JO? epavrbv eljrwv 

Ter\a0i Srj, KpaSirj, /cal /cvvrepov aXXo rror 

dvacr^ov real KVVOS \rjpovvro$ 6\iyov rjfj,^ 




"TitULY with the lapse of time many things come 
to pass ! " l This verse I have heard in a comedy 
and the other day I was tempted to proclaim it 
aloud, when by invitation we attended the lecture of 
a Cynic whose barking was neither distinct nor 
noble ; but he was crooning myths as nurses do, and 
even these he did not compose in any profitable 
fashion. For a moment my impulse was to rise and 
break up the meeting. But though I had to listen 
as one does when Heracles and Dionysus are being 
caricatured in the theatre by comic poets, 2 I bore it 
to the end, not for the speaker's sake but for the 
sake of the audience, or rather, if I may presume 
to say so, it was still more for my own sake, so 
that I might not seem to be moved by superstition 
rather than by a pious and rational sentiment and 
to be scared into flight by his miserable words 
like a timid dove. So I stayed and repeated to 
myself the famous line " Bear it my heart : yea 
thou didst of yore endure things yet more shame- 
ful." 3 Endure for the brief fraction of a day even 

l Eupolis fr. 4. 2 Cf. Misopogon 366 c. 3 Odyssey 20. 18. 



, ov TTpwrov aKoveis rwv Oewv 

/JLVO)V, OV% OVrCt) TCi KOLVO, 7TpdrrO/jiV 

ovra) rwv loiwv eveKa o-axfrpovov/uLev, ov 
ovSe evTW^els ecrftev, wcrre ro.9 aicoas 205 
e%eiv rj TO TeKevralov ryovv TCL ofL^ara 
rot? TravToScnrois rovrovl rov 
acre/3?7/m<7i>. eTrel Be wcnrep 
TOIOVTWV /ca/cwv av67r\fja-ev OVK 
evaywv o KVWV pijjjidTcov rov apiaTOV TWV Oewv 
ovo/Jidcras, &>? fir^rrore a><p\e ^r etceLvos elirelv 
fjLTjTe r)/JLi<? aKovcrai, Bevpo 7ripaOw/jiev avrbv 
e<^>' V/AMV SiBd^ai, Trpwrov /JLCV OTL TO> Kvvl \6yovs 
/j,d\\ov -rj /jivOovs Trpoo-rjicei ypdffreiv, elra 
Kal TIVCLS %prj Troieio-Oai ra-9 Siacr/cevas TWV fjiv 
el TL dpa Kal <j)t,\ocro(f)ia TrpocrSeiTai TT}? /J,v6o- 
ejrl iraai 8e virep TT}? TT/JO? roi/? 6eov<$ 
oXi<ya Sia\e};ofjLai,' rovro yap /JLOI /cal 
rfjs et? uyLta? Trapo&ov <yeyovev airtov /cauTrep OVK 
OVTI crvyypatyiKO) KOI TO ev rw 7T\r}0ei \ejeiv 
wcnreo a\\o ri rwv eTra^ayv Kal crofyiaTUCwv 
TOV e/jLTTpoaOev ftpovov TrapaLTijaa/jLevw. ^LiKpd 8e 
virep rov fjivOov KaOdirep rivd yevea\oyiai> tVa)? 
OVK dvdpiJLOo~TOV eyu-oi Te fydvai v/juv re aKovaai. 

T^i/ /jiev ovv dp%r)v OTToOev TjvpeO'rj Kal ocrris o 
TT/owTO? e'jri'xeipricras TO 1^61)809 mQavw'S avv- 
Oelvai 7T/3O9 a)(f)e\iav r) '^rv^ajfioyiav ra)i> 
/jievcav, ov fj,d\\ov evpoi T49 dv rj 
rov Trpwrov Trrapovra r) ^pe/ju^dfjievov 
el 8e, &o~7rep LTTTTCL^ ev 


a babbling Cynic ! It is not the first time that thou 
hast had to hear the gods blasphemed ! Our state 
is not so well governed, our private life is not so 
virtuous, in a word we are not so favoured by fortune 
that we can keep our ears pure or at any rate 
our eyes at leaSt undefiled by the many and various 
impieties of this iron race. And now as though we 
had not enough of such vileness this Cynic fills our 
ears with his blasphemies,, and has uttered the name 
of the highest of the gods in such wise as would he 
had never spoken nor I heard ! But since he has 
done this, come, let me in your presence try to teach 
him this lesson ; first that it is more becoming for a 
Cynic to write discourses than myths ; secondly, 
what sort of adaptations of the myths he ought 
to make, if indeed philosophy really needs mytho- 
logy at all ; and finally 1 shall have a few words to 
say about reverence for the gods. For it is with this 
aim that I appear before you, I who have no talent 
for writing and who have hitherto avoided addressing 
the general public, as I have avoided all else that is 
tedious and sophistical. But perhaps it is not 
unsuitable for me to say and for you to hear a few 
words about myth in general as a sort of genealogy 
of that kind of writing. 

Now one could no more discover where myth was 
originally invented and who was the first to compose 
fiction in a plausible manner for the benefit or 
entertainment of his hearers, than if one were to try 
to find out who was the first man that sneezed or the 
first horse that neighed. But as cavalry arose in 
Thrace and Thessaly l and archers and the lighter 

1 'lTTT6?s eV OeTTaAfa Kal Qpaxy WAS a well-known proverb ; 
cf. Oration 2. 63 c, D. 



ro^orai Be /ecu ra /cov^orepa TWV OTT\WV ev 'Iv&ia 
KOI KpiJTy Kal Kapia dve<j)dvr), 1 rfj (frvaei T% 
X/oa9 aKO\ovOovvTwv ol^ai TWV errLTrjBev/jidTwv, 
OVTW Tt9 vTToXa/jiftdvei KOI eirl TWV d\\wv Trpay- 
fJbaTwv, ev ol<f efcacrra ri/jLarai, fj,d\icrra Trapa 
TOVTCOV avra teal irpwrov n^vpyjadai' TWV dyeXaicov 
eoiKev dvOpwirwv elvai TO ^e e^ dp^r)? 6 /JLV&OS 206 
evprjfj,a, Kol Sia/j,vei e% erceivov yLte^pt /cat vvv Trap 1 
TToXirevo/jievov TO Trpdy/jia wcnrep d\\o n 
d/cpoa/jbdrajv, av\o<j KOI KiOdpa, 
ev/ca KOI ^jrv^aycdjia^. Mcnrep yap ol 2 
'iTrTaadai KOI veiv ol z fyOves ai re e\a<$>oi Oelv 
CTreiSr) TretfrvKacTiv ovSev rov BtSa^Orjvai, Trpocr- 
Seovrai, KOLV S^a-rj T9 KCLV KaOeip^r), Treipdrai 

OyLtQ)? XprjOiOai TOUT069 TOt? /JLOplOlS, 7T/JO? a (TVV- 

oiSev auTOi? TrefyvKovi, ravrl rd (aa, ovrws ol^ai 


KOL 7ri(rTr)fj,r]v wairep eyrcaO- 
o Srj Kal \eyovaiv ol crocfrol Svva/uiiv, 
eVl TO fjLavOdveiv Te 4 /cat tyreiv KCLI iro\vjr pay JJLOV- 
eiv, ft)? TTyoo? oiKeiorarov eavrq) TWV epywv, 

Tpe7TTCU' Kal OTft) /JLV V/JL6Vr)<> #6O? Ta^6ft>9 \VCT6 

rd Sea" fid /cat rrjv SVVCL/JLIV et9 evepyetav tfyaye, 
Tovrw Trdpecrnv evOvs 7ri<TTr)/jir), Tot 
Be TL, KaOdjrep ol/Jiai 'I^iwv vecfreXr] Tivl 5 dvTi 
Oeov \eyerai rrapavaTravaacrdai, TOVTOIS dvr 


1 After Kapia Reiske suggests 

2 oi Cobet adds. 3 ol Cobet adds. 

4 re Hertlein suggests, n MSS. 

5 'l|iW i><f>e\Tj rivl Cobet, lacuna Hertlein, MSS. 

6 TOVTOIS avr' a\-r]6ovs ^/evS^s Cobet, laouna, Hertlein, MSS., 
VTfrrjKf Wright, TerrjKf Hertlein, MSS. 



sort of weapons in India, Crete and Caria since the 
customs of the people were I suppose adapted to the 
nature of the country, just so we may assume about 
other things as well, that where anything is highly 
prized by a nation it was first discovered by that 
nation rather than by any other. On this assump- 
tion then it seems likely that myth was originally 
the invention of men given to pastoral pursuits, 
and from that day to this the making of myths is 
still peculiarly cultivated by them, just as they first 
invented instruments of music, the flute and the lyre, 
for their pleasure and entertainment. For just as it 
is the nature of birds to fly and of fish to swim and 
of stags to run, and hence they need not be taught 
to do so ; and even if one bind or imprison these 
animals they try none the less to use those special 
parts of themselves for the purpose for which they 
know they are naturally adapted ; even so 1 think 
the human race whose soul is no other than reason 
and knowledge imprisoned so to speak in the body 
the philosophers call it a potentiality even so I say 
the human race inclines to learning, research and 
study, as of all tasks most congenial to it. And when 
a kindly god without delay looses a man's fetters 
and brings that potentiality into activity, then on 
the instant knowledge is his : whereas in those who 
are still imprisoned false opinion instead of true is 
implanted, just as, I think, Ixion is said to have 
embraced a sort of cloud instead of the goddess. 1 
And hence they produce wind-eggs 2 and monstrous 

1 i.e.. Hera; cf. Pindar, Pythian 2. 20 foil.; Dio Chrysostom 
4. 130, Arnim. 

2 Cf. Plato, Theaetetus 151 E. 



evTevdev avTols 1 ra vTrrjve/jLta /ecu TpaTct)$r) Tavrl 
T>?9 d\r)0ov$ eVicrTryyu,^? olov eiSa)\a arra teal 
crKiai- TTpaTTOva-i, yovv trpo Trjs TWV ciKydwv eV- 
aTrjfji'rjs ra tyevor) /cal &L&d(TKovai ye fid\a 
&>9 KOI fJLavOdvovcTLV OHTTrep ol/j,at xprjtTTOv TL 
ov. el S' oXco? XPtf T * Ka ^ virep 
TO irpwTOV TrKaa'dvrwv d7ro\oyijcracr0ai, D 

yuot rat? TWV iraiwv rv^a^, waTrep a 
irepl ra? o&ovro<f)vtas 

arra TrpoaapTOxri 2 ralv %epolv, Iva 

TO ird6o^, OVTW Se Kal OVTOL TW 
roQovvTi 7r\eov el&evai 
L, &iSd(7Ke<r6ai Se OVTTO) TaKriO 
eTro^eTevetv, wcnrep apSovTe? apovpav 
'iva 8r) olfjiai avTWV TOV yap<ya\io'fjLov Kal TTJ 

Tov 8e TOIOVTOV TTpoftaivovTos Kal Trapa rot? 207 

TOS, l\K,V<Tav VTeV0V 01 

TOV alvovy 09 TOV fjivOov Sia^epei T& ^ 
, d\\d Trpos av$pa<$ TCTCOir)v6ai Kal 
/novov, d\\a Kal Trapaiveatv e^eiv 
Tivd. y3ouXerat yap eTTiKpVTTTO/jievos irapaiveiv re 
Kal SiSdcTKeiv, oTav o Xeywv TO (pavepws elirelv 
ev\a{3f)Tai, TTJV Trapa TWV aKovovTwv v(j)opa)/j,evo<f B 
d7re f )(6eiav. OVTO) TOL Kal 'Ho'toSo9 avTo fyaiverai 
7T7roirjK(t)<;' 6 $e /JLCTOL TOVTOV 'A/3^tXo^O9 axnrep 
")8va-/jLd TL TrepiTiOels Tp Troirjaei, fJLvdois OVK 
op&v, a>? et/co9, TVJV f^ev VTTO- 

1 avrols Wright, avT$ Hertlein, MSS. 

2 irpoffapTuxri Hertlein suggests, irpoffapruv MSS. 


births, mere phantoms and shadows so to speak 
of true science. And thus instead of genuine 
science they profess false doctrines, and are very 
zealous in learning and teaching such doctrines, 
as though forsooth they were something useful and 
admirable. But if I am bound to say something in 
defence of those who originally invented myths, I 
think they wrote them for childish souls : and I 
liken them to nurses who hang leathern toys to the 
hands of children when they are irritated by 
teething, in order to ease their suffering : so those 
mythologists wrote for the feeble soul whose wings 
are just beginning to sprout, and who, though still 
incapable of being taught the truth, is yearning for 
further knowledge, and they poured in a stream of 
myths like men who water a thirsty field, so as to 
soothe their irritation and pangs. 1 

Then when the myth was gaining ground and 
coining into favour in Greece, poets developed from 
it the fable with a moral, which differs from the 
myth in that the latter is addressed to children and 
the former to men, and is designed not merely to 
entertain them but conveys moral exhortation besides. 
For the man who employs fable aims at moral exhorta- 
tion and instruction, though he conceals his aim and 
takes care not to speak openly, for fear of alienating 
his hearers. Hesiod, for instance, seems to have 
written with this in view. And after him Archilochus 
often employed myths, 2 adorning and as it were 
seasoning his poetry with them, probably because he 

1 The whole passage echoes Plato, Phaedrus 251. 

2 Of. Archilochus JW. 86, 89 ; Archilochus used the beast- 
fable or parable : Julian here ignores his own distinction and 
uses the wider term 'myth.' Hesiod used myth as well as 



Oecriv, rjv /jLCTrfei., T?}? ToiavTvjs ^frv%ay(i)yia<; e 
$%ov<rav, a-acfrws Be eyvw/cax;, ori crrepo/jievjj 
7rot?;cr9 eiroTroua /JLOVOV eo~Tiv, ecrTeprjrai Be, o>? av 
eiTTOi Tt9, eavTTjs, ov yap en XerTM Troika is, 
rjBvcr/nara ravra Trapd TT}? TroirjTi/cijs Mouor?;? 
eBpe^lraro, ical TrapeQrjKe ye avrov TOVTOV %dpiv, C 
OTTO)? fjir) o-i\\oypd(f)0<> rt9, d\\a Troirjrris 


'O Be Brj TWV fJivOwv "QfMTjpo? ?; ovtcvBiBrjs rj 
Tl\d.TO)i>, 77 6, TI ftovXei Ka\elv avrov, Al'crwTro? r^v 
o 2a//,o9, SoOXo? rrjv rv%r)v l yu-aXXo^ ?} T^ Trpoai- 
pecnv, OVK ci(f>pu>v /jLrjv 2 ovBe Kar avro rovro avrip. 
u> yap 6 ^o/to? ov jj,TeBiBov Trappycrias, TOVTW 
Trpovfjfcov TJV (TKiaypa<f)?]fjLi>a5 ra? cruyu./Soi'Xas 
KOI TreTroiKikfjievas rjSovf) fcal xdpiTi, irapafyepeiv, 
cocnrep ol/jiai TWV larpwv ol /juev eXevOepoi TO Beov 
eTTiTOLTTovaiv, eav Be a/j,a rt? oltceTijs yevtjTai TVJV D 
Tv%r)v /cal Trjv Te^vr^v tar/oo?, TTyoayyuara 
KO\aKveiv a/JLa /cal Oepaireveiv TOV 
dvayKa6/jii>os. el fjLV ovv teal TO> /cvvl 
rf/cei TavTijs T^? Bov\elas, \eyeT(o, 

ei Be LLOVOS ewai d>ricnv eXevOepos, ejn TI 

/a ?$-. t r/ - -\ 

oreTai TOt9 fjuvvois, OVK otoa. TroTepov iva TO 

TriKpbv Kal BUKVOV T% o~vfjL^ov\rjs rjBovf) Kal 
%dpiTi Kepdaas d/j,a re 6vijo~r) Kal diroc^vyrf TO 2( 
TT poo~\a[Selv TL irapd TOV ovivap,evov KaKov; d\\d 
TOVTO eo~Ti \iav Bov\o7rpe7re$. aXX' dfAGivov dv 
Tt9 BiBa^Oeir) ^ TO, TrpdyfiaTa aKovwv avTa fj,r)Be 

1 TV Ti>xriv Cobet, ov rV -rvx^v Hertlein, MSS. 

2 p.i)v Hertlein suggests,> MSS. 



saw that his subject matter needed something of 
this sort to make it attractive, and he well knew 
that poetry without myth is merely versification 1 and 
lacks, one may say, its essential characteristic, and so 
ceases to be poetry at all. Therefore he culled these 
sweets from the Muse of Poetry and offered them to 
his readers, in order that he might not be ranked 
merely as a writer of satire but might be counted a 

But the Homer of myths, or their Thucydides, or 
Plato, or whatever we must call him, was Aesop of "A 
Samos, who was a slave by the accident of birth rather 
than by temperament, and he proved his sagacity by 
this very use of fable. For since the law did not 
allow him freedom of speech, he had no resource but 
to shadow forth his wise counsels and trick them out 
with charms and graces and so serve them up to his 
hearers. Just so, I think, physicians who are free- 
born men prescribe what is necessary, but when a 
man happens to be a slave by birth and a physician 
by profession, he is forced to take pains to flatter and 
cure his master at the same time. Now if our Cynic 
also is subject to this sort of slavery, let him recite 
myths, let him write them, and let everyone else 
under the sun leave to him the role of mythologist. 
But since he asserts that he alone is free, I do not 
know what need he has of myths. Does he need to 
temper the harshness and severity of his advice with 
sweetness and charm, so that he may at once benefit 
mankind and avoid being harmed by one whom he 
has benefited ? Nay, that is too much like a slave. 
Moreover, would any man be better taught by not 

1 Plato, Phacdo 61 B. 



ra eV avTols ovo/jLara Kara TOV KWJJUKOV T^V 
(T/cd<t>r)v a/cd^ijv \eyovTa; XX' dvrl TOV pev 
Beivos TOP <&ae@ovTa TL l Beov ovo/jidaat; TI Be B 

OVK evayws Trjv eir wvv p,iav TOV /3a<7A,eo>? 

Tt? Be 6 Tlav /cal rt? o Zeu? TWV 

avOpwTrwv afto? Ka\eladai, tv ei 
eV avTovs n*eTa6 w fjiev TJ/JLMV ra? Biavoias; KCL'ITOI, 
el real TOVTO olov re j]V, afiewov rjv avTovs ovo/jbd- 
crau TOVS dv0pa)7rovs. ff yap ov% OVTW 
r)v elirelv avOpwniKa 6ep,evov<$ o^oyu-ara 
Be ovBe Oe^ivov^, ijpfcei yap oaairep r^uv ol yovels C 
eOevro. ttXX' el //-^re padelv eaTi paov 2 Bid TOV 
7rXacr/zaT09 pyre TCO Kwitcw irpeirov 7r\aTTiv TCL 
Toiavra, TOV ^dpiv OVK e<$ei,crdfJLe6a TOV TroXure- 
ai>aXa>yu,aT09, ?r/oo9 Be BTJ /cal e^Oeipafiev TOV 
TO^re9 teal o~vvTi0evTes fJLvBdpia, etra 
\oyoy pa<f>ovvTe<> teal etcfjiavOdvovTes; 

'AXX' IV<W9 o fjiev \6yos ov <f)rj(ri Beiv OUVT\ TWV 
d\rjOwv /cal pr) TreTrXacr /JLCVW TO, tyevBrj /cal Tre- j) 
TrXaa/jieva irapd TOV KVVOS, u> /JLOVW Trjs eXevOepias 
fjLTo~Tiv, ev TO49 Koivols aBeaBai <Tv\\6yois, j] 
<jvvr]Qeia Be ovTw 3 yeyovev djrb Aioyevov? d 
teal KpaT?7TO9 a^pi, TWV e^>e^>}9. ovBev 
TrapdBeiy/jia TOLOVTOV evptfaei?' e/celvo yap 

Tft)9, OTL Tft) }LwiK(p TO VOfJUafJia 

1 TI Sfov ovo^affai ; rl Reiske, Seov ovo/j.dcrai, rbi/ Hertleiu 

- oaov Hertleiu suggests, pdtiiov MSS. 
3 oD'ra) Hertlein suggests, avry MSS. 



hearing facts as they really are, or called by their 
real names, like the comic poet who calls a spade a 
spade ? J What need to speak of Phaethon instead of 
So-and-so ? What need sacrilegiously to profane the 
title of King Helios ? Who among men that walk 
here beiow"- is worthy to be called Pan or Zeus, as 
though we should ascribe to those gods our human 
understanding ? And yet if indeed this were possible 
it would have been better to give the men their own 
names. Would it not have been better to speak of 
them thus and to bestow on them human names, or 
rather not bestow, for those that our parents gave us 
were enough ? Well then if it is neither easier to 
learn by means of fiction, nor appropriate for the 
Cynic to invent that sort of thing at all, why did we 
not spare that wasteful expense, 3 and moreover why 
did we waste our time in inventing and composing 
trivial myths and then making stories of them and 
learning them by heart ? 

But perhaps you will say that though reason 
asserts that the Cynic, w r ho alone of men can claim 
to be free, ought not to invent and compose lying 
fictions instead of the unvarnished truth and then 
recite these in public assemblies, nevertheless the 
custom began with Diogenes and Crates, and has been 
maintained from that time by all Cynics. My answer 
is that nowhere will you find a single example of 
such a custom. For the moment I do not insist on 
the fact that it in no wise becomes a Cynic who 
must " give a new stamp to the common currency " 4 

1 Literally a boat : a proverb ; Anonym. Com. Or. Fray. 
199. 2 Iliad 5. 442 ; Hesiod, Theogony 272. 

3 An echo of Plutarch, Antonius 28 : rb Tro\vTt\fffTarov, 
us ' A.VTi<pu:v elTrev, ai'aAcojUO, T^tv ^povov. 

4 Cf. Oration 6. 188 A, B. 

o 2 


rfj ffvvrjdeia Trpoffe^eiv ovBa/jicos Trpocnj/cei, ry 
Xo7 Be avTW JJUQVU), teal TO Troirjreov evpiatceiv 209 
oi/coBev, aXX' ov p,av6dveiv e%a>6ev. el &' 'Aim- 
crd^viys o ^ay/cpaTi/cbs wcnrep b ^evo<^>MV evia 
Btd T&V ju,v0o)v aTrtfyekXe, /JLIJTL * TOVTO ere ea- 
KOI jap /jiiKpbv varepov virep TOVTOV GOI 
vvv 8e eicelvb /AOL Trpo? rcov Moucrco^ 
VTrep rov Kvvicrfjiov, nroTepov airovoia rt? 
teal /3/o? ovfc dvOpMTrivos, d\Xd Qrjpiay&Tjs 
cris ovSev KaKov, ov&ev (nrov&aiov 
ov&e dyaObi' vojju^ovar]^ ; Soirj yap av viroiXa- B 
ftelv 7roXXot9 ire pi avrov ravra OtVo/u-ao?. ei ri 
croi rou Tavra yovv eTrekdelv /ji\r)(TV, 67r6<yvct)<> 
av franco? ev rfj TOV KVVO<$ avrofywvla /cal rw 
/card TWV ^prjarrjpicov /cal Traffic aTrXw? ol? 
eypatyev 6 dvtfp. TOLOVTOV Be 6Vro? TOV 
709, w<TT dvyprjadai /j,ev aTraaav T 

ev\djBeiav, r]Tip,da-6ai Be Traaav d 

, vofiov Be fjirj TOV O/JLCDW/JLOV T& KO\,W KOI 
TreTraTTjcrdai /JLOVOV, d\\d /cal roi9 e/c TWV C 
0ewv r)[J,iv wcnrep eyypatyevTas rat9 
wv rcdvTZS dBiBaKTcas elvai Oelov TI 
cal 7T/3O9 TOVTO d(j>opdv eTT avTO re oi/jiai, 
OVTCO BiaTi6e/ji6i>oi ra9 ^v^d<; Trpbs avTO 

Oiftai 7T/OO9 TO </><W9 TCL ftXCTTOVTa, 7Tpb>t TOVTto B 1 

Kal 6 BevTepos e^eXavvoiTO vbpos lepbs wv fyvcrei, 
real Oelos, o TWV d\\OTpia)v TravTij /cal TrdvTws 

1 ^rt Cobet ywTJTot Hertlein, MSS. 

2 StaAe'^Ojuaj Cobet, SirfY^ffo/j-ai Spauheim, Hertlein, V 

8 4 


to pay any attention to custom,, but only to pure 
reason, and he ought to discover within himself 
what is right for him to do and not learn it from 
without. And do not be misled by the fact that 
Antisthenes the disciple of Socrates, and Xenophon 
too, sometimes expressed themselves by means of 
myths ; for I shall have something to say to you 
on this point in a moment. But now in the 
Muses' name answer me this question about the 
Cynic philosophy. Are we to think it a sort of 
madness, a method of life not suitable for a human 
being, but rather a brutal attitude of mind which 
recks naught of the beautiful, the honourable, or the 
good ? For Oenomaus 1 would make many people 
hold this view of it. If you had taken any trouble to 
study the subject, you would have learned this from 
that Cynic's "Direct Inspiration of Oracles" and 
his work " Against the Oracles," in short from 
everything that he wrote. This then is his aim, to 
do away with all reverence for the gods, to bring 
dishonour on all human wisdom, to trample on all 
law that can be identified with honour and justice, 
and more than this, to trample on those laws which 
have been as it were engraved on our souls by the 
gods, and have impelled us all to believe without 
teaching that the divine exists, and to direct our 
eyes to it and to yearn towards it : for our souls are 
disposed towards it as eyes towards the light. 
Furthermore, suppose that one should discard also 
that second law which is sanctified both by nature 
and by God, I mean the law that bids us keep our 
hands altogether and utterly from the property of 

1 Cf. Oration 6. 187 c. 



/ce\eva)V fcal fjuffre ev\6ya> /Jbrjre ev epyw 
ev avrais rais \avOavov GCLIS rrjs -vjrtn^ D 
evepyeiais ravra eTTiTpeTrwv avy^elv, oarirep rj/Mv 

KOL Ttjs T6\6tOTaT7/9 earlv fjye/JLWV ^LKaLOOrVV^' 

ap ovfc eGTi (3apcc9pov TO Trpay/Aa agiov; ap ov 
TOU? ravra eTraivovvras wcnrep TOU? 
e^pijv ov Ovor6\oi<$ Traiojj 
Kov<f>oTepa yap ecrrt TWV dSi/cr) ^CLTWV 77 
Be /9<xXXo/iez^ou9 a7ro 

OVTOi Tl, 7T/30? TO)V O^MV 6t7T6 JAOI, TWV 7r' 210 

/cal KaTei\r)<$>6ra)v TO,<> 
eVl TO> \vjj,aivecr6ai rot? /caraTrXeovcri; 
OCLVCLTOV, a<riv' axrTrep ov 
Tavrrjcrl TT}? airovola^. 
(frrja-l yovv 6 fcatf vfjLo,^ /JLCV TTO^T?)? real /Jivdo\6yo$, 
a)? Be 6 HvOtos \rjo~rais ^pw^evois avel\ev, jjpox; 
Kal BaifMOV, vTrep TMV \i)^ofJLevwv TY)V 0d\aTTav 

Old re \r)HTTr)pes, vTrelp a\a roi r akowvrai 
^fv^a<; TrapOe/jbevoL. B 

rt ovv en erepov ^ret9 vTrep T^9 aTrovoias rwv 
\rj(TTa)v fjidprvpa; 7r\r)i> el p,r] KOI dv&peiorepovs 


Be TWV \r}arwv e/ceivoyv roi/9 
Tovrovai. oi fiev yap (rvveiBores avrols 
OVTCO /jLO%0r)pbv TOV ftiov ov {j,a\\ov Bia TO rov 
Qavdrov Beos 77 rrjv ala-'xyvrjv ro'9 eprjfjbia<; TTOO- 
(3d\\ovTcu, oi 8' apa irepiTraTovo'iv 2 ev rto /jLecrw C 

1 TraioyueVous Cobet, iro\t/j.ov/j.ti'ovs Hertlein, MSS. 

2 &pa Trfpnrarovffiv Hertlein suggests, ava(TTpf<f>ovTai 
Trepnra.rovffiv Cobet, ava-narovffiv MSS. 



others, and permits us neither by word or deed 
or in the inmost and secret activities of our souls 
to confound such distinctions,, since the law is our 
guide to the most perfect justice is not this conduct 
worthy of the pit ? l And ought not those who 
applauded such views to have been driven forth, 
not by blows with wands, like scapegoats, 2 for that 
penalty is too light for such crimes, but put to death 
by stoning? For tell me, in Heaven's name, how 
are such men less criminal than bandits who infest 
lonely places and haunt the coasts in order to despoil 
navigators ? Because, as people say, they despise 
death ; as though bandits were not inspired by the 
same frenzied courage ! So says at any rate he 3 who 
with you counts as a poet and mythologist, though, as 
a Pythian god proclaimed to certain bandits who 
sought his oracle, he was a hero and divinity I mean 
where, speaking of pirates of the sea, he says : "lake 
pirates who wander over the sea, staking their lives." 4 
What better witness can you require for the desperate 
courage of bandits ? Except indeed that one might 
say that bandits are more courageous than Cynics of 
this sort, while the Cynics are more reckless than 
they. For pirates, well aware as they are how 
worthless is the life they lead, take cover in desert 
places as much from shame as from the fear of death : 
whereas the Cynics go up and down in our midst 
subverting the institutions of society, and that not 

1 The pit or chasm at Athens into which the bodies of 
criminals were thrown ; ef. Xenophon, Hellenica 1. 7. 20. 

2 For the ceremony of driving out the scapegoat see 
Harrison, Prolegomena to Greek Religion 97 ; Frazer, Golden 
Bough, Vol. 3, p. 93. s i.e. Homer. 4 Odyssey 3. 73. 



/cal KaOapwrepav, d\\d T<M ^ecpova icai /3Be\vpa)- 
Tepav eireio-dyeiv Tro\neiav. 

Ta? dvafyepo jjievas Be et? TOV Aioyevij TpaywBias, 
/cal 6{jio\oyovfj,ev(i)s l KVVIKOV TWOS 
a, d/MJ)i,a/3r)TOVfjieva<? Be Kara TOVTO 
y eire TOV St,$aa'Kd\ov, rov Awyevovs, el&iv, D 
elVe rov fjLaOrjTOv <$ i\ia KOV, rt? OVK av 7re\0wv 
/3Se\vj;aiTO teal vo/jiia-eiev V7repfto\r)i> dpprjrovp- 
7ta? ou5e rat? eraipais cnro\e\el<j)dai ; rat? 
Olvo/udov Be evrv)(ju)V eypaifre yap /cal rpayqjBias 
rot? \oyois TO?? eavrou TrapaTrXijo-la^, dpprjrwv 
dpprjTOTepa /cal /ca/cwv irepa, /cal ov/ceO' 6, TI <j>w 
Trepl avrwv a^iws ^% W J ^ av Ta Mayvrfrmv Ka/ca, 
KCLV TO Tep/uepiov, KCLV irciGav aTrXw? aurot? 
eTTi^Oey^cD^ai TTJV TpaywBiav /JLCTCL TOV aaTvpov 211 
/cal 7-775 /co)/ift)Sta? /cal TOV /JLL/JLOV, OVTO> irao-a fiev 
alo-%poTrj<;, iraaa Be dirovoia TT/OO? V7rep/3o\r)v ev 
etceivais rw dvBpl 7re(f)i\oTe%vrjTai' /cal el /juev 

K TOVTCOV Tt? d^iol TOV Ku/^<7//-O^ OTTOtO? T/5 eCTTLV 

7T/30? airavTas, otrep etyrjv dp^ofjievos, LTO), %&)- 
yfjv Trpb yfjs, OTTOL ftov\oiTO' el B\ oTrep o 
e(f>r) kioyevei, TO vo^io-^a 7rapa%a/9afa? eVl 
TTJV Tcpo TavTrjs elprfijievriv VTTO TOV Oeov avfji^ovK^v 
, TO YvwOi (ravTOv, OTrep ^rfkwaavTes eVl 
epycov Aioyevrjs fcal K/aar?;? <f>aivovTai, TOVTO 
TOV iravTos afyov eywye (pairjv av dvBpl /cal 

s Cobet, 6/j.o\oyov/j.tvas Hertlein, MSS. 
Hertlein suggests, xo'pfTw MSS. 



by introducing a better and purer state of things 
but a worse and more corrupt state. 

Now as for the tragedies ascribed to Diogenes, 
which are, and are admitted to be, the composition of 
some Cynic the only point in dispute being whether 
they are by the master himself, Diogenes, or by his 
disciple Philiscus, what reader of these would not 
abhor them, and find in them an excess of infamy not 
to be surpassed even by courtesans ? However, let 
him go on to read the tragedies of Oenomaus for 
he too wrote tragedies to match his discourses and 
he will find that they are more inconceivably infamous, 
that they transgress the very limits of evil ; in fact I 
have no words to describe them adequately, and in 
vain should I cite in comparison the horrors of 
Magnesia, 1 the wickedness of Termerus 2 or the whole 
of tragedy put together, along with satiric drama, 
comedy and the mime : with such art has their 
author displayed in those works every conceivable 
vileness and folly in their most extreme form. 

Now if from such works any man chooses to demon- 
strate to us the character of the Cynic philosophy, 
and to blaspheme the gods and bark at all men, as I 
said when I began, let him go, let him depart to the 
uttermost parts of the earth whithersoever he 
pleases. But if he do as the god enjoined on 
Diogenes, and first " give a new stamp to the com- 
mon currency," then devote himself to the advice 
uttered earlier by the god, the precept " Know 
Thyself," which Diogenes and Crates evidently 
followed in their actual practice, then I say that 
this is wholly worthy of one who desires to be a 

1 A proverb ; cf. Archilochus/r. 27, Bergk. 

a A robber whom Theseus killed ; Plutarch, Theseus 11. 

8 9 


KOI fyiKocrofyelv eOekovTi. TL Be eljrev 
6 #eo9, dp io-fiev; cm TYJS TWV TTO\\WV avrw Bo^r/s 
eVerafez/ vTrepopav Kal Trapa^apaTTeuv ov rrjv C 
d\ij0eiav, d\\a TO vofJULcr^a. TO Be VvwOi cravrov 
ev TTorepa Oriao^eOa fjioipa; irorepov ev rfj rov 
vofJiia'iJLaTOs; rj TOVTO ye avrb T^<? a\7j0eias elvai 
/ce(j)a\,aiov 6r)(TO[Jiev KOL rporcov eiprjcrQai rov * 
Tlapa^dpa^ov TO VQ^KT^a Bia TT}? 1 YvwOi aavrov 
aTTO^ao-eo)?; Mcrirep jap 6 ra vofju^o^eva iravra- 
Tracriv drifidcras, evr' avryv 8e %KWV rrjv a\if 
ov& VTrep eavrov TO?9 vo/jLL^ofjievois, d\\a 
6Wa>9 OV<TI d^crerai, OVTWS olfiaL Kal 6 yvovs D 
eavrbv OTrep ea-nv aKpifiws elveTai KOL ov% OTrep 
vo/jLi^erai. .irorepov ovv ov% 6 TTu^io? d\r)6r)<$ re 
e<TTi ^eo?, Kal Aioyevrjs TOVTO eTreTreiGTO <ra0w9, 
09 76 avTw TreiaOels dvTl $vyd8os dire^ei'xO^ ov 
TOV Hepa-wv fiaaiKews /JLCL^WV, d\\\ &>9 rj ^^^ 

, avru) TOO KaraKvaavrL TO Tlepa-wv 

TOU9 ' HpaK\ 

oe TOV ' 

OVTO9 ovv o ioyevrjs OTTOIOS T^9 771^ i 

T 7T/OO9 TOl/9 06OVS Kal TO, 7T/?09 dvOpWTTOVS fJbrj Bid 212 

TWV Olvo/jidov \oywv /AtjBe TWV <&L\io-Kov Tpayw- 
Bt,wv, al<? eTriypdtyas TO Aioyevov 9 ovo/jia T7/9 Oeias 
TroXXa 7TOT6 
eBpacrev epywv o 

e/-9 'Q\vfjL7Tiav eVt TL 77/909 Ato9; tva Toi/9 
fledcrijTai; TL Be; ov^l Kal 

1 TTJS Cobet, rr/j TOU Hertlein, MSS, 


leader and a philosopher. For surely we know what 
the god meant ? He enjoined on Diogenes to 
despise the opinion of the crowd and to give a new 
stamp, not to truth, but to the common currency. 
Now to which of these categories shall we assign 
self-knowledge ? Can we call it common currency ? 
Shall we not rather say that it is the very summary 
of truth, and by the injunction " Know Thyself" we 
are told the way in which we must "give a new 
stamp to the common currency " ? For just as one 
who pays no regard whatever to conventional 
opinions but goes straight for the truth will not 
decide his own conduct by those opinions but by 
actual facts, so I think he who knows himself will 
know accurately, not the opinion of others about him, 
but what he is in reality. It follows then, does it not ? 
that the Pythian god speaks the truth, and more- 
over that Diogenes was clearly convinced of this since 
he obeyed the god and so became, instead of an exile, 
I will not say greater than the King of Persia, but 
according to the tradition handed down actually 
an object of envy to the man * who had broken the 
power of Persia and was rivalling the exploits of 
Heracles and ambitious to surpass Achilles. Then 
let us judge of the attitude of Diogenes towards 
gods and men, not from the discourses of Oenomaus 
or the tragedies of Philiscus who by ascribing 
their authorship to Diogenes grossly slandered that 
sacred personage but let us, I say, judge him by 
his deeds. 

Why in the name* of Zeus did he go to Olympia? 
To see the athletes compete ? Nay, could he not 
have seen those very athletes without trouble both at 
1 i.e. Alexander. 



TOU? avTovs Kal TLavaBijvcdots Oedo-aadai Bi%a 
Trpay/jidrwv olov re rjv; dXXa edeXwv e/cei rot? 

avyyeveaOai, rwv ']\\ijvQ)v; ov yap B 
oirmv; OVK av ovv evpois d\\rjv alriav 
rj rrjv et9 TOV 6eov OepaTreiav. el 8' OVK e^e- 
7r\dyr) rov Kepavvov ov8e eya) fjia rou? 6eov<$ 
TToXXw^ 7roXXa/ct? TreipaOels SLOO-TJ/JLIMV egtTrXdyrjv. 
,' oyLtw? ovrw STJ TI, TOU? Oeovs 7re(f)pitca Kal 
Kal ae/Sw Kal a^ofjLai Kal TravG" avrXw? ra 
roiavra TT/JO? ayrou? 7rao"^a>, oo~a7rep av Ti? Kal 
ola 7T/30? dyaOovs Sec-TroTa?, TT/JO? 
TT/JO? 7rare/)a?, TT/OO? KtjSefjiovas, TT/JO? Trdvra a 
ra roiavra, wcrre o\iyov $eiv VTTO T&V crwv pr^^d- C 
TWV Trpwrjv e^avearrjv. TOVTO /JLCV ovv OVK ol& 
ovnva rpOTrov 7re\0bv tVa)? (Tiwrraa-Oai Seov 

&e Kal Trevr^ wv Kal 


eKeXeve Trap 9 eavrov, el TW Trtcrro? o ALCOV. ovrw 
TrpeTreiv evofj^i^ev eavrw /jLev <poirdv eirl ra lepd D 
Twv 6ewv, TO) ySacriXt/cwrarw Be rwv KaQ* eavTOv 
e'vrl rrjv eavrov crvvovaiav. a Be rrpos 'Ap%iBa/mov 
yeypa(f)V, ov ftacnXiKal rrapaivea-eis elaiv; ov 
/JLOVOV Be ev rot9 Xo^ot? r)v 6 Ato^e^? OeoaefSris, 
aXXa yap Kal ev rot? epyois. e\6/jLevov yap avrov 
oiKeiv ra? 'AOrfvas eTreiBrj TO Bai/Aoviov ei? rrjv 
KopivQov drr^yayev, dfaOel? UTTO rov rrpiapevov 
rrjv rro\iv ovKer' wrjOrj Beiv eK\irrelv errerreiaro 213 
yap aurov rot? Oeols fj,e\eiv et? re rrjv KopivOov ov 



the Isthmian games and the Paiiathenaic festival ? 
Then was it because he wished to meet there the 
most distinguished Greeks ? But did they not go to 
the Isthmus too ? So you cannot discover any other 
motive than that of doing honour to the god. He 
was not, you say, awestruck by a thunderstorm. Ye 
gods, I too have witnessed such signs from Zeus 
over and over again, without being awestruck ! Yet 
for all that I feel awe of the gods, I love, I revere, I 
venerate them, and in short have precisely the same 
feelings towards them as one would have towards 
kind masters 1 or teachers or fathers or guardians or 
any beings of that sort. That is the very reason why 
I could hardly sit still the other day and listen to 
your speech. However, I have spoken thus as I was 
somehow or other impelled to speak, though perhaps 
it would have been better to say nothing at all. 

To return to Diogenes : he was poor and lacked 
means, yet he travelled to Olympia, though he bade 
Alexander come to him, if we are to believe Dio. 2 
So convinced was he that it was his duty to visit the 
temples of the gods, but that it was the duty of the 
most royal monarch of that day to come to him for 
an interview. And was not that royal advice which 
he wrote to Archidamus ? Nay, not only in words 
but in deeds also did Diogenes show his reverence 
for the gods. For he preferred to live in Athens, 
but when the divine command had sent him away to 
Corinth, even after he had been set free by the man 
who had bought him, he did not think he ought to 
leave that city. For he believed that the gods took 
care of him, and that he had been sent to Corinth, 

1 Plato, Phaedo 63 c. 

2 Dio Chrysostom, Oration 4. 12, Arnitn. 



ov8e /card nva crvvrv^iav, TpoTrov Se ru>a 
VTTO rwv 6ewv el(77re7rfjL<f)0ai, opwv rrjv TTO\,LI> 
OyvaitoV /JLO\\OV /cal 8eo/jbev?)v 
/cal jevvaiorepov o-w^poviarov. 
TL Se; ov^l /cal rov KpaT^ro? fjiovo-ifca /cal 
<j>eprai, TroXXa $eiy/j,aTa T?}? TT/OO? rou? 
oortoTi/To? re ical etA.a/3eta?; a/cove yovi> 
Trap' rjjjiwv, el aoi /JLJ/ o-^oXrj yeyove fiadetv B 
Kiva)V avrd. 

real Zirjvos'Q\v/jL7rLov dy\aa retcva, 
Moucrat TliepiSes, K\vre JJLOL v^o/j,evy 

e/jifj auve'xfi Sore jacrrepi, /cal Sore ^co^ot? 

rj Br) ~\,ITOV eO-rjKe ftlov. 
* * * * 

8e (f)i\ois, /JLT) yXv/cepov riOere. 
S' ov/c eOe\a) (rvvdyeiv /c\vrd, /cav- C 
Odpov o\/3ov 
vpfj,r]/cos r a0e^09 ^p^aTa fjLaiOjjievos, 

Si/caioavvrj<$ per^eiv Kal TT\OVTOV dyei- 
peiv 1 

ov, ev/crrjTov, TI/JUOV e$ penjv 
Twv Be TWWV 'tijsfv /cal Moutra? /Xa 

Ov SaTrdvaw rpvfyepals, d)OC dperais ocriais. D 

TOT? eou? evr) fjiwv , ov% e a>9 crv 
v /car* avrwv rjv^ero; Troaat ydp 
T/}? offias ela-\v avrd^iai, TJV Kal o Sai/j,6vio<> l&vpi- 
7Tt?79 opdws v^vrjarev elTrcbv 

'Ocrta TTorva 6ect)i>, ocrta; 

1 ayfipeiv (Jobet, atrtvij Hertlein, MSS. 


not at random or by some accident, but by the gods 
themselves for some purpose. He saw that Corinth 
was more luxurious than Athens,, and stood in need 
of a more severe and courageous reformer. 

To give you another instance : Are there not 
extant many charming poems by Crates also which 
are proofs of his piety and veneration for the gods ? 
I will repeat them to you if you have not had time 
to learn this from the poems themselves : 

" Ye Muses of Pieria, glorious children of Memory 
and Olympian Zeus,, grant me this prayer ! Give me 
food for my belly from day to day, but give it with- 
out slavery which makes life miserable indeed. 
. . . . Make me useful rather than agreeable to 
my friends. Treasure and the fame thereof I desire 
not to amass ; nor do I crave the wealth of the 
beetle and the substance of the ant. But justice I 
desire to attain, and to collect riches that are easily 
carried, easily acquired, precious for virtue. If I 
attain these things I will worship Hermes and the 
holy Muses, not with costly and luxurious offerings, 
but with pious and virtuous actions." l 

You see that, far from blaspheming the gods as 
you do, he adored and prayed to them ? For what 
number of hecatombs are worth as much as Piety, 
whom the inspired Euripides celebrated appropriately 
in the verses " Piety, queen of the gods, Piety " ? 2 

1 Cf. Oration 6. 199 D. ' 2 Bacchae 370. 



77 TOVTO ere \e\t^dev, on Trdvra, KOI TO, 
Kal rd ff/JLLKpd, per a Tt?9 oaias rot? Oeols Trpoaayo- 
/jieva rr)V lar^v e%et Bvvafjav, eGrep^fjievri Be rr}? 
oaias ov% eKarofJi^T] fjid Oeovs, d\\a rj TT}? 'OXu//,- 
TTtaSo? %t\i6/Ji/3r) dvdXw/jia fjiovov earlv, a\\o Be 214 
ov&ev; OTrep olpai yiyvaxrKWV 6 Kpdrrjf; atTO? re 
'xev ocrta? TOU? 0eov<> erif^a arvv 
KOI TOU9 aXXof9 eSiSaa/ce fj,7) ra 
Tijs 6crta9, aXXa T^I/ ocriav e/ceivwv 
ev Tat9 dyicrreiaLs. TOIOVTCO Se TOO avSpe rcoSe 
ra 7T/3O9 TOU9 ^eou9 oy: aKpoaTrjpia 
lrriv 1 ouS' Mcnrep ol aocfrol St' eltcovcov 
^>tXot9 GW r yi'yv<jQriv' 2 \ey6rai 
jap VTT RvpiTTiBov A:aXft>9 B 

f A7r\of)9 o /JLV&CX; T^? aXydeias e(f)V 
arKLajpa(f)ia<i <ydp fyricn, rbv tyev&f) Kal dSi/cov Sct- 
a-dau. Tt9 OL^ o Tpo?ro9 avrols r^9 (rvvova-ias eyi- 
vero ; TWV \oywv ijyelro ra epya, Kal ol rrjv 
Treviav npwvres avrol irpwroi ^aivovrai^ Kal TMV 
jbdrwv vTrepiSovres, ol rrjv drv<f)iav 
Trpwroi rrjv evreXeiav r)aKOW Bid C 
, ol TO rpayiKov Kal croftapov 6K rwv 
d\\orpiwv e<~aipovvre<$ ftiwv WKOVV avrol irpwroi 
T9 dyopd? r) ra rwv Oewv ref^evrj, rfj rpvd)f) Be 
Kal TTpo rwv prj/jidraiv BLO, rwv epycov eTroKe^ovv, 
epyois e\ey%ovres, ov \6yq) fto&vres, on ru> Atl 
avfji/3ao'i\,6VLv e^eanv ovBevos rj (r/jLLKpcov irdvv 

1 ffweKpoTeirTji' Cobet, Hertlein approves, 

2 ovvf)iyveffdi]v Cobet, Hertlein approves, 

MSS. 3 tyalvovrai Hertlein suggests, (fyaivovro MSS. 



Or are you not aware that all offerings whether great 
or small that are brought to the gods with piety 
have equal value, whereas without piety, I will not 
say hecatombs, but, by the gods, even the Olympian 
sacrifice 1 of a thousand oxen is merely empty ex- 
penditure and nothing else ? 2 This I believe Crates 
recognised, and so with that piety which was his 
only possession he himself used to honour the gods 
with praises, and moreover taught others not to 
honour expensive offerings more than piety in the 
sacred ceremonies. This then was the attitude of 
both those Cynics towards the gods but they did 
not crowd audiences together to hear them, nor did 
they entertain their friends with similes and myths, 
like the wise men of to-day. For as Euripides well 
says, 3 "Simple and unadorned is the language of 
truth." Only the liar and the dishonest man, he 
says, have any use for a mysterious and allusive style. 
Now what was the manner of their intercourse with 
men ? Deeds with them came before words, and 
if they honoured poverty they themselves seem 
first to have scorned inherited wealth ; if they 
cultivated modesty, they themselves first practised 
plain living in every respect ; if they tried to 
expel from the lives of other men the element of 
theatrical display and arrogance, they themselves 
first set the example by living in the open market 
places and the temple precincts, and they opposed 
luxury by their own practice before they did so in 
words ; nor did they shout aloud but proved by their 
actions that a man may rule as the equal of Zeus 
if he needs nothing or very little and so is not 

1 i.e. in honour of Olympian Zeus. 

2 Of. Themistius 182 A. a Phoenissae 472. 




Beo/juevov ovBe r napevo'x\,oviJt,evov VTTO TOV 
7reTi/j,wv 8e rot? a/JLaprdvovo'iv, rjvi/ca ewv ol 
TTTaiaravTes, OVK aTroOavbvTas e^Xaa^rj/jbovv, rjvLKa D 
Kal TWV e%0pwv ol /^eTptWTepoL o~7revBovTai rot? 
d7re\9ovaiv. e^et Be 6 ye d\,r)6ivbs KVWV 
ovBeva, K.av TO aco^driGV avrov rt? 
, KCLV rovvopa 7Tpie\Kr), /cav XoiBoprjrai 
teal ftXao-tyrjfiff, Sion rb /j,ev Ttjs e^Opa? yiverai 
Trpo? dvTi7ra\ov, TO $e vTfepfBalvov Trjv Trpo? 
eTepov dfjLiKKav evvoia Tifj,d<r0ai (f)t,\er K.CLV T^? 215 
erepo)? exg irpos CLVTOV, /cadaTrep ol^ai iro\\ol 

TTpO? TOL/? deOVS, 6KiV(p yLteV OVK (7TLV 6%^/3O?, OV&e 

yap fi\a/3ep6$, awro? Se auTW fBapvTarov eTriTiOeis 1 
Tif^rjfjia Tr)V TOU tcpeiTTOvos ayvoiav epr^^o^ \ei7reTai 
r/)? e/ceivov rrpoa'Tao'Las. 

'AXX' el fj,ev vvv fjLOi TrpovKeiTO Trepl KVVKT/AOV 
<ypd(f)eiv, eiTrov di> vTrep TOVTCOV GTL ra TrapicrTd/j,vd B 
fjioi TWV elprijjievwv tcr&)9 OVK eXarra)' vvv Be airo- 
SiSovTes TO avve^e^ TV) Trpoaipecrei Trepl TOV TTOTCL- 

7TOU? eivdi J(pr] TOU? Tf\aTTOfJLeVOV^ TWV /JLV0WV 

e(/>e^r}? crKOTCwfJiev. tcrco? Se rjyelTai Kal ra^TT/? 
T?}? ey%eipija'ews efceiW], oTcoia Ttvl <f)i\ocro(f)ia 
TrpoarjKov rj jjivOoypafyia. (frauvovTai <ydp TroXXot 
Kal TWV (f)i\ocr6(f)wv avTO Kal TWV 0eo\6ywv Troirj- 
aavTes, wcnrep 'Op^eu? pev o TraXcuoTaro? evOews 
<pi\o<ro<f)ijoras, OVK b\iyoi Be Kal TWV /uer' eKelvov 
ov /jirjv aXXa /cat E,evo(f)wv (pauveTai Kal 'AvTiaOe- C 

JJLV&OLS, wa-Q' rjfjuv 7re<f>r)vev, el Kal /^rj TW KVVLKW, 
(^)tXocro^)w <yovv TIVL TrpocrtJKeiv r) /j,v0oypa(f)ia. 

1 f-rriTtdels Hertleiri suggests, t-n-iOels MS8. 


hampered by his body ; and they reproved sinners 
during the lifetime of those who had offended but 
did not speak ill of the dead ; for when men are 
dead even their enemies, at least the more moderate, 
make peace with the departed. But the genuine 
Cynic has no enemy, even though men strike his 
feeble body or drag his name in the mire, or slander 
and speak ill of him, because enmity is felt only 
towards an opponent, but that which is above personal 
rivalry is usually loved and respected. But if anyone 
is hostile to a Cynic, as indeed many are even to the 
gods, he is not that Cynic's enemy, since he cannot 
injure him ; rather he inflicts on himself the most 
terrible punishment of all, namely ignorance of one 
who is nobler than himself; and so he is deserted 
and bereft of the other's protection. 

Now if my present task were to write about the 
Cynic philosophy, I could add many details about 
the Cynics, not less important than what I have said 
already. But not to interrupt my main theme, I 
will now consider in due course the question what 
kind of myths ought to be invented. But perhaps 
another inquiry should precede this attempt, I mean 
to what branch of philosophy the composition of 
myths is appropriate. For we see that many 
philosophers and theologians too have employed it, 
Orpheus for instance, the most ancient of all the 
inspired philosophers, and many besides of those that 
came after him. Nay what is more, Xenophon as 
we know and Antisthenes and Plato often introduced 
myths, so that it is obvious that even if the use of 
myth be not appropriate for the Cynic, still it may be 
so for some other type of philosopher. 


OVP vjrep TWV T^9 <ptA,o<jo(pia9 eiTG 
etVe 6pydvci)v TrpoppijTeov. 1 eaTi yap ov 
TO Biafiepov oTroTepws dv Tt9 TO) Trpa/cTiKO) '- 
real TW $>vcriKS> TO \oyiicbv TrpoaapLd^r)' dvay- D 
Kalov yap O/JLOLWS <f>aiveTaL KCIT d/jityoTepa. Tpiwv 
&rj TOVTOJV av6i<> e/cacrTOv el<i Tpia TejAveTai, TO /j,ev 
els TO 6eo\oyifcbv KOL TO Trepl TCL fjiadrj- 
Kal TpiTov TO Trepl Trjv TWV yLVO^evwv teal 
dTro\\v/jLvcov KCii Twv diBiwv /JLev, arw^aTWV Be 
Oewpiav, TL TO elvai avTol<> /cal TLS f] ovo~la 
TOV TTpaKTiKov Be TO fAev Trpbs eva 
dvBpa, r)6iKov, oLKOvofjmcov Be TO Trepl plav oiiclav, 


Xoyi/cov TO fj,ev dTroBeiKTifcbv Bid TWV d\rj0a)v, TO 
Be Bid TWV evBogwv pLaaTLicbv, TO Be Bid TWV 216 
(j)aLVOfjLi>a)V evB6o)v Trapa\oyicrT(,K6v. OVTWV Brj 
TOCTOVTCOV T<av T}9 <>i\QGOia<$ fj,epci)V, el fjnj TL /j,e 
\e\r)0e' /cal ovBev 6avfjLa<TTov dvBpa crTpaTLtoTrjv 
/jur) \iav e^aKpLJSovv /x^S' e%ovv)(i^eiv TCL TotavTa, 
aTe OVK K (3Lf3\iwv da Kija eco$ , aTrb Be TTJS Trpoa- 

yovv IJLOL /cal uyue?9 fJidpTvpes, el T9 r)^epa<^ \oyi- 
&aicr0, 3 Troaai TLV& elffiv at /jieTa^v TavT^ T /cal 

:pod<rea)<; oaaw Te 
C, oTrep (f>rjv, el /cai B 

TL 7rapd\e\eiTrTai, Trap e'/zoir KaiTOL vofd%& ye 
/jLTjBev evBeiv TrXrjv 6 TrpoaTidel^ OVK 

1 Trpopprjreov Reiske, lacuna Hertlein, MSS. 

2 T(f TrpaKTiKc? Hertlein suggests, T$ re r)6iK$ MSS. 

3 \oyia-aiadf Cobet, \oylff<rQf Hertlein, MSS. 



I must first then say a few words about the sub- 
divisions or instruments of philosophy. It does not 
make much difference in which of two ways one 
reckons logic, whether with practical or natural philo- 
sophy, since it is equally necessary to both these 
branches. But I will consider these as three separate 
branches and assign to each one three subdivisions. 
Natural philosophy consists of theology, mathematics, 
and thirdly the study of this world of generation and 
decay and things that though imperishable are never- 
theless matter, and deals with their essential nature 
and their substance in each case. Practical philosophy 
again consists of ethics in so far as it deals with the 
individual man, economics when it deals with the 
household as a unit, politics when it deals with the 
state. Logic, again, is demonstrative in so far as it 
deals with the truth of principles ; polemic when it 
deals with general opinions ; eristic when it deals 
with opinions that only seem probabilities. These 
then are the divisions of philosophy, if I mistake not. 
Though indeed it would not be surprising that a 
mere soldier should be none too exact in these 
matters or not have them at his fingers' ends, seeing 
that I speak less from book-knowledge than from 
observation and experience. For that matter you 
can yourselves bear me witness thereto, if you count 
up how few days have elapsed between the lecture 
that we lately heard and to-day, and moreover the 
number of affairs with which they have been filled 
for me. But as I said if I have omitted anything 
though I do not think 1 have still if anyone can 
make my classification more complete he will be (e no 
enemy but my friend." l 

1 Plato, Timaeus 54 A. 



Tovrcov 8ij rwv jJLepwv ovre T<J> \oyiKw 
Trpoa-rj/cei r% fjiv6oypa(j)ias ovre rov (frvaitcov 1 
To5 /jiaOij/jiari/cw, uovov Be, eiTrep dpa, rov 
Trpa/cn/cov ra> vrpo? eva yivo/jLevq) /cal rov Oeo\o- 
yi/cov rw re\eariK& /cal i^variKW' fyi\el >yap C 
77 <f)V(Tis KpinrreaQai, KOL rb aTTOKefcpv/ji/jLevov 
rfjs rwv Oewv ovcrias OVK dve%erai ^v/juvol^ et? 
aicaOdprovs CLKOCLS piirreaOai prj/jLacrtv. otrep 8e 
$}] rwv xapafcrijpwv rj aTropprjros (JIIHTIS o 
7re(j)VKe real dyvoovfjievrj' OepaTrevei yovv ov 

, d\\a teal cray/juara, /cal Oewv Troiei irapov- 
TOUT' ot/xat TroXXa/ct? yLyveorOai Kal Sia 
rwv fJivOwv, orav 6/9 ra? r&v TTO\\WV a/coa? ov D 

ra Oela KoQapws Se^aaOai &i alviy- 
aurot? ///era rr}? /juvdajv o-icrjv OTTO das 

Qavepov Be i^Brj yevo/jicvov rlvi /cal 
(f>L\0(TO(f>ia<? eiBei Kal /jivOoypafyelv eer#' ore irpocr- 
rjKGi* ?rpo9 yap ra> ~\6y(p jjiaprvpel rovrois rj rwv 
nrpo\a^6vr(DV dvBpayv rrpoaipeGis. evret Kal ITXa- 
rwvi TroXXa ^LefjLV0o\6yr)rat Trepl rwv ev aSov 
TrpayfJidrwv Oeo\oyovvn Kal Trpo ye rovrov rw 
rr)? KaXXtoTT?;?, 'AvncrOevei Be /cal t-,evo(j)(t)vri 217 
real avrco Tl\drwvi Trpay/jiarevo/jievot,*; r)0iicd<$ 
rivas vTro6eo~ei<s ov Trapepyws, aXXa jjuerd nvo<$ 
e/A/LteXeta? 77 rwv /jivdwv ey/cara/Ae^i/crai, ypa<f)r], 
ou? <r' 2 expfjv, eLirep e/3ov\ov, fju/jLOv/jievov dvrl 
[lev'HpaKXeovs /J,era\ajjil3dv6iv 

rov <f>vffiKin> r$ Hertlein suggests, ry ^witcy oftre MSS. 
a expyv Hertlein suggests, IXPW MSS. 



Now of these branches of philosophy,, logic has no 
concern with the composition of myths ; nor has 
mathematics, the sub-division of natural philosophy ; 
but they may be employed, if at all, by 'that depart- 
ment of practical philosophy which deals with the 
individual man, and by that department of theology 
which has to do with initiation and the Mysteries. 
For nature loves to hide her secrets, 1 and she does 
not suffer the hidden truth about the essential 
nature of the gods to be flung in naked words to the 
ears of the profane. Now there are certain charac- 
teristics of ours that derive benefit from that occult 
and unknown nature, which nourishes not our souls 
alone but our bodies also, and brings us into the 
presence of the gods, and this I think often comes 
about by means of myths ; when through riddles and 
the dramatic setting of myths that knowledge is 
insinuated into the ears of the multitude who 
cannot receive divine truths in their purest form. 

It is now evident what branch and what sort of 
philosophy may properly on occasion employ myths. 
And to support my argument I call to witness the 
authority of those philosophers who were the first to 
use myths. Plato for instance in his theological 
descriptions of life in Hades often uses myths, and 
the son 2 of Calliope before him. And when Antis- 
thenes and Xenophon and Plato himself discuss 
certain ethical theories they use myths as one of the 
ingredients, and not casually but of set purpose. 
Now if you too wished to use myths you ought 
to have imitated these philosophers, and instead of 
Heracles you should have introduced the name of 

1 Heracleitus/r. 123, Diels ; cf. Themistius 69 B. 

2 Orpheus. 



OS OVOJJLCL /cal Tov ' A.VTio~@evet,ov TVTfov e 
TCIV, dvrl Be TT}? HpoBi/cov <r Kyv OTTO das dfi^l Tolv 
d^olv TOVTOIV deolv erepav ojioiav ela~dyeiv ei? B 
TO OeaTpov. 

'ETrel ^e fcal rwv T\(TTIK(OV /ju 
a-Oriv, (pepe vvv OTTOLOVS elvai, %pr) roi? e/ 
rwv fj,pwv ap/JLOTTOvras avrol Ka6^ eavrovs 
7Tipa0w/j,V, ov/ceri, /j.aprvp(ov irakaLwv ev Trdcrt, 
Trpoa&eofjievoi, eTrojAcvoi ^e VGOLS i^veatv dvSpos, ov 
cyo) /j,era TOU? Oeovs ef l'(7775 'A/ato-ToreXei /cal 
H\dra)vt dyafiai re redrjTrd re. (f)r)<rl Be ou% C 
vTrep Trdvrcov ovros, aXX' vTrep rwv 
ou? TrapeBcofcev fjfjilv 'Qpfavs 6 ra? 
reXeras Karao-Trjfrdfjievos. TO <yap ev rot9 
d7re/jL(f>aivov avrm rourro TrpooBoiroiei Trpo? rrjv 
d\r)6eiav. oaw yap /ma\\ov irapdBo^ov eVri /cal 
repar wSe? TO atviy^ia, TOCTOVTW /JLO\\OV eoi/ce 
,, fir) TO?? avroOev \eyofjLevois 
, aXX-a ra \e\rj06ra irepiepyd^eaOai KOI 
rj Trporepov d<f>ia-raa-0ai, Trplv av VTTO Oeols r)ye- D 

K(f)avf) yevofieva rov ev fjfMv reXecry, yttaX- 
Be T\ei<t)(Tr} vovv /cal el Br] n Kpelrrov r^Mv 
TOV vov, avrov rov ez/o? /cal rdyaOov /J,oipd 
TO TTCLV d/jiepi(TTW^ e^ovo-a, Trjs ^rv^rj^ 
7r\rjpa)/jLa /cat, ev TW evl teal dyaOfa o~vve%ovo~a 



Perseus or Theseus,, let us say, and have written in 
the style of Antisthenes ; and in place of the 
dramatic setting used by Prodicus, 1 in treating 
of those two gods 2 you should have introduced into 
your theatre another setting of the same sort. 

But since I have mentioned also the myths that 
are suited to initiation, let us ourselves indepen- 
dently try to see what sort of myths they must be 
that suit one or the other of those two branches of 
philosophy; 3 and no longer need we call in the aid of 
witnesses from the remote past for all points, but we 
will follow in the fresh footprints of one 4 whom 
next to the gods I revere and admire, yes, equally 
with Aristotle and Plato. He does not treat of all 
kinds of myths but only those connected with 
initiation into the Mysteries, such as Orpheus, 
the founder of the most sacred of all the Mysteries, 
handed down to us. For it is the incongruous 
element in myths that guides us to the truth. 5 I 
mean that the more paradoxical and prodigious the 
riddle is the more it seems to warn us not to believe 
simply the bare words but rather to study diligently 
the hidden truth, and not to relax our efforts until 
under the guidance of the gods those hidden things 
become plain, and so initiate or rather perfect our in- 
telligence or whatever we possess that is more sublime 
than the intelligence, I mean that small particle of 
the One and the Good which contains the whole in- 
divisibly, the complement of the soul, and in the One 
and the Good comprehends the whole of soul itself 

1 i.e. in his allegory the Choice of Heracles ; Xenophon, 
Memorabilia 2. 1.2; Julian, Oration 2. 56 D. 

2 i.e. Pan and Zeus ; cf. 208s. 

3 i.e. ethics and theology; cf? 216 B. 

4 lamblichus; cf. Oration 4. 157 D. 5 Cf. Oration 5. 170. * 



Trdaav avrrjv Bid rf)<$ vTrepe^ova-rj^ KOI 

avrov Kal e^rjprjfjievr)^ Trap over las. d\\d ravra 

fjbev d/ji(f)l rov fj^eyav kiovvaov OVK oZS' OTT&)? 

uoi /3aK%evovri aavr/var TOV ftovv Se 218 

rfj y\ct)rrr)' Trepl rwv apptjTCov <yap 
ovBev XP*) ^zyeiv. a\\d JJLOI deal /JLCV e/ceivcov KOI 


d/jivrjTOL, rr)v ovrjcnv Boiev. 

'Tirep $e &v eiTrelv re KOI aKOvaai OefJiis 
KOL dvefjLea-vjTOV a^orepot? eVrt, Tra? \6yos 
6 7rpo(j)p6fjLevo<; GK re Xefea)? KOI 
OVKOVV eTreiBr) KOI o /jbv 
eariv, K Bvoiv TOVTOIV arv^Keia'GTai. <TKO- B 

Be etcdrepov avrwv. ecrnv a7r\rj rt9 ev 
jravrl Bidvoia, real fjuevroi KOL Kara ayfiiLa 
TO, TrapaBeiy/jbara Be d^olv eari 
TroXXa. TO [lev ovv ev a7T\ovv ecrTi fcal ovBev 
Belrai, 7roiKi\ia<$, TO B' ea^ixaTLa-fJievov e%et Bia- 
cfropas ev eavru) TroXXa?, &v, elf TI aoi T% prjro- 
pifcrfs ejjbekrjo-ev, OVK dgvveros el. rovrcov Brj TWV 
Kara Bidvoiav cr^rjfjidrwv dp/Jiorret T&> /JLvd(o ra 
ra' 7r\r)V epoiye ovd^ vTrep rwv TroXXw^ ov6* 
rwv arccuvrwv ecrrl ra ye vvv prjreov, aXX' 
Bvolv, rov re (rejjLvov Kara rrjv Bidvoiav /cal 
rov dTreufyalvovros. ra Be avra ravra Kal Trepl C 
rrjv \e%iv yiverai. /Jbopfyovrai yap 7r&>9 Kal o")(r)- 
uari^erai rrapa rwv ^ Trpofyepofjievwv eiKrj /mrjB^ 
McrTrep ^ei/jidppovs e\Kovrwi> crvpfyerovs pyudrcov 
CK T?}? rpioBov aXXa Toti^ Bvoiv rovrouv, orav 
uev VTrep rwv Oeicov Tr^drrwuev, ae/jivd %p^ irdvv 



through the prevailing and separate and distinct 
presence of the One. But I was impelled I know not 
how to rave with his own sacred frenzy when I spoke 
like this of the attributes of great Dionysus 1 ; and 
now I set an ox on my tongue : 2 for I may not 
reveal what is too sacred for speech. However,, may 
the gods grant to me and to many of you who 
have not as yet been initiated into these Mysteries 
to enjoy the blessings thereof! 

And now to confine myself to what is lawful for us, 
both for me to say and for you to hear. Every 
discourse that is uttered consists of language and the 
thought to be expressed. Now a myth is a sort of 
discourse and so it will consist of these two. Let us 
consider them separately. In every discourse the 
thought is of two kinds, either simple or expressed 
in figures of speech ; and there are many examples 
of both kinds. The one is simple and admits of no 
variety, but that which is embellished with figures 
has in itself many possibilities of variation with all 
of which you are yourself familiar if you have 
ever studied rhetoric ; and most of these figures of 
thought are suited to myth. However I need not 
now discuss all or indeed many of them, but only 
two, that in which the thought is dignified and that 
in which it is paradoxical. The same rules apply 
also to diction. For this is given a certain shape 
and form by those who do not express themselves 
carelessly or sweep in the refuse of language from 
the highways like a winter torrent. And now to 
consider these two types. When we invent myths 
about sacred things our language must be wholly 

1 Of. Oration 4. 144 A. 

2 A proverb for mysterious silence ; cf. Theognis 815 ; 
Aesch. Ag. 36. 



TO, pijfjiaTa elvai KOI Trjv \e^Lv a>9 evi jjLCL\i<TTa 
(T(O(j)pova /cal /caXrjv /cal rot? Oeols TrpeTrcdBeo'Td- 
Trjv, TWV aiG'Xjpwv Be fj,r)Bev /cal {3\ao~<f)ijfjLa)v rj D 
Bvo~a-efi)v s 07T&)9 //-T) TO> rrXijOei Trjs TOiavT'rjs 
dp'xrjyol OpaavTrjTos yevcopeOa, fjid\\ov Be /cal 
Trpo TOV 7rX^ou9 avTol TO Trepl rov9 Oeovs r)<re- 
j3r)/cevai 7rpo\d/3Q)jjLev. ovBev ovv direfji, 
elvai %pi] Trepl ra9 TOiavTas Xe^et9, aXXa 
rrdvTa /cal /ca\d /cal fjLeya\OTrp7rf) /cal 0ela /cal 
Kadapa /cal Trj? TWV Oe&v ovaias et9 Bvva/juv 
eo-TO^aa-fMeva' TO Be /caTa TIJV Bidvoiav aTre/jL- 219 
(fraivov TOV XprjaL/jiOV yiyvo/uevov %dpiv ey/cpiTeov, 
ft>9 av fJir) TWOS VTTO/Avrfcrea)? e^wdev ol avOpwrrot 
Beofjievoi, aXX' VTTO TWV ev avT& \yojJLeva)v TW 
fjivOw Bt,Bao~/c6/jL6voi TO \avOdvov iLwvQai /cal rro\v- 
Trpayfjiovelv v<f) rjyefJLoo~i rot9 Oeols Trpo 
IBov yap eywye TTO\\WV rjKOvaa \eyovTa>v 
TTOV fjuev TOV Aiovvcrov, eTreLrrep e/c %fAe\r)s eyeveTo, 
Oeov Be Bia Oeovpylas KOI Te\crTLKrj<;, coo~Trep TOV B 
BeaTroTijv 'Hpa/cXea Bid rr}9 ftacr i\i/cfjs dpeTrjs et9 
TOV "Q\v/jLTrov VTTO TOV 7raT/309 dvrj^dai, TOV Ato9 
aXX', ft) Tav, elrrovt ov %vviTe TOV pvOov <pavepw<$ 
alviTTO/jievov. TTOV yap f] yeve.o~i<> CCTTIV wcnrep 
f HpaXeov9, OVTW Brj 1 /cal Aiovvcrov, e^ovaa /JLCV 
TO KpeiTTov real vrrepe^ov /cal egyprj/jievov, ev TM 

fjLGTpiW Be O/iCt)9 6Tt T/}9 (IvOpWTTiVr}^ <J)V(Te(i)<> 

/jievovaa ical TTW? d^o/jLOLov/juevrj Trpbs rj/jids; '\\pa- C 
-779 Be \eyeTai TraiBiov yeve&Oai /cal /caTa 
WTO) TO ffwfjia TO Oelov eTTiBovvai, /cal 

1 8^ Cobet, Se Hertlein, MSS. 


dignified and the diction must be as far as possible 
sober, beautiful, and entirely appropriate to the 
gods ; there must be nothing in it base or slanderous 
or impious, for fear we should lead the common 
people into this sort of sacrilegious rashness ; or 
rather for fear we should ourselves anticipate the 
common people in displaying impiety towards the 
gods. Therefore there must be no incongruous 
element in diction thus employed, but all must be 
dignified, beautiful,, splendid, divine, pure, and as far 
as possible in conformity with the essential nature of 
the gods. But as regards the thought, the incon- 
gruous may be admitted, so that under the guidance 
of the gods men may be inspired to search out and 
study the hidden meaning, though they must not 
ask for any hint of the truth from others, but must 
acquire their knowledge from what is said in the 
myth itself. 1 For instance I have heard many 
people say that Dionysus was a mortal man because 
he was born of Semele, and that he became a god 
through his knowledge of theurgy and the Mysteries, 
and like our lord Heracles for his royal virtue was 
translated to Olympus by his father Zeus. " Nay, 
my good sir," said I, "do you not perceive that 
the myth is obviously an allegory ? " For in what 
sense do we regard the " birth " of Heracles, yes, and 
of Dionysus as well, since in their case birth has 
superior and surpassing and distinctive elements, 
even though it still falls within the limits of human 
nature, and up to a certain point resembles our 
own ? Heracles for instance is said to have been 
a child, even as we are ; his divine body grew 
gradually ; we are informed that he was instructed 

1 Cf . Oration 5. 170 B.C. 



BiBaaKd\ots IcrroprfraL, Kal arparevaa- 
Xeyerai /cal Kparf)o~ai rrdvrwv, Ka^elv Be 
O//.W9 Kara 1 TO o~wua. Kairoi avr<p ravra fjiev 
VTrijpge, uei^ovax; Be r) /car' avdpayrrov. ore yap ev 
TO49 (TTrapydvoL? d7roTrvi<ya)v rot9 Spd/covras KOI 
7rpo9 avra TrapaTaTTo/Aevos ra TJ}? ^ucrew? 
crTOt%6ta, OdXTrrj teal icpvpovs, elra TOA? aTropcord- D 
rot? KOL diJLa^wrdroL^, evBeia Xeyco Tpo^>r^ KOI 
epr)/j,ia, real rrjv Bi avrov Tropelav ol/JLai rov 

fjia TGI/? deovs ov KvKiKa elvai, fiaBiaai Be 
avrbv a>9 eVt f^pa9 r^9 
rl 7./9 cbTTOpov r]v 'HpatcXel; ri 
avrov r& Oeiw Kal KaOapcordrco aco/juan, TMV 
\eyofjievwv TOVTWV aToi'^elwv Bov\ev6vrci)v avrov 
ry Br)fj,iovpyitcfj KOI re\eo-iovpya) rov d%pdvrov '220 
Kal KaOapov vov Bvvd/j,ei; ov 6 /j,e<ya<$ Zeu9 Bid 
T/}9 TLpovoias ' ^drfva^, eTTHTrrjcras avrw (f)i>\a/ca 
rrjv Oeov ravrrfv, o\r)v e% o\ov rcpoefievo^ avrov, 2 
ra) KOCTIJLW awrrjpa efyvrevaev, elr 7ravr)<yaye Bid 
rov Kepavviov rrvpos rrpos eavrov, VTTO r& 6eiw 
a vv 611 part, T/}9 aWepias avyrjs rjKeiv rrap eavrov 
r&> TraiBl KeXevcras. aXX' vrrep jj,ev rovrcov e/jioi 
re Kal VJMV t / \eco9 'Hyoa/cA,^? eir). 

Ta Be rfjs kiovvcrov 6 } pv\ov //,e^9 ^ei> yeveaeo)^, 
ovcrris Be ov <yei>ea-ea)<>, d\\d Bai/Jiovias K(f)dvo~ea)$ B 
Kara ri rot 9 dvOpwrriKols TrpoaeoiKei'; r) 

1 /car* Cobet, Kal Hertlein, MSS. 

2 Cf . Oration 4. 149 B. 



by teachers ; 1 they say that he carried on wars and 
defeated all his opponents, but for all that his body 
had to endure weariness. And in fact all this did 
in his case occur, but on a scale greater than human. 
For instance, while still in swaddling clothes he 
strangled the serpents and then opposed himself to 
the very elements of nature, the extremes of heat 
and cold and things the most difficult and hardest 
to contend with, I mean lack of food and loneliness ; 2 
and then there is his journey over the sea itself in 
a golden cup, 3 though, by the gods, I do not think it 
was really a cup, but my belief is that he himself 
walked on the sea as though it were dry land. 4 For 
what was impossible to Heracles ? Which was there 
of the so-called elements that did not obey his 
divine and most pure body since they were subdued 
to the creative and perfecting force of his stainless 
and pure intelligence ? For him did mighty Zeus, 
with the aid of Athene goddess of Forethought, 
beget to be the saviour of the world, and appointed 
as his guardian this goddess whom he had brought 
forth whole from the whole of himself; and later on 
he called him to his side through the flame of 
a thunderbolt, thus bidding his son to come to him 
by the divine signal of the ethereal rays of light. 
Now when we meditate on this, may Heracles be 
gracious to you and to me ! 

As for the commonly received legend about the 
birth of Dionysus, which was in fact no birth but a 
divine manifestation, in what respect was it like the 
birth of men ? While he was still in his mother's 

1 Of. Dio Chrysostom, Oration 1. 61, Arnim. 2 Cf. 230 B, 

3 Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2 ; Athenaeus 11. 470. 

4 This is perhaps a passing sneer at the Christians and 
need not be taken too seriously. 



avTov Kvovo~a, fyaaiv, VTTO r?)? "Upas 
0-779 c^aTraT^Oetaa rbv epaarrjv 

ft>? rrapd Tr)v ya/jieTijv etwOe (poirdv, irpbs 
elra OVK dvao"^6jui6vov TO (Tco/jLaTiov TWV 
l TOV Ato? VTTO rov Kcpavvov /care- 
Trdvrtov 8' oyaoO TrvpovfjLevwv, 
6 Zeu? dp7rd<rai TOV Aiovvcrov Kal 
TOV avTOv jj,rjpbv eppdirrei' eiTa e/ceWev, fjvifca 

T\(T(f)Op^Or) TO /8/36009, toSlVWV 6 ZL/? 67Tt Ttt? C 

vv/ji(f)a<; ep^CTaf TO Av0i pa/z/xa Se CLVTCLI TW 
q) TrpoaeTrd&ovaai TOV 8i0vpafji{3ov rjfjiiv et? 
Trporfyayov etra dfjidvr), fyaaiv, o #eo? VTTO 
rr}? r/ H/9a?, eiravcre &' CLVTW Trjv vocrov ^ MiJTrjp 
TWI> 0wv, 6 Be rjv avTL/ca 6eos> efarovTO yovv ov 
CLVTW KaOdrrep 'Hpa/cXet ov&e 'loXeco? ov$ 
WV ovft "TXa? ovS* "AfiSrjpos, d\\d ^aTvpoi 
Kal Ba/c^al Kal Ila^e? Kal Sai/Aovcov aTpaTid. D 
opas OTTO)? dvOpwTTiKr) pev r) cnropa Bid TWV 

Kepavvicov, r) &' aTCOKvricn^ dvOpwmKWTepa, d 

Be Tolv elprjfjievoiv Trpocro/juoioTepa rot? d 

TCL epya; TI ovv ov KaTa/3d\XovT<$ TOV \ijpov 

6K6LVO TTpWTOV VTTtp TOVTWV iO~/jLV, ft)? ^6/^\>; 

ao<p^ TO. 0ela; Trat? jdp rjv KaSyLtou TOV QOLVLKOS, 
TOVTOIS Be Kal 6 $eo? aotyiav fjbapTVpei 

IloXXa? Kal <&oiviK<; 6Bou$ fJLaKapwv eBdrjaav 

\eyo)v. alo~6ecr6ai ovv /JLOL BoKet TOV 6eov TOVTOV 221 
Trap' f/ EA,\7;ort Kal TTJV ecro^Levrjv e 

1 ffto/j.dnoi' fv rcav Krvirrj/^drcav Friederich ; Hertlein approves 
but would omit eV : Sfafj-driov ev ru>v KTIJ/ULOLTWI' Hertlein, MSS. , 
rb Sw/j.dTiov ev /crvTrrj/xo rwv Reiske, eVcr/f^v|/avToy Arnoldt. 



womb she, as the story goes, was beguiled by jealous 
Hera to entreat her lover to visit her as he was 
wont to visit his spouse. And then her frail body 
could not endure the thunders of Zeus and began to 
be consumed by the lightning. But when every- 
thing there was being devoured by flames, Zeus bade 
Hermes snatch Dionysus forth, and he cut open his 
own thigh and sewed the babe therein. 1 Then in 
due course when the time was ripe for the child's 
birth, Zeus in the pangs of travail came to the 
nymphs, and they by their song over the thigh 
"Undo the stitching " 2 brought to light for us the 
dithyramb. Whereupon the god was driven mad by 
Hera, but the Mother of the Gods healed him of his 
sickness and he straightway became a god. And he 
had for followers not, like Heracles, Lichas for 
instance or lolaus or Telamon or Hylas or Abderos, 
but Satyrs, Bacchanals, Pans and a whole host 
of lesser divinities. Do you perceive how much of 
human there is in this generation through the fire of 
a thunderbolt, that his delivery is even more human, 
and that his deeds, even more than these two that 
we have mentioned, resemble those of human beings ? 
Now why do we not set aside all this nonsense and 
recognise herein first the fact that Semele was wise 
in sacred things ? For she was J;he daughter of 
Phoenician Cadmus, and the god himself bears 
witness to the wisdom of the Phoenicians 3 when he 
says " The Phoenicians too have learned many of the 
roads travelled by the blessed gods." 4 I think then 
that she was the first among the Greeks to perceive 

1 Cf . Euripides, Bacchae 279 foil. 2 Cf. Pindar fr. 85. 

3 Cf. Oration 4. 134 A. 

4 An oracular verse from an unknown source. 



avTov OVK es jAaKpav Trpoayopevcraaa Kivycrai 
fjLev 6a,TTOv r) Trpoo-fjfcov rjv TLVCL TWV rrepl avrov 
opjiwv, OVK dvao"XOjjLvr) TOV eifiapfjievov Trepijjuelvai 
%povov, elra dva\w@T/vai rrpos TOV rrvpbs TOV 
eV avTijv. eVel Be ebeSo/CTO T> Au 
iraaiv avOpwrroiS ev&ovvai dp%r)v /cara- 
erepa? Kal fjLera^a\elv l CLVTOVS K TOV 
ftiov TT/DO? TOV r)/*6pd)Tepov, ef 'Iv&wv 6 B 
avTOTTTOs etpauveTO 
ra? 7roXet9, aycov /&' eavTov 


avpftoKov TT/? emfyaveias avTov TO T/}? 
$ (frvTOV, vfi ov fjioi Botcovcriv, 6%r)/j,pa)0ev- 

TGOV aUTOt? TWV TTpl TOV /3iOV, " Ei\\r)V<> Trf? 

eTrcovvfjLias avTO TavTrjs dgiwcrai, /j,r)Tpa B' avTov 
rrpocreiTreiv Trjv %6/ji6\r)v Sia Trjv Trpopprjaiv, aXXw? 
re /cal TOV deov TLJJL&VTOS avTrjv, are TrpttiTVjv lepo- C 

Be, a>9 av rt? aKpiftws GKOTTMV e'l- 

ToiavTrjs, ol TOV Ai6vvo~ov OCTTIS TTOT' 
ecrrt Oewv %r)TovvT6$ Td\fj0e<; e%ov a>9 e^v 6/9 
fjivOov SieaKevaaav, alviTTOfjuevoi TIJV re ovcriav 
TOV deov Kal Trjv ev rot9 vorjTol? rrapa TW TraTpl 
Kvijo-iv Kal TOV djevvrjTOv avTov TOKOV ev T& 
Kov/jito 3 ..... ev TO) jravTi, Kal Ta\\a efagf/s ocra 
TOV r)Teiv rjv a%ia* <f)pdei,v Be 7' ov paSia 

Hertlein suggests, /j,Ta/3d\\eiv AJSS. 

2 nvS>v Hertlein suggests, nva. MSS. 

3 KOff/jua . . . /car . . . y/u.aT . . . iv V, lacuna MSS. 

4 &ta, <f>pdfiv 5e 7' ov pa5m e>oi Hertlein suggests, lacuna 




that there was to be before long a visible manifes- 
tation of this god, and that she foretold it, and 
then that, sooner than was fitting, she gave the 
signal for certain of the mystic rites connected with 
his worship, because she had not the patience to 
wait for the appointed time, and thus she was 
consumed by the fire that fell upon her. But when 
it was the will of Zeus to bestow on all mankind in 
common a new order of tilings, and to make them 
pass from the nomadic to a more civilised mode 
of life, Dionysus came from India and revealed 
himself as very god made visible,, visiting the cities 
of men and leading with him a great host of beings 
in some sort divine ; and everywhere he bestowed 
011 all men in common as the symbol of his mani- 
festation the plant of " the gentle vine " ; and since 
their lives were made more gentle by it the Greeks 
as 1 think gave it that name ; l and they called 
Semele the mother of Dionysus because of the pre- 
diction that she had made, but also because the god 
honoured her as having been the first prophetess of 
his advent while it was yet to be. 

Now since this is the historical truth of these 
events if they are accurately considered and examined, 
those who sought to discover what sort of god 
Dionysus is worked into a myth the truth which 
is as I said, and expressed in an allegory both the 
essential nature of the god and his conception in his 
father Zeus among the intelligible gods, and further 
his birth independently of generation in this our 
world. 2 ... in the whole universe, and in their proper 
order all those other facts which are well worth 

1 T/juepi? the vine ; ifitAfpos = gentle. 

a Here follows a lacuna of several words. 


i 2 


fjiev Kal Bid rb dyvoelv CTI Trcpl avr&v TO D 
dtcpi/3es, rv)(ov Be real ovtc e0e\ovTi rbv /cpvfaov 
dfjLCi /cal <>avepbv Oebv wcnrep ev dedrpw 7rpo(3d\- 
\eiv a/coat? dvegerda-Tois KOL Siavoicus eVt Trdvra 
jjia\\ov rj rb <f)i\ocro(f)eiv rer/aa/u-yLtei/at?. 

'AXX' vTrep IJLGV TOVTWV larw Ato^f<TO? auro?, 
cS KOI Trpoaev^o/jLat ra? re e'/xa? /cal ra? v/jLerepas 
KJ3aK%6v<Tai cfrpevas eTrl rrjv d\r)6rj TWV Oewv 
<yvwcriv, co? av firj irdKvv d^d/c^evTOL ^povov rc5 
Bern pAvovres oTTocra o TlevQevs l 7rd@co/uLev, IVw? 222 
Hev KOI ^co^re?, Tra^ra)? Be dTraXkayevTes rov 
OT yap av 2 fj,r) TO 7re7r\7)0v 'a /Jievov 

V7TO T^9 VOeiBoVS KOi ev TO) 

dBiaiperov 0X779 re eV TTCLGIV 

ovaia^ rov kiovvaov re^eatovp- 
7re/3t TOI' ^eoz^ evOeov 


pvelaav Be Bi6(T7rd<r0ai /cal Biaa-Traa-Qela-a 

TO Se pvelaav /cal Bia&TracrQela-av /JLTJ Trpo- B 
i9 T049 prj^acTiv vBdnov /j,rjBe \LVOV 
d/cpodaBa), ^vvierw Be TO, \eybfjieva 
aXkov, ov HXdrwv, bv H\a)Tivo<;, bv 
os, bv b Bai/jibvios 'Ia/z,/9X//^O9. 09 S' 
civ /Jirj ravrr) Troifj, f ye\dae f rai fJ^ev 

1 UevQevs frrafle MSS. ; Hertlein would omit eiraBf. 

2 &y Hertlein would add. 

3 r(\ecnovpyr]6ri Hertlein suggests, r f \fffiovpyri6eiir) MSS. 



studying but too difficult for me at any rate to 
describe ; partly perhaps because I am still ignorant 
of the precise truth about them, 1 but perhaps also 
because I am unwilling to exhibit as in a theatre 
this god who is at once hidden and manifest, and 
that, too, to ears that have not sought after truth and 
to minds disposed to anything rather than the study 
of philosophy. 

However let Dionysus himself decide about these 
things, though I do indeed implore him to inspire 
my mind and yours with his own sacred frenzy 
for the true knowledge of the gods, so that we 
may not by remaining too long uninspired by him 
have to suffer the fate of Pentheus, perhaps even 
while we are alive, but most certainly after death 
has freed us from the body. For he in whom the 
abundance of life has not been perfected by the 
essential nature of Dionysus, uniform and wholly 
indivisible as it is in the divisible world and pre- 
existing whole and unmixed in all things, he I say 
who has not been perfected by means of the 
Bacchic and divine frenzy for the god, runs the risk 
that his life may flow into too many channels, and as 
it flows be torn to shreds, and hence come to 
naught. But when I say " flow " or " torn to shreds " 
no one must consider the bare meaning of the words 
and suppose that I mean a mere trickle of water or 
a thread of linen, but he must understand these 
words in another sense, that used by Plato, Plotinus, 
Porphyry and the inspired lamblichus. One who 
does not interpret them thus will laugh at them no 
doubt, but let me assure him that it will be a 

1 Cf. Plato, Republic 382 D. 



ye\wv 6/577/^09 wv del rr}? rwv Oewv 
7i>cocreft>9, 779 dvrd^uov ovBe rb rcdaav OJJLOV fierd 
7-779 TMV e Pa)fjiai(0v emrporrevaai rrjv ftapftdpwv C 
eycoye Oei/jbrjv av, ov /JLO, TOV e/j,bv Seo'TroT^z/'HXtoz'. 
d\\d pe 7rd\iv OVK otS' ocrTt9 Qewv eVt ravr 
eftdrc'xeva'ev ov 7rpoe\6/jivov. 

Ov Be evKv e^v avrd' Kara [lev T^V Stdvoiav 
d7T/ji<f)aivovTs oiav ol fJivOoi yiyvMVTai, Trepl TMV 
delwv, avroOev r^uv oxrTrep ftowcri /cal 
povrai fj,rf TTKTTeveiv 0-77X0)9, d\\a rb 
GKorrelv /cal SiepevvaffOai. roaovroy 8' earl 
fcpelrrov ev rovrois rov ae/nvov rb 
6<r(p Bid fjiev eicelvov Ka\ovs \iav real 
Kal dyaOovs, dvOptoTrovs Be ofjiws roi'9 deovs D 
KivBvvos vo/uLio-ai, Bid Be rwv dire^aivovrwv 
VTrepiBovras rwv ev rq> fyavepw \<yo/jLev(av evrl rr)V 
egrjprjjuevrjv avrwv ovcriav teal VTrepe^ovcrav Trdvra 
rd ovra KaOapdv vo^cnv e\rrl<$ dvabpafJieZv. 

/ACTS ovv avrat rov rrjv re\e(rriKr)v Kal 223 

fyikocrofyiav rd /jiev prjfjbara Travrbs 
evayfj Kal a-efjivd Trpotyepecrdai, Kara Be 
rrjv Bidvoiav d\\oiorepav rroielvOai rrjv 
TOIOVTWV. o Be rfj<$ rwv r]6wv 
TO 1)9 A-oyoi^ rr\drrwv Kal fjivOovs rrapdywv 
rovro /u,^ 777)09 avBpas, dk\d 7r/oo9 rralBas 

1 Spdrw rovro Hertlein suggests, vpiorov r$ MSS. 



Sardonic laugh,, 1 since he will be forever deprived of 
that knowledge of the gods which I hold to be more 
precious than to rule over the whole world, Roman 
and barbarian put together, yea, I swear it by my 
lord Helios. But again some god or other and no 
choice of my own has made me rave with this Bacchic 

To go back then to what led me to say all this. 
Whenever myths on sacred subjects are incongruous 
in thought, by that very fact they cry aloud, as it 
were, and summon us not to believe them literally 
but to study and track down their hidden meaning. 
And in such myths the incongruous element is even 
more valuable than the serious and straightforward, 
the more so that when the latter is used there is risk 
of our regarding the gods as exceedingly great and 
noble and good certainly, but still as human beings, 
whereas when the meaning is expressed incongruous 
there is some hope that men will neglect the more 
obvious sense of the words, and that pure intelligence 
may rise to the comprehension of the distinctive 
nature of the gods that transcends all existing 

These then are the reasons why that branch of 
philosophy which is connected with initiation and 
the doctrines of the Mysteries ought by all means to 
be expressed in devout and serious language, while 
as regards the thought the narrative may be ex- 
pounded in a style that has stranger qualities. But 
one who is inventing tales for the purpose of reform- 
ing morals and inserts myths therein, does so not for 
men but for those who are children whether in years 

1 A proverb for forced laughter, cf. Odyssey 22. 302; 
Plato, Republic 337 A. 



* r)\i/ciav rj r&> (frpovelv, rcdvrw^ Be TWV 
\oywv TOVTWV Beo/jbevovs. el pev ovv ??/>tet9 aoi 
TraiBe? ecfrdwrj/juev etre eyon etVe 'AraroXto? ovrovi, B 
(Tvy/caTapi0/j,i, Be rovrq) Kal TOV IMLe/ji/jLopiov KOI 
TOV %a\ovcrTiov, 7T/005 TOVTOis Be, el ftov\6i, fcal 
TOU5 aXXou? efr}?, 'Kvriicvpas aoi Bel' TL yap av 
dfc/ci^oiTO rt?; evrel TT^O? rwv Oewv KOI Trpo? avrov 
TOV fj,v0ov, /j,a\\ov Be rov KOLVT) TTCIVTCOV /8ao"tX,eco9 
, TL aoi fjieja rj fjLi/cpbv TreTroLrjraL epyov; 
yu-era TOV Bi/caiov; TIVCL 
TrevOovvTa, ra> \6ya) BiBd^as, OTI C 
fir) KCLKOV 6 QavaTos fJbrjTe TW TcaQovri fJLrjTe rot? 
ol/ceioi? avTov; Tt9 &' alTidaeTaL (re TT}? eavTov 
fjieipatcio-tcos awfypoavvr)?, OTL TreTroirjtcas avTov 
ef d(TQ)Tov a-axppova KOI ica\bv ov TO awjxa povov, 
d\\a TToXu /j,d\\ov Trjv ^v^rjv fyalveadai] Tiva 
Be d(TKr](n,v eTroirjcra) TOV /3/ou; TL Be CTOL d^iov 
T% Aioyevovs ftaKTrjptas r) val pd Ata TT;? 
Trapprj&ias TreTroirjTai; epyov oiei /jueya ftaKTrjpLav 
\aj3eiv rj Tpfyas dveivai, teal TrepivoGTelv ra9 D 

Kal TO, (TTpaTOTreBa, Kal rot? /j,ev /SeXr/o-- 
\oiBopela } ai, rov9 Be ^eipiaTOv^ OepcnreveLv; 
elire Trpbs TOV Ato9 Kal irpbs TovTwvl T&V dfcpow- 
fjuevcov, 01 Bi v/>ta9 Trjv <f>iXoao(f>iav eKTpeTrovTai, 
dv0* OTOV 7T/009 /ev TOV /jiaKapiTrjv Ka)^cr TCUVTIOV 
et9 'IraXtai^ 77X^69, ou/cert fJievTOi Kal pe^ 
FaXXfcWv; KaiTot, TropevOels 7T/3O9 ^59, el 
aXXo, %vvelvai <yovv crov r^9 



or intelligence, and who on all accounts stand in 
need of such tales. If, however, you took us for 
children, me, for instance, or Anatolius here, and you 
may reckon with us Memmorius also and Sallust and 
add if you please all the others in due order, then 
you need a voyage to Anticyra. 1 For why should 
one pretend to be polite ? Tell me, I ask, in the 
name of the gods, and of myth itself, or rather in the 
name of Helios the King of all the universe, what 
have you ever accomplished, great or small ? When 
did you ever champion one who was resisting 
oppression and had right on his side? When did 
you ever comfort the mourner and teach him by 
your arguments that death is not an evil either for 
him who has suffered it or for his friends ? What youth 
will ever give you the credit for his temperance, and 
say that you have made him show himself sober in- 
stead of dissolute, and beautiful not merely in body 
but far more in soul ? What strenuous discipline 
have you ever embraced ? What have you ever 
done to make you worthy of the staff of Diogenes or 
still more, by Zeus, of his freedom of speech ? Do 
you really think it so great an achievement to carry 
a staff and let your hair grow, and haunt cities and 
camps uttering calumnies against the noblest men, 
and flattering the vilest ? Tell me in the name of 
Zeus and of this audience now present, who are dis- 
gusted with philosophy because of men of your sort, 
why was it that you visited the late Emperor Con- 
stantius in Italy but could not travel as far as Gaul ? 
And yet if you had come to me you would at any 
rate have associated with one who was better able to 

" l Hellebore, supposed to be a cure for madness, grew at 
Anticyra ; hence the proverb : cf. Horace, Satires 2. 3. 166. 



Bwa/jLevti) Tr\r]o~id^eiv e/-teAAe? dvOpoyrtM. TL Be L'24 
/cal TO 7TpL(j)OLTdv 7ravTa^ov /cal Trape^eLv irpd- 
yfjLaTa rat? TJ/JLLOVOLS; d/covct) Be eywye real rot? 
ra? rj/jbLovovs i\avvovcnv, O'L adXXov v^ds r) TOVS 
crTpaTLO)Ta$ Tre^pi/cacrL' %pr)o~6ai yap avTols rot? 
vXot? 1 d/covo) TLvd<$ v/jLwv ^aKeTTWTepov rj rot? 

cL(peO~lV KLVOL. yi/yi/O~(/6 OVV aVTol^ LKOT(0$ 

(bojjepcoTepoi, 7ra\aL LLev ovv VLLLV eueu/iiv eyw 
TOVTO TO ovofjLa, vvvl Be avTo eoL/ca /cal ypdtyeiv. B 
a7TOTa/CTiO"Ta? rti/a? ovo^d^ovo'Lv ol 
Ya\L\aloi' TOVTWV ol TrXetof? fjuicpd 
7ro\\d irdvv, jmd\Xov Be TO, irdvTa TT 
^vy/co/jLL^ovo-t,, /cal 7rpoo~/cTwvTaL 2 TO 
/cal Bopv(f)opLo-0aL /cal Oepa7reveo~6ai. TOLOVTOV 
TL /cal TO v/JieTepov epyov eo~TL, irXrjv laws TOV 
%pr)/jLaTieo~0ai. TOVTO Be ov Trap 1 v/j. 
Trap' r)fj,d<? Be' avveTMTepOi yap ea-pev TWV 
e/ceivwv IVaj? Be /cal BLO, TO fJurjBev V/ULLV elvai Trpo- 
"X, r )l J ' a TOV (>opo~koyLV ev7rpoo~a)7ra>s, OTTOLOV C 
eiceivoi<$, rjv \eyovo-iv ov/c olB* OTTW? eXerj fjLoo-vwrjv ', 
Ta B* a\,\a ye irdvra eo~Tlv vfjblv T tcdiceivois 
7rapa7r\ijo~La. KaToKeKoiiraTe Trjv TraTpiBa &o-irep 
eicelvoi, TrepifyoiTaTe TrdvTrj /cal TO o~TpaTo- 
ireBov Biwx\.r)o~aTe fjid\\ov e/ceivwv /cal LTa^a)- 
Tepov ol /juev yap /ca\ovjjievoL, uyLtet? Be /cal 
direXavvofjievoL. /cal TL %pi]o-Tov e/c TOVTCOV V/JLLV 
eyeveTO, fJLa\\ov Be /cal rjfuv Tot? a/VXot9; dvrfk- D 
Qev 6 'Ao~/c\rj7rLdBr)s, etra. 6 ^ep'rjviavo^, eiTa 6 
v, eiTa ov/c olBa nrai^dpiov 6, TL %av6ov /cal 
r, eiTa o~v, /cal //$' V/AWV O\\OL Bl<? TOO~OVTOI. 

1 rots i-v\ois Hertlein would add ; Naber suggests fi 

2 n-poo'KTwi'Tai Hertlein suggests, ttpoar\v MSS. 



comprehend your language. What do you gain by 
travelling about in all directions and wearing out the 
very mules you ride? Yes, and I hear that you 
wear out the mule drivers as well, and that they 
dread the sight of you Cynics even more than of 
soldiers. For I am told that some of you belabour 
them more cruelly with your staffs than do the 
soldiers with their swords, so that they are naturally 
more afraid of you. Long ago I gave you a nick- 
name and now I think I will write it down. It 
"monks," l a name applied to certain persons by the 
impious Galilaeans. They are for the most part men 
who by making small sacrifices gain much or rather 
everything from all sources, and in addition secure 
honour, crowds of attendants and flattery. Some- 
thing like that is your method, except perhaps for 
uttering divine revelations : but this is not your 
custom, though it is ours ; for we are wiser than those 
insensate men. And perhaps too there is this difference 
that you have no excuse for levying tribute on 
specious pretexts as they do ; which they call "alms," 
whatever that may mean. But in all other respects 
your habits and theirs are very much alike. Like 
them you have abandoned your country, you wander 
about all over the world, and you gave more trouble 
than they did at my headquarters, and were more in- 
solent, For they were at any rate invited to come, but 
you we tried to drive away. And what good have you, 
or rather, what have the rest of us derived from all 
this ? First arrived Asclepiades, then Serenianus, 
then Chytron, then a tall boy with yellow hair I 
don't know his name then you, and with you all 

1 Or "solitaries"; the word also means "heretic"; but 
Julian evidently alludes to Christian monks who lived on 

I2 3 


TI ovv K TT)? u/u-ere/oa? dvoBov yeyovev d 
<w \q)<7TOi,; Tt? rjadero TroXt? 77 rt? IBiwTrjs T?)<? 
VjjLrepa<$ Trapprja-ias; OVK dfypbvax; fiev TO ef 
^ eVt roz^ ovSe l&elv i/^a? Oekovra 
Tropeiav, ave\06vTe<$ Be d^povearepov 
avrf) KOI dfjiadecrrepov /cal fjuavtayBecrrepov fypij- 
<ra<j0, KoXafceixravTes a/ta /cal v\aKTr)0'avTe<s /cal 
/3ty8\ta Soi/re? /cal ravra Trpoo-a^dijvaL 1 irpo<r- 225 
\Lirapr)(TavTes; ov&eva vfiutv ol^ai eya) rocrav- 
TCLKIS et? <f)t,\ocr6(f)ov (froirrjcraL, ocrd/cis et9 
dvriypa(f)6Ci)<$ s UXTTC VIMV 'A./ca$ijjj,ia /cal Av/ceiov 
dvrl TT}? Ilot/ctXr;? re ^^ TWV ftaa-Ckeiwv ra 

OVK ttTra^ere ravra; ov /cara^a\ire vvv 
yovv, el Kal yu-^ Trporepov, ore vfjuv ovbev ecrn 
7T\eov CLTTO T?}? /co/Arj? /cal TT}? ftaKrrjpias; TTW? Be 
Kal yeyovev vfi V^LWV evKaratypovrjTOs rj cf)i\o- 
cro<pia; TWV prjropiKwv ol Bva/jLaOecrraTOi Kal ovB* B 
UTT' avrov rov /SacrtXe&)9 'Ep/AoO rrjv <y\,)TTav 
eKKaOapdrjvai Bvvd/jievoi, (frpevayOfjvat, Be ovBe 
7T/909 aurr}? TT}? 'AOrjvd? <rvv rw 'Qp/jifj, rovro K 
TT)? dyopatov Kal Treptrpe^ovcTrj^ dpTrdaavres 
evrpe'xeia^' ovBe yap ev irapoifjiia TrepifyepbfJbevov 
avro <yiyvo)crKov(ri TO art fibrpvs TT/^O? ftorpvv 
TreTraiverai" op/juwcriv eirl rov KWICT/JLOV ftaKTrj- 
pia, TpifStov, Ko/jir), TO evTevOev d/jiaOLa, Opdcros, C 

Kal TrdvTa aTrXw? ra TOiaitTa. TVJV 
, fyaariv, 6Bov Kal GVVTOVOV eTcl TTJV 

Hertlein suggests, 


twice as many more. And now, my good sirs, what 
good has come from your journey ? What city or 
individual has had any experience of your alleged 
freedom of speech ? Was it not foolish of you to 
choose in the first place to make this journey to an 
Emperor who did not even wish to set eyes 011 you ? 
And when you had arrived, did you not behave even 
more foolishly and ignorantly and insanely in flatter- 
ing and barking at me in the same breath, and 
offering me your books, and moreover imploring that 
they should be taken to me ? I do not believe that 
any one of you ever visited a philosopher's school as 
diligently as you did my secretary : in fact the 
entrance to the Palace stood for you in place of the 
Academy and the Lyceum and the Portico. 

Have done with all this nonsense ! At any rate 
lay it aside now if not before, when you can get no 
advantage from your long hair and your staff. Shall 
I tell you how you have caused philosophy to be 
lightly esteemed ? It is because the most ignorant 
of the rhetoricians, those whose tongues not King 
Hermes himself could purify, and who could not 
be made wise by Athene herself with the aid of 
Hermes, having picked up their knowledge from 
their industry in frequenting public places, for 
they do not know the truth of the current proverb, 
" Grape ripens near grape " 1 then all rush into 
Cynicism. They adopt the staff, the cloak, the long 
hair, the ignorance that goes with these, the 
impudence, the insolence, and in a word everything 
of the sort. They say that they are travelling the 
short and ready road to virtue. 2 I would that you 

1 A proverb to express emulation ; cf. Juvenal 2. 81. 

2 Plutarch, Erotici p. 759, says this of the Cynics ; cf. 
Diogenes Laertius 7. 121. 

I2 5 


dperrjv levai l o<j)\ov Kal vfiels rrjv fjuatcpav eVo- 
pevecrde- pdov av oY e/cetvrjs rj Bid ravrrjs rj\0ere. 
OVK tare, on fieydX-a? e^ovaiv at (TVVTO/JLOI ra? 
^a\e7r6rijra^ ; KOI Mcnrep ev rals Xeax^opot? 6 jjuev 
rrjv o-vvro/jiov e\0elv SvvrjOels paov e/CTrepieicri, rrjv 
Kv/c\a), ov/ceri ^VTOL TO avajrakiv o KVK\W jropev- 
Oels e\0oi av TrdvTcos /cal TTJV eiriTOfJiov, ovrw Srj 2 D 
Kal ev rfj (f)iXo(TO(f)La reXo? re ecrrt /cal dp^r) pia 
re eavrov /cal d(f)OfjLOL(t)drjvai rot? deals' 
v ovv eavTov ryvwvai, reXo? Be rj TT/DO? 

ovv wt/<:o9 evai 

iBwv TMV vo/jLLcr/jLarMV /cal TWV dvOpwirivwv 
Soi;wv, et? eavrbv Kal rov 6eou 
irporepov. eKeivw TO "^pva'iov OVK eari 
ov% TI ^IrdjJL/jiOS tyd/j,/jLo$, el TT/JO? 
avra ej~6rdoi, /cal rr/s d%la<$ avrwv 
avra) TijjLrjrf) yeveadar jrjv yap avra olSev 226 
d/ji(j)6rpa. TO crTravLcorepov Se /cal TO paov dv- 
elvau /cevoSo^ias ravra /cal dfjiadias vevo- 
epya' TO alo"%pbv rf /ca\bv OVK ev TO 9 
Jievois rj ^lreyofj,evoi$ riOeTai, aX/V' ev rfj 
(fret/yet Ta9 Treptrrd^ rpo<f)d<>' d7roo~rpe- 
(j>erai Be rd dtypoBicria. /Bia^o/jievov Be rov 
a-(t)/jiaTos, ov B6r) 7rpoo~TeT?i/cev ovBe Trepi/^evei rbv 
fjidyeipov Kal TO, vTroTpifjijjiaTa Kal rrjv Kvio~o~av, 
ovBe rrjv Qpvvrjv ovBe rr)v Aa'IBa ovBe rr)V rov 
Betvos 3 7rpi/3\e7rrai ya/jLerrjv ovBe TO Ovydrpuov B 
ovBe rr)V OepdrraLvav aXX' 0)9 evi fj,d\io~ra K rwv 

1 Ifvat Cobet, -rropev6/j.e6a Hertlein suggests, lacuna V. 

2 S^ Cobet, 8e Hertlein, MSS. 

3 rov Servos Cobet, rov Se Hertlein, MSS. 



were going by the longer ! For you would more 
easily arrive by that road than by this of yours. 
Are you not aware that short cuts usually involve 
one in great difficulties ? For just as is the case 
with the public roads, a traveller who is able to take 
a short cut will more easily than other men go all 
the way round, whereas it does not at all follow that 
he who went round could always go the short cut, 
so too in philosophy the end and the beginning are 
one, namely, to know oneself and to become like 
the gods. That is to say, the first principle is self- 
knowledge, and the end of conduct is the resem- 
blance to the higher powers. 

Therefore he who desires to be a Cynic despises 
all the usages and opinions of men, and turns 
his mind first of all to himself and the god. For 
him gold is not gold or sand sand, if one enquire 
into their value with a view to exchanging them, 
and leave it to him to rate them at their proper 
worth : for he knows that both of them are but 
earth. And the fact that one is scarcer and the 
other easier to obtain he thinks is merely the result 
of the vanity and ignorance of mankind. He will 
judge of the baseness or nobility of an action, not by 
the applause or blame of men but by its intrinsic 
nature. He avoids any excess in food, and renounces 
the pleasures of love. When he is forced to obey the 
needs of the body he is not the slave of opinion, nor 
does he wait for a cook and sauces and a savoury smell, 
nor does he ever look about for Phryne or Lais or 
So-and-so's wife or young daughter or serving-maid. 
But as far as possible he satisfies his body's needs 



TT poaTV%6vTu>v ttTroTrX^cra? TTJV Oepaireiav TOV 
KOI TO evo^Xovv e' avrov TrapaHrajjievo*;, 

K T?}? *O\Vfji7TOV KOpV(f)f)S eTTlftXeTTei TOU? 

\eifjLwvi /cara CTKOTOV fj 

oaa ovBe Trapa TOV Kcatcvrbv ical TOV ' 
dpvXovaiv ol KOfJi^roTepoi TWV TroirjTwv. rj O-VVTO- 
/AO? 080? ecTTiv avTrj. 8ei yap avTOV aOpows C 
eKCTT^vai eavTOV teal yvwvai, OTL 0eio<> <TTi, KOI 

TOV VOVV fJiV TOV eaVTOV ttT/OUTft)? Kal d/JLTaKlV1j- 

T&)? crvve%eiv ev TOi? Oeious /cal d%pdvToi<; /cal 
vorjfLaa'iv, 6\iya)p6Lv 8e Trdi'TV) TOV 
Kal VO/JLL^CLV avTO /caTa TOV *}i{pdic\etTov 
e/cftXijTOTepov, e/c TOV paaTOV Be avTO) 
T? OepaTretas dTTOTrXrjpovv, eco? av o ^eo? wo-jrep 
opydva) TO) o-w/jiaTi, yjpr]<iQai eTTLTaTTy. 

TavTa fjuev ovv co? c^acrl TauTy. 1 eVaWfa) Be 
o6ev egeftijv. eVetSr) yap TOU? pvOovs Trpoa-rj/cei 
Trpo? TratSa? rfTOi TO> <j)povelv, fcav dvBpes wcriv, fj I) 
Kal TO?? Ka@* r)\iKiav TratSaptoi? aTrayyeXXeiv, 
J~6TacrTeov OTTCO? //.^TC et? 6eov<s JAIJT et? dvOpw- 
TTOU? TrX^yttyLteXe? r;, KaOdirep evayxps, 8fo"<T6/3e? TA 
prjdeiy Kal TrpocreTi TOVTO ev aTracnv dKpLft&s 
{SacravKTTeov, el TTiOavos, el Tot? Trpdy/xaa-L Trpoa- 
(fcvris, el fjivOos CGTIV d\rj9u>^ o TrXaTTOyue^o?. eVet 

TO 76 t'O^ U7TO O~OV TTeTTOirj/AeVOV OV /JLV06$ eCTTL (TO? 2 

icaiTOi TOVTO ye eveavieiHra)' aXX' 6 /j,ev fJivOos 

1 ws (/>a<rl TavTy Cobet, cf. Oration 4. 148 B, lacuna Hert- 
lein, MSS. 

2 <r(Js' Hertlein suggests ; o-Js, is ^TJS MSS. 



with whatever comes to hand, and by thrusting aside 
all hindrances derived from the body he contem- 
plates from above, from the peaks of Olympus, other 
men who are " Wandering in darkness in the 
meadow of Ate," 1 and for the sake of a few wholly 
trifling pleasures are undergoing torments greater 
than any by the Cocytus or Acheron such as the 
most ingenious of the poets are always telling us 
about. Now the true short cut to philosophy is this. 
A man must completely come out of himself and 
recognise that he is divine, and not only keep his 
mind untiringly and steadfastly fixed on divine and 
stainless ajnd pure thoughts, but he must also utterly 
despise his body, and think it, in the words of 
Heracleitus, "more worthless than dirt." And by 
the easiest means he must satisfy his body's needs so 
long as the god commands him to use it as an 

So much for that, as the saying is. 3 Now to go 
back to the point at which I digressed. 4 Since, as I 
was saying, myths ought to be addressed either to 
those who though grown men are children in intelli- 
gence, or to those who in actual years are mere 
children, we must take pains to utter in them 
no word that is offensive to gods or men or 
anything impious, as was done recently. And more- 
over we must in all cases apply careful tests to see 
whether the myth is plausible, closely related to the 
matter discussed and whether what is invented 
is really a myth. Now what you composed lately 
is not your own myth though you boasted that it 
was. Nay, your myth was an old one and you did 

1 Empedocles, fr. 21, Diels. 2 Heracleitus, fr. 96, Diels. 
a Cf. Oration 4. 148 B. 4 223 A. 




7ra\euo9, efyi'ippoa-as Be avrov av 
erepois, oirep ol/j,ai TTOLCLV elo)6aaiv oi rfj rpOTri/cf) 
TWV vorjfjidrwv (caTaa'Keuf)' TroXu? Be ev 
6 lldpio? earn, Trotrjrr^. eot/ca? ovv ovSe 
/jivOov, ay vver(L>TaT, ^drtjv veavieve- 
rcaiTOi TOVTO TLT0r}S epyov early eurpa- 
7re\ou. H\ovrdp%ov Be el ra /LLvOi/ca 
TWV G&V ei(ra> ^eiptov d^ltcTO, OVTTOT' av 
ere, TIVI &ia<f)epei, r jr\daai re e dp%rjs fjivOov teal 
TOV /ceifjievov e^apfioaai Trpdy/jiaa-iv oiKelois. aXX' B 
iva /j,)j ere rrjv avvro/jiov obevovra j3i/3Woi<? jj,/3a- 
juaKpais fcal BvaeXi/cTOis eVtcr^co fMicpa /cal 
co' orv be ovSe TOV ^/jiocrdevov^ drcrjfcoas 
, ov eTToirjcrev 6 Tlaiavievs TT/OO? TOU? ^ 
vaiov], rjvl/ca 6 MaKe&cov egyrei TOI>? '' 
pr)TOpa<$. XP^I V vv Tl TOLOVTO 7r\,dcrai' 
Ttoz/ 6ewv epyov r)v elirelv pvOaplov TI> TOIOVTOV; 
dvay/cdcreis 8e fie KOI fj,v6oTTOiov <yevea-0ai. 

IlXovcriti) dvbpl Trpofiara TJV iro\\d KOL dyeXai C 
/3owi; /cal aliroXta nr\are al<ywv, 'LTTTTOL Se avrw 
piau eAo? Kara (3ovKO\,eoi>TO, /cal 
Bov\oi re teal e\ei>0epoi jjuaOwroi, ical 
/3ov/c6\oi /3owv /cal alywv atTroXot /cal LTnro^op^ol 
iTnrwv, /cal 7T\elara Kri^ara. TOVTWV Be 
7ro\\a fjiev 6 Trarrjp avreXeXotTret, 7ro\- 
\a7r\d(Tia Be auro? eTre/crrja'aro, 1 TrXovrelv OeXwv 

1 fjfKTriffaro Naber. e/cTT/o-aro Hertlein, MSS. 


but adapt it to fresh circumstances, as I believe 
people are in the habit of doing who use tropes 
and figures of thought. The poet of Paros l for 
instance is much given to this style. It seems then 
that you did not even invent your myth, my very 
clever friend, and that yours was an idle boast. 
Though in fact the thing is done by any nurse with 
an inventive turn. And if the mythical tales of 
Plutarch had ever fallen into your hands you would 
not have failed to observe what a difference there is 
between inventing a myth from the beginning and 
adapting to one's own purpose a myth that already 
exists. But I must not detain you even for a 
moment or hinder you on your way along that short 
cut to wisdom by making you embark on books that 
are long and hard to read. You have not even 
heard of the myth by Demosthenes which he of 
the Paeaiiian deme addressed to the Athenians 
when the Macedonian demanded that the Athenian 
orators be given up. You ought to have invented 
something of that sort. In Heaven's name was it 
too hard for you to relate some little myth of the 
kind ? You will force me too to become a 

A certain rich man 2 had numerous flocks of sheep 
and herds of cattle and "ranging flocks of goats" 3 
and many times ten thousand mares ' ( grazed his 
marsh-meadows." 4 Many shepherds too he had, 
both slaves and hired freedmeii, neatherds and goat- 
herds and grooms for his horses, and many estates 
withal. Now much of all this his father had 
bequeathed to him, but he had himself acquired 

1 Archilochus. 2 Constantine. 

:! Iliad 2. 474. 4 Iliad 20. 221. 

K 2 


ev BiKrj TC Kal Trapd BiKrjv eyu-eXe jdp avTW TWV l 
dewv oXijov. ejevovTo Be avTw jvvaiKe? TroXXal D 
Kal vlels e avTwv Kal QvjaTepes, ot? e/cet^o? 
Tijv ovauav eireiTa eTeXevT^aev, ovBev 
oiKovofJiia^ Trepi BiBd^as, ovB* OTTCO? dv Tt? 
BvvaiTO Ta TOiavTa KTaaOai ^ TrapovTa rj ira- 
povTa Bia(f)v\dTTeiv. weTO jdp VTTO 

TO TrXfjOos, eTrel Kal auTo? rjv ov 
TT}? TOLa\)Tr\^ Te^vrj^, CLTB /JLT) 
>5 avTTjV, aXXa crvvr^Oeia Tivl Kal 
Treipa fid\\ov, a)o~7rep 01 (f>av\oi TWV laTpwv K 228 
TT}? efJLireipias /JLOVOV IW/JLCVOL TOL/? dvOpwTrovs, odev 
TCL TroXXa TWV vo(7riadTWV avTOvs. 

pKev ovv vojjiiaas TO Trrjos TWV vewv TT/JO? TO 
<pv\dai, TTJV ovcriav ovBev IfypovTiaev OTTCO? 
ecrovrau cnrovSaioi,. TO Se dpa avrols rjp^e 
TOV fiev TWV 6t? aA.XrJXou? d&iKrj/jidTwv. 
jap eVao-TO? wvirep 6 Traryp 7ro\\a e^eiv Kal 

Trdvra eirl rov TreXa? erpaTrero. Tew? fiev B 
rovro eTrpdrTeTO. TrpoaaiTeXavov Be Kal ol 
8' avTol TraibevOevres /taX/w?, T/}? 
dvoias re Kal d/jLaOias. elra em/x- 
<j)6va)i> iravra, Kal rj rpajiKrj Kardpa VTTO 
TOV Bai/Jiovos 6i? epjov ^jero' TCL iraTpwa jdp 
OrjKTw o-L$ijp(a ^Lekdj^avoViKal r)v Trdvra 

Trarp&a fiev iepd KareaKaTTTero Trapd 
o\ijc0pr)0evTa Trporepov VTTO TOV 

TWV dvaOrj^drcov, a TeOeiTO G 

1 airy T&V Klimek, avrc? Kai TWV Hertlein, 1N1SS. 
I 3 2 


many times more, being eager to enrich himself 
whether justly or unjustly ; for little did he care for 
the gods. Several wives he had, and sons and 
daughters by them, among whom he divided his 
wealth before he died. But he did not teach them 
how to manage it, or how to acquire more if it 
should fail, or how to preserve what they had. For 
in his ignorance he thought that their mere numbers 
would suffice, nor had he himself any real knowledge 
of that sort of art, since he had not acquired his 
wealth on any rational principle but rather by use 
and wont, like quack doctors who try to cure their 
patients by relying on their experience only, so that 
many diseases escape them altogether. 1 Accordingly 
since he thought that a number of sons would suffice 
to preserve his wealth, he took no thought how to 
make them virtuous. But this very thing proved to 
be the beginning of their iniquitous behaviour to one 
another. For every one of them desired to be as 
wealthy as his father and to possess the whole 
for himself alone, and so attacked the brother that 
was his neighbour. Now for a time they continued 
to behave thus. And their relatives also shared in 
the folly and ignorance of those sons, since they 
themselves had had no better education. Then 
ensued a general slaughter, and heaven brought the 
tragic curse 2 to fulfilment. For " by the edge of the 
sword they divided their patrimony" and everything 
was thrown into confusion. The sons demolished the 
ancestral temples which their father before them had 
despised and had stripped of the votive offerings 

1 Of. Plato, Charmides 156 E. 

2 The curse of Oedipus on his sons ; cf. Euripides, 
Phoenissae 67 ; Plato, Alcibiades 2. 138 c ; Aeschylus, Seven 
Against Thebe* 817, 942. 



rcapa TToXXcoy fiev real a\\wv, ov% I'lrcicna Be TMV 
rrpoTraropwv avrov. KaOaipov/nevwv Be TMV lepwv 
avtoKoBofielro rra\aia real vea /jLvtf/Jtara, rrpoayo- 
pevovros avrois rov avro/Jidrov /cal T^? Tw^^9, on 
dpa 7ro\\a)v avrois Berjcrei /Avrj/maTayv OVK e/9 
[Aa/cpdv, eirei^riTrep avrois o\ijov e/zeXe TMV dewv. 


yd/Li(i)v re ov yd/uwv teal /36/3r}\ov[iV(i)v O/JLOV rot? 
Oelois TWV dvOpwjrlvwv, rov A/a eXeo? VTrrfKOev D 
elra aTTiBcov TT/QO? roz^ f/ H\iov w iral, eljrev, 
ovpavov KOI 7/79 dp^ciiorepov ev deols /SXacrr^/za, 
lAvrjaiKafcelv en Siavof/ T?)? vTrepotyias dvSpl 
av0d&ei KOL ro\fj,r)pw, 09 ere dTroXiirwv avrw re KOL 
yevei, airLos 1 eyevero TMV rr)\iKovrci)v rradrj/jidrcov; 
f) vofjii^eis, on fjbrj ^dXerralvei^ avrw /JLTJ& dyava/e- 229 
T6i9 yLt^S' eVl TO 76^09 avrov roL/9 olarov^ 
eKarrov eivai, ravrrj^j atrt09 avrw r>}9 
eprj/jiov avrov rrjv oltciav <7(et9; aXX', ecfrrj, rcaXw- 
fiev r9 Mot/oa?, et TTT; /3or)0r)TOS 6 dvr)p eartv. al 
8e vmJKovo'av avri/ca rw Ait. KOI o fiev r/ HXi09, 
wcrrcep evvowv n teal \oyt^6/jLvo^ auro9 ev eavrw, 

e/9 ro^ Ata mjt;a<> ra OyLt/zara. 
Be rj Trpeo-fivrdrTj' K(D\verov, 
rrdrep, rj 'O&ior'rjs t;vv ry AiKy. aov ovv epyov 
eariv, erreirrep rjfjLas etceXevcras vrreiKaOelv avrals, B 
rrelcrat, teal e/ceivas. aXX' eyLtal jdp elo~LV, e<prj, 
Ovyarepes, Kal afyov Brj epecrOai avrdv ri roivvv, 

1 yevei atrios Cobet, yevet Kal traialv atrios Hertlein, MSS. 


that had been dedicated by many worshippers, but 
not least by his own ancestors. And besides de- 
molishing the temples they erected sepulchres l both 
on new sites and on the old sites of the temples, as 
though impelled by fate or by an unconscious 
presentiment that they would ere long need many 
such sepulchres, seeing that they so neglected the 

Now when all was in confusion, and many mar- 
riages that were no marriages 2 were being con- 
cluded, and the laws of god and man alike had 
been profaned, Zeus was moved with compassion 
and addressing himself to Helios he said : " O my 
son, divine offspring more ancient than heaven and 
earth, art thou still minded to resent the insolence of 
that arrogant and audacious mortal, who by forsaking 
thee brought so many calamities on himself and 
his race ? Thinkest thou that, though thou dost not 
show thine anger and resentment against him nor 
whet thine arrows against his children, thou art 
any less the author of his destruction in that thou 
dost abandon his house to desolation ? Nay," said 
Zeus, "let us summon the Fates and enquire whether 
any assistance may be given the man." Forthwith 
the Fates obeyed the call of Zeus. But Helios who 
was as though absorbed in thought and inward 
debate yet gave constant heed and fixed his eyes on 
Zeus. Then spoke the eldest of the Fates : " O our 
father, Piety and Justice both restrain us. Therefore 
it is thine to prevail on them also, since thou hast 
ordered us to be subservient to them." And Zeus 
made answer, " Truly they are my daughters, and it 

1 The Christian churches were so called because they were 
built over the tombs of the martyrs. 2 i.e. between cousins. 


w iroTvia, (frarov; d\\d TOVTOV /nev, eljrerrjv, w 
irdrep, avrbs el Kvpios. aKoirei Be OTTWS ev dvdpw- 
TTOIS o Trovrjpo? oi>Toarl rr;? dvoaiovpyias V)Xo? fj/rj 
TcavTanraaiv eTTtKpaTijcrei. 1 Trpbs dfJi<f)OTepa, elTrev, 
eyw (TKeifrofjiai. KOL al Mot^oat TrX^crtW Trapovaai 
Trdvra 7reK\a)0ov, <w? o Trarrjp efiovXero. 

Aeyeiv Be 6 Zeu? ap^erai TT/JO? Tov ff ti\Lov rovrl 
TO Traibiov, e(f)r)' j^vyyeves Be r)V avrwv apa Trapep- 
pi/jLfjievov TTOV KOL d/jie\ov/jLvov, dBeXtyiBovs e/cetvov 

TOU 7T\OV(7LOV Kal dvetylOS TWV /C\r)pOl>6/JLCOV TOVTO, 

e<j)r), (7ov ecrriv efcyovov. O/JLO<TOV ovv TO efjiov re 
/cal TO GOP 2 a/crJTTTpov, r) /jLrjv e'7TtyteX?7<7e<r#afc Bia- 
(frepovTCix; avTov teal avTo /cal Oepa- 
Trevcrew TT}? voaov. opa^ yap OTTW? olov VTTO 
KaTrvov pVTrov T6 dvaTreTrX'rjffTai ical \iyvvos, 


TJV fjur) av ye Svaeai, d\K7)V. crol Be eya> Te 
Kal al Molpar Kofja^e ovv avTo Kal 
Tpe(f>e. TavTa aKOvcras 6 fiaa-iXevs r/ HXto? rjv- 
(>pdv0r) Te riaOels TW ftpefai, a-w^opevov CTI Ka6o- 
pwv ev avTW (TTrivOripa piKpov e'f eaVTOv, Kal TO 
evTevOev eTpetyev eKelvo TO TraiBiov, e^ayaywv 

K ff afyuVTOf K Te KvBoiflOV 

"E/c T' dvBpoKTacrirjs. 

o TraTrjp Be 6 Zeu? eVeXef ere Kal TVJV 'AOrjvav Trjv 
dfjiiJTOpa, Trjv irapOevov d/Jia TU> 'HXtco TO TraiBd- 
pLov KTpe(j)iv. eTrel Be Tpd(j)rj Kal veavias eye- 


Tlp&Tov VTnjvtJTrjs, Tovirep ^apieaTaTrj rjftrj, 

1 fir IK par-five i Hertlein suggests, eVtKpaTTJerjj MSS. 

2 ri 0}>v Hertlein suggests, ffbv MSS. 


is meet that I question them. What then have ye to 
say, ye venerable goddesses? " " Nay, father/' they 
replied, " that is as thou thyself dost ordain. But be 
careful lest this wicked zeal for impious deeds 
prevail universally among men." " I will myself look 
to both these matters," Zeus replied. Then the 
Fates approached and spun all as their father 

Next Zeus thus addressed Helios : " Thou seest 
yonder thine own child." l (Now this was a certain 
kinsman of those brothers who had been cast aside 
and was despised though he was that rich man's 
nephew and the cousin of his heirs.) " This child," 
said Zeus, " is thine own offspring. Swear then by 
my sceptre and thine that thou wilt care especially 
for him and cure him of this malady. For thou 
seest how he is as it were infected with smoke and 
filth and darkness and there is danger that the spark 
of fire which thou didst implant in him will be 
quenched, unless thou clothe thyself with might. 2 
Take care of him therefore and rear him. For I and 
the Fates yield thee this task." When King Helios 
heard this he was glad and took pleasure in the 
babe, since he perceived that in him a small spark 
of himself was still preserved. And from that time 
he reared the child whom he had withdrawn " from 
the blood and noise of war and the slaughter of 
men." 3 And father Zeus bade Athene also, the 
Motherless Maiden, share with Helios the task 
of bringing up the child. And when, thus reared, 
he had become a youth " With the first down on his 
chin, when youth has all its charms," 4 he learned 

1 Julian himself. 2 Iliad 9. 231. 

3 Iliad 11. 164. 4 Iliad 24. 348. 



Karavorjaas rwv KCLKWV TO rr\r)6o^, orroaov ri rrepl 
TOVS ^vyyeveis avrov Kal rou? dvetyiovs eyeyovei, 
eo'erjo'e fj,ev avrov et9 rov rdprapov rrpoecrOat rrpbs 
TO jJLeye0os TWV KaKwv eK7r\ayei<$. errel be f/ HXto9 B 
ev/jL6vrj$ wv uera T>y? TIpovotas ^AOrjvas VTTVOV TLVCL 
/cal /cdpov 6{ifta\(i)V TT}? eTrivotas ravrrj^ aTrrfyayev, 
avOis dvyep0els cuireicnv et? eprf/jiiav. elra e/cel 


avTov ea/coTrei, Tiva Tpoirov e/c</>eueTat TMV rocrou- 
rcov KCLKWV TO fAeyeOos' ij8rj yap avru) Trdvra 
d, KO\,OV $e ovbev 

ovv avro)' Ka yap e^ev o/cews TT/OO? 
avrov wa-rrep rj\uau>rr)s veavlcr/cos (fravels rj(nrd- 
craro re <f>i\o$>p6vu><; /cat,, Aevpo, elrrev, rjye/jicov &oi 
eya) eo-oyu-at \eiorepas 1 Kal ofJiaXecrrepas 6Sov 
rovrl TO fjLiKpbv vrrepftdvn TO (TKO\IOV KOL arco- 
TO/AOV %c0piov, ov Trdvras o/oa? TrpOGTrraiovras Kal 
dmovras evrevOev brriaw. Kal 6 veavi(TKO<$ dmwv 


re Kal darrL^a Kal Sopv, 2 yv/Jbva Be avrw 
Tew? TJV ra rrepl rrjv K(j)a\ijv. Tcerroidci)^ ovv avrco D 
Trporjyev ei? TO Trpoaa) &ia Xeta? 6&ov Kal dOpvrrrov 
KaOapas re rrdvv Kal Kaprrols ^piOoixrr)^ avQevi 
re TroXXoi? Kal dyaOols, oaa earl Oeols $i\a, Kal 
SevSpecri Kirrov Kal $d<f)vrj<; Kal ^vppivris. dyayaiv 
8e avrov erri n /-teya Kal v^rrfKov 0^009, 'Evrl 
rovrov, e(f>rj, TT}? Kopvfirjs 6 Trarrjp rrdvrwv 
KaOrjrai rwv 6ewv. opa ovv evravBd ecrriv 6 
aeyas KLV&VVOS' OTTO)? avrov &>? evayearara 
7rpo<TKVV)ja'i$, alrrjcrr) o~e reap avrov 6, ri av 

1 Aeiorepas, Klimek, Aeios Hertlein, MSS. 

2 Sopv Hertlein suggests, ^ax c 'P ai/ MSS ; cf. 231 c. 


the numerous disasters that had befallen his kinsmen 
and his cousins., and had all but hurled himself into 
Tartarus, so confounded was he by the extent of 
those calamities. Then Helios of his grace, aided 
by Athene, Goddess of Forethought, threw him into 
a slumber or trance, and so diverted him from that 
purpose. Then when he had waked from this he 
went away into the desert. And there he found 
a stone and rested for a while thereon, debating 
within himself how he should escape evils so many 
and so vast. For all things now appeared grievous 
to him and for the moment there was no hope 
anywhere. Then Hermes, who had an affinity for 
him, 1 appeared to him in the guise of a youth of his 
own age, and greeting him kindly said, " Follow me, 
and I will guide thee by an easier and smoother road 
as soon as thou hast surmounted this winding and 
rugged place where thou seest all men stumbling 
and obliged to go back again." Then the youth set 
out with great circumspection, carrying a sword and 
shield and spear, though as yet his head was bare. 
Thus relying on Hermes he went forward by a road 
smooth, untrodden and very bright, and overhung 
with fruits and many lovely flowers such as the gods 
love, and with trees also, ivy and laurel and myrtle. 
Now when Hermes had brought him to the foot of a 
great and lofty mountain, he said, " On the summit 
of this mountain dwells the father of all the gods. 
Be careful then for herein lies the greatest risk 
of all 2 to worship him with the utmost piety and 
ask of him whatever thou wilt. Thou wilt choose, 

1 i.e. as the god of eloquence. 

2 Plato, Republic 618 u. 



' e\oio Be, &> iral, TCL (3e\Ti(na. ravra 231 
dTreKpv^rev eavrov 'E/o//% ird\iv. 6 oe 
/JLCV Trapa TOV 'J^p/nov TrvOeaOai, ri vrore 
r) Trapa TOV TraTpbs TMV Oe&v, &>9 
Se 7r\rjcriov ovra ov KarelSev, 'Ei^Se^? fJiev, (f)rj, 
Ka\rj Se o/z-o)? 17 ^VfjL^ov\r). alrM/jLeOa ovv dyaQfj 
TIL/XT) ra /cpdnara Ka'nrep OVTTCO cra(/)ft)9 TOV TraTepa 
TWV Oewv op&VTes. T O ZeO TT are/3 ^7 o, rt crot (f)i\ov 
ovofjia /cal OTTW? ovofid^ecrOaL' Sei/cvve /AOL TYJV ewl 
ere (frepovfrav 6Bbv avw. KpeiTTOva >ydp JJLOI TO, e/cel B 
(fraiveTai 'ftwpia irapa are fjiavTevofJievw TO Trapa 
aol /caXXo? CLTTO TT}? ev rourot? oOev TreTropev/jL0a 
rew? dy\ata<>. 

TavTa etre VTTVOS Ti? etre 

e avTw LKVVO~IV a)Tov TOV 
KTr~\,ayels ovv 6 veavto-fcos VTTO T?}? 6ea<$, ' 
(Tol yu,ev, eiTrev, a) 6ewv iraTep, TWV re aXkwv KOI 
TOVTWV eve/ca TTCLVTUIV e^avTOV (frepwv avaOrjaw. C 
Trei/3a\OL)V l Be rot? yovaat, TOV c HXtou ra? ^elpa<^ 
l^ et^ero aw^eiv eavTOV Seoyu-e^o?. o 5e /ca\e- 
dv etce\eve TrpwTov dvaicpiveiv avTov, 
v OTT\a. eirel Se ewpa T^V re daTTiSa 
Kal TO ft^>09 /u-era roO So/mro?, 'AXXa TTOI) crot, 
e^)?;, c5 Trat, TO Topyoveiov Kal TO Kpdvos; 6 Be, 
Kal TavTa, elire, 7^07^9 eKTrjo-d/jujv ovoels yap r\v 
6 ^VjjLTTOvwv ev TTJ TWV (rvyyevwv oiKiq Trapeppi/j,- 
fjLV(t). "I(T0i ovv, eiTrev 6 jneyas f/ H\t09, OTL ere 

* eTrave\0elv e/celae. evTavOa eBeiTo D 

Cobet, Treptpd\\cav Hertlein, MSS, 



my child, only what is best." So saying Hermes 
once more became invisible, though the youth was 
fain to learn from him what he ought to ask from the 
father of the gods. But when he saw that he was 
no longer at his side he said, "The advice though 
incomplete is good nevertheless. Therefore let me 
by the grace of fortune ask for what is best, though 
1 do not as yet see clearly the father of the gods. 
Father Zeus or whatever name thou dost please 
that men should call thee by, 1 show me the way 
that leads upwards to thee. For fairer still methinks 
is the region where thou art, if I may judge of the 
beauty of thy abode from the splendour of the place 
whence I have come hither." 

When he had uttered this prayer a sort of 
slumber or ecstasy came over him. Then Zeus 
showed him Helios himself. Awestruck by that 
vision the youth exclaimed, " For this and for all 
thy other favours I will dedicate myself to thee, O 
Father of the Gods !" Then he cast his arms about 
the knees of Helios and would not let go his hold 
but kept entreating him to save him. But Helios 
called Athene and bade her first enquire of him what 
arms he had brought with him. And when she saw 
his shield and sword and spear, she said, " But where, 
my child, is thy aegis 2 and thy helmet ? " e ' Even 
these that I have," he replied, " 1 procured with 
difficulty. For in the house of my kinsfolk there 
was none to aid one so despised." " Learn there- 
fore," said mighty Helios, " that thou must without 
fail return thither." Thereupon he entreated him 

1 Cf. Aeschylus, Agamemnon 160. 

2 Literally "the Gorgon's head," which formed the centre 
of the cegis or breastplate of Athene ; cf. 234 A. 



yu//7 7re/J.7reiv avTov e/ceiae iraKiv, d\\a 
ft>9 ovKeO' vo-Tepov 7ravtj^ovTa, aTrdKov/Jievov Be 
V7TO TWV e/cei /ca/cwv. &)? Be e\iTrdpei Sa/cpvayv, 
el, e$>r), Kal d/jivrjTOS. Wi ovv Trap 1 
ft>? civ fivrjdeiTj^ acr^aXw? re e/cel Sidyois' 
r) yap d cnnevaL /cal KaOaipeiv efcelva Trdvra ra 
dcre/Bij^ara, TrapaicaX.elv 8e 6/xe re /cal rrjv 'A&vjvav 
KOL TOU? aXXou? 0ov$. a/coucra? ravra o veavL- 2 ' 
cr/co? .l<JTY)K.i GLWirr). /cal 6 f^eyas "HXio? eVt 
nva VKOTTLCLV dyayoov avrov, ^9 TO JJL&V avw (frcoros 
, TO 3e vTro/cdra) /JLvpias d^\vo<^, &L* 779 
TO >W9 Siifcveiro T9 etc 

dvetyiov TOV K\^povojjiov; /cal 09, 'Opco, ecfrr). Ti 
$e; TOU9 fiovKoXovs TOVTOval /cal TOVS TTOLfjieva^; 
/cal TOVTOVS opdv eiTrev 6 veaviGKos- TIoTa7ro9 ovv 13 
T/9 VOL o K\r]pov6v,o$ (fraiveTai; TroTairol 3' av ol 
TTOifj-eve^ T /cal &OVKO\OL; KOI 6 veaviaicos, f Q j^ei> 
uoi, (f)r), bo/cel vvaTa^eiv Ta vroXXa /cal 
fjievos 1 A,eXt;^oTft)9 rjSvTradelv, TWV 
O\LJOV fjiev e&Ti TO d&Telov, TO 7rX>}^o9 Se 
/jLOxOrjpov /cal Orjpico^. effdiei yap /cal TrnrpdaKei 
Ta TrpofiaTa /cal dSi/cei BiTrXf) TOV ^eaTroT'rjv. TU 
TC ydp Trol/JiVia avTov fy9elpei /cal e'/c 7ro\\a)v 
fjiLKpa dTrocfrepov a/jLiadov elvai c^rjcn /cal oSvpeTai. C 

KaiTQl KpeLTTOV T)V TOL'9 /jLLaOoV? ClTTaiT&lV VT\L<> 

77 (f)6ei,ptv Tr)V TroijjLvrjv. *Av ovv, (f)r), ere 700 
TavTrjcrl TTJ^ 'AQrjvds, eTriTaTTOVTOS TOV 
Naber thinks corrupt, but ef. Letter to the 

Athenians 285 A. 


not to send him to earth again but to detain 
him there, since he would never be able to mount 
upwards a second time but would be overwhelmed 
by the ills of earth. But as he wept and implored 
Helios replied,, "Nay, thou art young and not yet 
initiated. Return therefore to thine own people 
that thou mayst be initiated and thereafter dwell 
on earth in safety. For return thou must, and 
cleanse away all impiety and invoke me to aid thee, 
and Athene and the other gods." When Helios 
had said this the youth remained silent. Then 
mighty Helios led him to a high peak whose upper 
region was filled with light but the lower with the 
thickest mist imaginable, through which, as through 
water, the light of the rays of King Helios pene- 
trated but faintly. " Thou seest," said Helios, " thy 
cousin the heir? " l "I see him," the youth replied. 
" Again, dost thou see yonder herdsmen and shep- 
herds? " The youth answered that he did. "Then 
what thinkest thou of the heir's disposition ? And 
what of his shepherds and herdsmen ? " " He seems 
to me," replied the youth, " to be for the most part 
asleep, sunk in forgetfulness and devoted to pleasure ; 
and of his shepherds a few are honest, but 
most are vicious and brutal. For they devour 
or sell his sheep, and doubly injure their master, 
in that they not only ruin his flocks but besides 
that they make great gain and return him but 
little thereof, while they declare with loud complaint 
that they are defrauded of their wages. And yet 
it were better that they should demand and obtain 
their full pay than that they should destroy the 
flock." "Now what if I and Athene here," said 

1 Constant! us. 


o?, dvrl rov K\rjpov6/Jiov rovrov rrdvrwv errt- 
rpOTrov rovrwv KdTao'Tija'Ct) ; rrd\iv evravOa 6 
veavi&Kos dvrei%ero KOI TroXXa iKerevev avrov 
/j,eveiv. 6 Be, M.rj ~\iav drreiOr]? eao, (frrjo-i, pi] 

>? vvv 

Kal 6 veavia-fcos, 'AXX', co /jbeyiare, elirev, r/ H\te 
KOI 'A.0r}va, ere re Kal avrov eTrifJiapTvpo/jiai rov 
A/a, xprjaOe fjioi TT/OO? o, TL (3ov\e(r6e. 7rd\iv ovi> D 
6 c E/?yLt7}? a<pvco (pavels eTroirjae TOV veavicrKov 
QappaXewTepov. ijSrj jap SievoeLTo TT)? re OTT'KJW 
Tropeias real TT}? e/ceicre SiarpLftijs rjvptjKevai rov 
rjyepova. Kal r) *A0rjjrd, Mdvdave, elrrev, a) \ware, 
Trar/30? dyaOov rovroul rov Oeov Kal GJJLOV yQXa- 
arrj/jia. rovrov, (j)rj, rov K\rjpov6/jiov ol /3\ricrroi 
fjiev OVK ev^pauvovcri. r&v 7roifjLvcov, ol KoXaKes Se 
Kal ol fio'xjdrjpol Bov\ov Kal vrro^eipiov rre7roir\vrai. 
o~v/ji/3aivei, ovv avrw rrapa jj,ev rwv rci.iK.&v fJLrj 23 
<^i\el(rdaL, rcapa Se rwv vo/ja^o^evwv (j)i\elv l et? 
ra /j,e<yi,<Tra dSiKelaOai. O-KOTTCL ovv OTTCO? Girav- 
e\6wv /AT) rrpo rov <$L\ov Qi]aei rov Ko\aKa- 
oevrepav aKove /JLOV Trapaiveaiv, & real, vvard^cov 
rrararai rd TroXXa' crt Be vf)(f) Kal 
fir) ere Sid TJ}? rov (f)i\ov rrapprfcria^ 6 
rcarrjO'as \d0oi, 2 ^aXtfeu? old rt? ye/jiwv 
Karrvov Kal yu-aptX^?, e^cov i/jbdnov \GVKOV Kal rd B 
rrpoawrra r> ^rifjiv6Lw Ke^piafJievo^, elra avrw 
Sot?;? yr/jj-ai riva rwv awv dwyarepwv. 
erraKove /JLOV Trapaivecrews, Kal /jid\a l 
(f)v\arr aavrov, alBov Be Kal ^yita? aovov, dvBpwv 

1 QtXetv Cobet, (f>i\cav Hertlein, MSS. 

2 \d6oi Hertlein suggests, \ddy MSS. 



Helios, " obeying the command of Zeus, should 
appoint thee to govern all these, in place of the 
heir?" Then the youth clung to him again and 
earnestly entreated that he might remain there. 
" Do not be obstinate in disobedience/' said Helios, 
" lest perchance I hate thee beyond measure, even 
as I have loved thee." l Then said the youth, :e Do 
thou, O most mighty Helios, and thou, Athene, and 
thee too, Father Zeus, do I call to witness, dispose 
of me as ye will." Then Hermes suddenly appeared 
once more, and inspired him with greater courage. 
For now he thought that he had found a guide for 
the journey back, and for his sojourn on earth. 
Then said Athene, " Attend, good youth, that art 
born of myself and of this god, thy noble sire ! The 
most virtuous of the shepherds do not please this 
heir, for flatterers and profligates have made him 
their slave and tool. Thus it is that he is not 
beloved by the good, and is most deeply wronged by 
those who are supposed to love him. Be careful 
then when thou returnest that he make thee not his 
flatterer rather than his friend. This second 
warning also do thou heed, my son. Yonder man 
slumbers, and hence he is often deceived, but do 
thou be sober and vigilant, 2 lest the flatterer assume 
the frankness of a friend and so deceive thee ; which 
is as though a smith covered with smoke and cinders 
should come wearing a white garment and with his 
face painted white, and thus induce thee to give him 
one of thy daughters in marriage. 3 My third 
warning to thee is this : do thou very zealously keep 
watch over thyself, and reverence us in the first 

1 Iliad 3. 415. 2 Peter 1. 5. 8 ; Thessaloniam 1. 5. 6. 

3 An echo of Plato, Republic 495 E. 




Be O&TIS rjfMV Trpoaouoios ecrnv, aXXoy Be 
opa<; oVfc>9 rovrov rov r)\i6iov efiXatyev 
Kal TO \Lav dyav elvai Kararr\rjya; 

Kal 6 aeyas f 'HXiO9 avOis rov \6yov Bia- 

elirev- 'EtXouevos (f)i\ov<$ ft>9 <f>l\oi<> C 
e avrovs ol/ceras /j,v]Be Oepdirovra^ 
, TTpoaiOi Se aurot? e\ev0epa)<> re teal 
KCU yevvaia)?, /u.r) \e^wv fj,ev a\\a, 
fypovwv Be ere pa Trepl avrwv- o/>a? ori KOI 
rovrov rov K\rjpovo/jLOV rovro eTrerpi^jrev, r) TT/JO? 


r)/jiL<> ere- ra TT/OO? /ia9 Tjyeaa) aoi rwv 

tcaXwv aTrdvrtoV' ecr^ev yap o~ov Kal evepyerai Kai D 
/cal crwrrjpes. aKovaa? ravra 6 vea 
rj Kal Sr]\o<? r)V arcavra TJBrj rot? 
. 'AXX' WL, e<j>rj, Tropevov f.iera a 

tet? yap (TOL 7ravra%oi> 

eyct) re Kal 'AOrjva Kal 'Rpurjs oBe Kal avv r 
01 Oeol Trdvre? ol ev 'OXu/zTrw Kal ol Trepl rov 
depa Kal rrjv yrjv Kal irav nravra^ov TO Oelov 
yevos, e&)? av ra re Tryoo? }yaa? o<7io? 77? Kal ra 

7T/3O? TOU9 0/Xoi>9 TTifTTO? KOi TCL 7T/)O9 TOU9 

(f)i\.dv6po)7ro<>, ap^wv avrwv Kal r)yov- 234 
7rl ra (3e\rio~Ta' aXXa utfre rat9 aeavrov 
rat9 eKeivwv 1 eiriOv uLais BovXevcov vrretKa- 
^779. 6%&>z/ ovv rrjv rravorr\iav? fjv eKouia-as 
7T/J09 rjuas, aTTidt 7rpoor\a/3cov ravrrjv uev rrjv 
BaBa Trap 1 efJiov, wa crot, Kal ev rrj yf) <co9 
\dfjL7rp aeya Kal /j,rjBev eTTiTroOfjs rwv rfjBe, 
ravrrjcrl Be 'AQrjvas Tr}9 Ka\rjs TO Te Topyoveiov 

1 TOIS fKfivuv Cobet, fKeiixtiv rats Hertlein, MSS. 

2 T^V TtavoirXtav Hertlein suggests, Tra^oTrA^ar MSS. 



place, and among men only him who resembles us, 
and no one besides. Thou seest how false shame 
and excessive timidity have injured this foolish man." 
Then mighty Helios took up the tale and said, 
" When thou hast chosen thy friends treat them as 
friends and do not regard them as thy servants 
and attendants, but let thy conduct towards them 
be generous, candid, and honourable : say not one 
thing about them while thou thinkest another. 
Thou seest that it was treachery to his friends that 
destroyed this heir. Love thy subjects even as we 
love thee. Prefer our worship to all other blessings. 
For we are thy benefactors and friends and pre- 
servers." At these words the youth became calm 
and showed plainly that he was already obedient in 
all things to the gods. " Come," said Helios, " now 
depart with good hope. For everywhere we shall be 
with thee, even I and Athene and Hermes here, and 
with us all the gods that are on Olympus or in the 
air or on earth and the whole race of gods every- 
where, so long as thou art pious towards us and loyal 
to thy friends, and humane towards thy subjects, 
ruling them and guiding them to what is best. But 
never yield to thy own passions or become the slave 
of theirs. Keep the armour that thou hast brought 
hither, and depart, but first receive from me this 
torch so that even on earth a great light may shine 
for thee and that thou mayst not long for the things 
of earth. And from fair Athene here receive an 

L 2 



/cal TO Kpdvos' TToXXo, ydp, bpa<$, ecrTiv avTrj, Kal 
BuBwaiv ot9 dv e0e\rj. Bwcrei Be aoi Kal 'EipfjLijs B 
pdSBov. epyov ovv TV TfavoirKia KOCTLLII- 

/ \ / \ ' (> V ' / \ 

TavTr) oia TTttcny? /jiev 7779, oia Tracrry? oe 
',fjLTaKivr)TO)<; rot9 -?7/zere|Oot9 Trei.9ofjievo^ 
>, /cal /jirjBeLS ere yLt?)re dvBpwv yu-^re yvvaiKwv, 
TWV oiKeiwv [JLr)T TMV eva)v dvaTreicrr) TWV 
:\adecr6ai TWV rjfAeTepwv. e^fjLevwv ydp 
v fj,ev eery (fii\o<> /cal TLJULOS, alBoios 
Be rot? dyaOols r)/j,wv VTrrjpeTais, (f>o/3epb<$ Be 
dvOpcoTTOts Trovrjpois Kal KaKoBai/Aoa-iv. IcrBi Be C 
aeavTw TO, aapKia BeBoaOai TTJS \eiTovpyias 
eveKa TavTrfcrL, /3ov\6fJ,e0a ydp aoi TTJV Trpo- 
yoviKrjv oiKiav alBol TWV Trpoyovwv dTTOKadrjpai. 
/jLe/jLvrjcro ovv, OTL T^V ^jrv^rjv dOdvaTOv 6^et9 Kal 
eKyovov rjfjierepav, e7ro/xe^o9 re rj/Jilv OTI 6ebs 
ear) KOL TOV ^fjierepov o^rei avv TUMV TraTepa. 

To{/TO LT fJLVvOS 6tT6 aXlJu?) 1 ? eCTTl XoyO9 OVK 

olBa. TO irapd crov Be TreTroirjj^evov, Tiva (3ov\L 
TOV Tldva, Tiva Be elvai, TOV Aia, el /AT) TOVTO, Z I) 
ft>9 eo-fjiev eyw re Kal av, av pev 6 Zevs, eyw Be 
6 Tldv; w TOV ye\oiov ^evBoTravos, ye\oioTepov 
/jLevTOL vr) TOV 'AcrK\r]7rt,bv TOV TrdvTa fidXXov 
rj Ato9 dvOpwTTOv. TavTa OVK ecrTiv are^'ak 
CK fAaivo/jievov 3 (jro//-aT09 oim Trjv evOeov, aXXa 
Trjv eK7r\rjKTOv [Aavuav; OVK olcrOa, OTL Kal 6 
m,a\/.<,wvevs eBwKev VTrep TOVTWV ro?9 Oeols BLKTJV, 23f 
ort dv0pw7ro$ wv eTre^eipet, Zei9 elvai; TO Be 
K TWV ( }iai6Bov \ey6jjievov vTrep TWV bvofjiao-dvTwv 

1 TUV evroXwv Hertlein suggests, evroXuv MSS. 

2 rovro Hertlein suggests, TOVTOV MSS. 

3 fj.aivo/j.*vov Hertlein suggests, TOV /j.atvo/j.ei>ov MSS. 



aegis and helmet. For as thou seest she has many, 
and she gives them to whom she will. And Hermes 
too will give thee a golden wand. Go then thus 
adorned in full armour over sea and land, steadfastly 
obeying our laws, and let no man or woman or 
kinsman or foreigner persuade thee to neglect our 
commands. For while thou dost abide by them thou 
wilt be loved and honoured by us and respected by 
our good servants and formidable to the wicked and 
impious. Know that a mortal frame was given to 
thee that thou mightest discharge these duties. For 
we desire, out of respect for thy ancestor to cleanse 
the house of thy forefathers. Remember therefore 
that thou hast an immortal soul that is our offspring, 
and that if thou dost follow us thou shalt be a god 
and with us shalt behold our father." 

Now whether this be a fable or a true narrative I 
cannot say. But in your composition, whom do you 
mean by Pan, and whom by Zeus unless you arid I 
are they, that is, you are Zeus and I am Pan ? 
What an absurd counterfeit Pan ! But you are 
still more absurd, by Asclepius, and very far in- 
deed from being Zeus ! Is not all this the utter- 
ance of a mouth that foams with morbid rather 
than inspired madness ? l Do you not know that 
Salmoneus 2 in his day was punished by the gods for 
just this, for attempting, though a mortal man, to 
play the part of Zeus ? Then too there is the 
account in Hesiod's poems of those who styled them- 

1 Plato, Phaedru* 244 foil. 

2 Odyssey 11. 235 ; Pindar, Pythian 4. 143 ; Salmoneus was 
destroyed by a thunder-bolt for imitating the thunder and 
lightning of Zeus. 



vs Tot9 TWV dewv ovo/JLaaiv, r/ H/m9 re KOI 
At09, el jjirjiro) KOI vvv aKrjicoa^, e^o> trot o~vyyvw~ 
vat' ovBe jap e7rai$>OTpij3r)Br]s *;aXw9 ov$e eru^e? 
KaO^ye^bvo^, OTTOLOV ire pi TO 1)9 Troirjras eyw 
rovrovl rov <$>i\oao$ov, /z,e^' o> e'vrt ra TTpoOvpa 

bv vevofjiiKa rwv KCLT efiavrov Trdvrwv Siacfrepeiv. B 
6 5e /jie Trpb irdvTwv aperr^v da/ceiv KOI 
anrdvTWV TWV /caXwv vo^ii^iv rjyejjLovas 
el pel? ovv TL Trpovpyov ireTToirj/cev, avros av elBeivj 
KOI Trpb TOVTOV ye ol f3acrL\els OeoL' rovrl &e 
e^rjpei TO n,aviw&e<$ KCU Opaav, ical eTretparo j^e 
TTOieiv e/jiavTOv awfypoveaTepov. eyco Se /caiTrep, 
o)9 olada, Tot9 e^wdev TrKeoveKr^acnv eTrrepw- 
fjLevos virera^a o/jua)^ efjiavrov TO> KaO^yefJLovi 
real T0i9 etceivov <$>I\OL<; teal rjXiKiwrais Koi 
avfjL<f)oiT'r)Tai$, KOL &v rjicovov e7rcuvovfjLi>(i)v Trap* 
avrov, TOVTCOV ea-TTevSov d/cpoarrj^ elvai, Kal 
@i/3\ia ravra dveylyvwaicov, oirbcra auro9 BOKL- 

/j,ev TU> r T? 

^>iXoo'o0ft)TttTft) 8e rw rd Trpodvpa r?}9 
(j)t,\ocro(f)ias Sei^avri, a^LKpa /^ev Std ra9 e^wOev 

' ovv avre- D 

ywys, ov rrjv 
rjv arv (firjs, aXXa rrjv KVK\W nropevOevTes* KCLLTOI 
rou9 6eoi)<$ eVt rrjv dperrjv olyaai on aov 
erpajrofjujv. eyco fjuev yap avrrjs, 



selves by the names of the gods, even of Hera and 
of Zeus, but if you have not heard of it till this 
moment I can excuse you for that. For you have 
not been well educated, nor did fate bestow on you 
such a guide to the poets as I had I mean this 
philosopher l now present : and later on I arrived at 
the threshold of philosophy to be initiated therein 
by the teaching of one 2 whom I consider superior to 
all the men of my own time. He used to teach me 
to practise virtue before all else, and to regard the 
gods as my guides to all that is good. Now whether 
he accomplished anything of real profit he himself 
must determine, or rather the ruling gods ; but at 
least he purged me of such infatuate folly and 
insolence as yours, and tried to make me more 
temperate than I was by nature. And though, as you 
know, I was armed 3 with great external advantages, 
nevertheless 1 submitted myself to my preceptor and 
to his friends and compeers and the philosophers of 
his school, and I was eager to be instructed by all 
whose praises I heard uttered by him, and I 
read all the books that he approved. 

Thus then I was initiated by those guides, in the 
first place by a philosopher who trained me in the 
preparatory discipline, and next by that most perfect 
philosopher who revealed to me the entrance to philo- 
sophy ; and though I achieved but little on account 
of the engrossing affairs that overwhelmed me from 
without, still for all that I have had the benefit of 
right training, and have not travelled by the short 
road as you say you have, but have gone all the way 
round. Though indeed I call the gods to witness, I 

1 Maximus of Ephesus. 2 lamblichus. 

3 Literally " winged." 


el jArj fyopTiKov eiTcelv, eVl rot? irpoOvpois 
(TV Be /cal TWV TTpoQvpwv el TToppw. ' aol Be a 
rj rot? trot? dBe\(f)oi<f , d(f>e\wv Be TO Bvcr(f)rj/j,ov 
TO \enro^evov avro? avaTcKrjpwa'ov' el ftovXet, 
Be, /col Trap TI^^V avTO dvda"%ov TTpacos \eyo- 
fjievov, rt? fjiCTOvcna; iraaiv eTrtrtyLta? ai)ro? 236 
ovBev a%iov eTraivov irpaTTayv, eTraivels (fropTiKW? 
&)? ouSe<? TWV d^aOeaTCLTWV pvjTopwv, ol? Bia 
Trjv TWV Xoywv diropuav teal TO //.T) eyew evpelv 
CK TWV TrapovTwv 6, TI (frwcriv, -f] A?7\o? eTrep^erat 
Kal r) ArjTW ueTa TWV TralBwv, etra KVKVOL \tyvpov 
aBovTes ical eTrrj^ovvTa avTols TCL BevBpa, 
TC evBpocroi, /mXa/cr;? TTOCI? -/cal ftaOeias 
f] T CK TWV dvOewv o^firj Kal TO cap avTO /cat 
rti^e? etKoves TOiavTai. TTOV TOVTO 'lao/cpaT^ B 
ev rot? eyKW/jiiaa-TiKols eVot^cre Xoyo*?; TTOV Be 
TWV 7ra\aiwv rt? dvBpwv, 01 rat? Movcmt? 
Te\ovvTO yvrjcnws, aXX' ov% waTrep ol vvv; 
d<f>vqai Be TCL egrjs, iva yu-r/ /cal 77730? TOVTOV? 
d7rex6av6/j,evos aua rot? re <auXoTaro? TWV 
KVVIKWV /cal TWV prjTopwv Trpoa-Kpovaai^LL' co? 
?rpo? re rou? KpaTicrTovs TWV T&.VVLKWV, 



believe that the road I took was really a shorter road 
to virtue than yours. For I, at any rate, if I may say 
so without bad taste, am standing at the entrance, 
whereas you are a long way even from the entrance. 
ie But as for virtue, you and your brethren ," l omit 
the ill-sounding phrase and fill in the blank yourself ! 
Or rather, if you please, bear with me when I " put 
it mildly " 2 " what part or lot have you in it ? " You 
criticise everybody, though you yourself do nothing 
to deserve praise ; your praises are in worse taste 
than those of the most ignorant rhetoricians. They, 
because they have nothing to say and cannot invent 
anything from the matter in hand, are always 
dragging in Delos and Leto with her children, 
and then "swans singing their shrill song and 
the trees that echo them," and " dewy meadows 
full of soft, deep grass," and the " scent of 
flowers," and "the season of spring," and other 
figures of the same sort. 3 When did Isocrates ever 
do this in his panegyrics ? Or when did anyone of 
those ancient writers who were genuine votaries of 
the Muses, and not like the writers of to-day ? 
However, I omit what I might add, lest I should 
make them also my enemies, and offend at once the 
most worthless Cynics and the most worthless 
rhetoricians. Though indeed I have nothing but 
friendly feelings for the really virtuous Cynics, if 

1 A direct quotation from Demosthenes, De Corona, 128 ; 
the word omitted by Julian is Ka6ap/j.a " off-scourings," or 

'outcast," addressed by Demosthenes to Aeschines. 

2 An echo of Xeriophon, Anabasis 1. 5. 14. 

3 For this device of introducing hackneyed poetical and 
mythological allusions cf. Themistius 330, 33(> c ; Aristides, 
Oration 20. 428 D ; Himerius, Oration 18. 1. Epictetus 
3. 282. 


el rt? dpa e&Ti vvv TOIOVTOS, teal Trpbs TOU? 
yevvaiovs prjTOpds e<m <pi\a l Trdvra. TWV /juev 
Brj TOIOVTCOV \oywv, el Kal TTO\V 7r\fj0os eTrippel' 
Kal OVK eo-Tiv ocrov ov^l \eyetv e0e\wv rt? eV 
Trdvv Ba^L\ov<i avrKr^aeiev av iri6ov TT)? irpo- 
KijJLevr]s r/fjilv acr^oXta? eve/cev dtye^o/Jicu. /u/cpa 
Be eri rw \6y(p Trpoa-Qels wairep 6(f>\rffjiaTi TO 
ev&eov eV a\\o TI rpe^o^at, Tavrrjvl rrjv %vy- 
ypa(f)rjv avrov TTOV TrXrjpcoaas. 

Tt9 ovv rj 'TWV TlvOayopi/cwv v\d/3eia Trepl TO, 
TWV Oewv ovo/Aara, rt? Be f) HKdrwvo^; TroraTro? 
Be r)V ev TOVTOIS 'Apia-TOTeX.rjs; ap OVK afyov avro 
IBeiv; rj rbv pev ^dfuov ovBels dvrepel TOIOVTOV 
ryeve(T0ai; KOL yap ovre TO ovojuaTa Oewv ev Ty 
crcfrpaylBi, <f)opelv eireTpeTrev OVTC TO opKW xpfjcrQai 

7T/307T6Ta)5 TO69 TWV 0WV OVOfUtCTLV. el Be VVV 

Xeyotyiu, OTL Kal et? AiyviTTOv eTropevOrj Kal 237 
elBe Kal 7ravTa%ov TrdvTa eTreipdOrj TO, 
TWV 6ewv eVoTrreOcrat Kal Te\ea-0ijvai, 
TravTa^ov reXera?, epw pev tcro)? dyva)- 
aoi, yvcopipa pevTOL Kal aa(f>ij rot? TroXXot?. 
d\\d TOV TTXarft)^09 aKove' TO 8' e/jibv Beos, w 
TlpodTap^e, 7T/3O9 ra T&V 0ea)v ovo/jiaTa OVK ecrii 
KOT avOpwrrov, d\\d Trepa TOV f^eyiaTov ^>o/3of. 
Kal vvv Trjv pev ^A-ffrpoBiTiyv, oTrrj eKeivr) <f)i\ov, 
TavTrj Trpocrayopevw Trjv 8' rjBovrjv oiBa &>? B 
e<TTi 7roiKi\ov TavTa ev QiKrjftw \eyeTai, Kal 
GTepa ird\iv ev Ttyu-atw* TnaTevetv yap 

i\a Cobet, <^jA(/ca Hertlein, MSS. 


indeed there be any such nowadays, and also for all 
honest rhetoricians. But though a vast number 
of illustrations of this sort flow into my mind for 
anyone who desired to use them could certainly 
draw from an ample jar l I shall refrain because of 
the present pressure of business. However I have 
still somewhat to add to my discourse, like the 
balance of a debt, and before I turn to other matters 
let me complete this treatise. 

I ask you then what reverence for the names of 
the gods was shown by the Pythagoreans and by 
Plato ? What was Aristotle's attitude in these 
matters ? Is it not worth while to pay attention to 
this ? Or surely no one will deny that he of Samos 2 
was reverent ? For he did not even allow the names 
of the gods to be used on a seal, nor oaths to be 
rashly uttered in the names of the gods. And if 
I should go on to say that he also travelled to Egypt 
and visited Persia, and everywhere endeavoured to 
be admitted to the inner mysteries of the gods and 
everywhere to be initiated into every kind of rite, I 
shall be saying what is familiar and obvious to most 
people, though you may not have heard of it. How- 
ever, listen to what Plato says : " But for my part, 
Protarchus, I feel a more than human awe, indeed a 
fear beyond expression, of the names of the gods. 
Now therefore I will address Aphrodite by what- 
ever name pleases her best ; though as for pleasure, 
I know that it has many forms." This is what 
he says in the Philebus 3 and he says the same sort 
of thing again in the Timaeus. 4 For he says that we 

1 A proverb for wealth ; cf. Theocritus 10. 13. 

2 Pj^thagoras. 3 Philebus 12 c. 

4 Timaeus 40 D ; Julian fails to see that Plato is not 
speaking seriously. 



vrrep TMV Oewv fyacriv ol Trot^Tai. Tavra Be 
TrapeBtjKa, pr) Trore aot, 7rapda"%r) Trpofyaaiv, wcnrep 
oi/jLdL TMV TlXaTcoviKcov 7roXXot9, o ^.wKpaTr]^ 
eipwv wv (j)V(TL Ttjv Tl\aTQ)VLKr)i> dri/uidcrai $6j;av. 
e/cei yap ov% 6 Sco/c^ar?/?, aXX' o TtyLtato9 ravra C 
Xeyet ij/CLcrra wv elpwv. fcauroi rovro >ye ea"Tiv 
L^yte? yu/r/ TO, "^eyojjieva e^erd^eiv, d\\a TOU? 

T<Z9, KOI TO 7T/30? TtZ/a? ol \OJOt ^l^VOVTCil. 

Srjra l TO /u-era TOVTO Tr)v Trdixro^ov vTrcvyopevaw 
aeipriva, -TOV TOV \oyiov TVTTOV 'Ep/jiov, rov rro 
'ATToXXw^t Kal rat? Moucrat9 (f>i\ov; e/ceivos dgiol 
TOU9 eTrepwTwvTCis rj fyreiv 0X0)9 eTrixeipovvras, 
el Oeoi elaiv, ov% a>9 dv9pa)7rovs dTTOKpicrecos rvy- 
^dveiv, ttXX* ft>9 TO. OrfpLa KoXdaews. el & dveyva)- 
;et9 TOI/ avaraTiKov 2 avrov \6jov, 09 

7y9 e/ceivov 

71/0)9 ai^ TT/)O Trdwrwv, on ra 

TOU9 6eov<$ evcrefBeis elvai Kal /jLe/jLvijcrdaL Travra ra 
/jivcmjpia Kal TeT\ea0at, ra9 
Kal Sid irdvTwv TWV ^aQy]^aT 
rot) Trepnrdrov (3alovcn TrpOTjyopevro. 4 

2u Se 07Tft)9 /;yu-tz^ /^^ TOV Aioyevrj 7rpo/a\a)v 238 

TL [JiopfJio\vKelov eK^oftijaeis. 5 ov yap 
, (fiacriv, d\\d Kal 77/309 TOV TrpOTpeTrofJievov 
, TeXolov, eiTrev, a> veavio~Ke, el TOVS /juev 
T\d)va<> oiei TavTrjs eveKa T^S reXer 


aeiv rot9 O&IOLS TMV ev a8ov 

1 STJTO Cobet adds, lacuna Hertlein, MSS. 

2 avffra.riK'bv Cobet, affTariK^v V, Hertlein, 

Reiske, euffrariK^v Spanheim. 3 8^ Cobet, 8e Hertlein, MSS. 

4 irpoiiy6pevTo Cobet, TrporjyopeweTo Hertlein, MSS. 

5 fK(f>o^ffis Cobet, (K<)>oJ3i}ffris Hertlein, MSS. 



ought to believe directly and without proof what we 
are told, I mean what the poets say about the gods. 
And I have brought forward this passage for fear 
that Socrates may furnish you with an excuse, as 
I believe he does to many Platonists because of his 
natural tendency to irony,, to slight the doctrine of 
Plato. For it is not Socrates who is speaking here, 
but Timaeus, who had not the least tendency to 
irony. Though for that matter it is not a sound 
principle to enquire who says a tiling and to whom, 
rather than the actual words. But now will you 
allow me to cite next that all-wise Siren, the living 
image of Hermes the god of eloquence, the man 
dear to Apollo and the Muses ? l Well, he declares 
that all who raise the question or seek to enquire at 
all whether gods exist ought not to be answered as 
though they were men but to be chastised as wild 
beasts. And if you had read that introductory 
sentence which was inscribed over the entrance to 
his school, like Plato's, you would most surely know 
that those who entered the Lyceum were warned to 
be reverent to the gods, to be initiated into all 
the mysteries, to take part in the most sacred 
ceremonies, and to be instructed in knowledge of 
every kind. 

And do not try to frighten me by bringing forward 
Diogenes as a sort of bogey. He was never initiated, 
they tell us, and replied to some one who once 
advised him to be initiated : " It is absurd of you, 
my young friend, to think that any tax-gatherer, 
if only he be initiated, can share in the rewards 
of the just in the next world, while Agesilaus and 

1 Aristotle. 



Be /cal 'EiTrafjieivwvSav ev TW popftbpw 

TOVTO, to veavia/ce, fBadv \Lav ecrrt KOI oeo/j,evov 

egyyijcrews, GO? epavTov Treidco, /itetbz>o?, oTrota? l B 

ij/jiiv avral Bolev al Oeai rr)V eTTLvoiav i>o/uft> &e 

UVTIJV tf&rj /cal Se&ocrOai. (paiverai jap 6 

ov%, wa-7Tp v/jieis dgiovTe, ^vaffe^rj^, dAA,' ei 

MV /jiLKpu) nrpbcrOev eTre/jivrja'd'rjv, TrpocrofMOLos. am- 

Stov yap et? rrjv TrepLaraaLv rrjv KaTa\a/3ovtTav 

avrov, GiTa 6t? T<Z? ez^ToXa? /3\67ra)v rov 

/cal crewel? 2 OTL rov jJivov/Jievov e%pr)v 

Trporepov KOL 'AOrjvaiov, el Kal /j,r) C 
i,, TO* vopw ye <yevea6ai, TOVTO etyvyev, ov TO 
i^wv avTov elvai TOV /cocrfjiov TTO\I- 
TIJV, Kal rat? oXai? TWV Oewv ovtrtat?, at TOV o\ov 
Koivf) Koa/jiov eTTLTpOTrevovcriv, d\\ ov rat? ra 
fteprj KaTaveifJia/jLevai^ avTov, SLCL 
at^iwv av/ji7ro\i.TVa'0ar TO re vo/jLifJiov ov 
alSol TWV Oewv, KaiTOi Ta\\a TraTwv /cal irapa- 
^apa-TTCov avTov re OVK eiravrfyayev, odev 1) 
acr/ze^o? r)\ev9epa)TO. TL $* rjv TOVTO; TO TroXew? 
/zta? Sov\ev(7at vbfjiois eavTov re vjroBelvai TOVTW, 
oirep rjv dvdy/CTj TraOelv ^ AOifvaiw <yevofj,ev(p. TTW? 
yap OVK e/jL6\\ev 6 TWV Oewv eveicev et? ^O\vfi7riav 
/3a$ia)v, 6 TO* TLvOiti) TreLcrdeis /cal <f)L\,oa-o(j)rjcra<f 
axj-jrep Z/WKpaTrf^' (prjal yap /cal awro? elvai 
TlvOiov OIKOL Trap eavTO), oOev avT(f> Kal r/ opuij 

1 O7ro/as Hevtlein suggests, ^TTOJS MSS. 

2 ffvviels Hertlein suggests, awel? MSS. 



Epameinondas are doomed to lie in the mire," 1 
Now this, my young friend, is a very hard saying 
and, I am persuaded, calls for more profound 
discussion. May the goddesses themselves grant us 
understanding thereof ! Though indeed I think that 
has already been bestowed by them. For it is 
evident that Diogenes was not impious, as you aver, 
but resembled those philosophers whom I mentioned 
a moment ago. For having regard to the circum- 
stances in which his lot was cast, and next paying 
heed to the commands of the Pythian god, and 
knowing that the candidate for initiation must 
first be registered as an Athenian citizen, and if 
he be not an Athenian by birth must first become 
one by law, it was this he avoided, not initiation, 
because he considered that he was a citizen of the 
world ; and moreover such was the greatness of his 
soul that he thought he ought to associate himself 
with the divine nature of all the gods who in 
common govern the whole universe, and not only 
with those whose functions are limited to certain 
portions of it. And out of reverence for the gods he 
did not transgress their laws, though he trampled on 
all other opinions and tried to give a new stamp to 
the common currency. And he did not return to 
that servitude from which he had joyfully been 
released. What servitude do I mean ? I mean that 
he would not enslave himself to the laws of a single 
city and submit himself to all that must needs befall 
one who had become an Athenian citizen. For is it 
likely that a man who in order to honour the gods 
journeyed to Olympia, and like Socrates embraced 
philosophy in obedience to the Pythian oracle, for 

1 Diogenes Laertius 6. 39. 


7T/309 <f>i\ocro<f)iav eyevero' nrapikvai rwv di>a/cro- 239 
pwv et(7U) /cal jjid\a dajjievws, el /AT) rovro 
TO VTToOelvai VO/JLOIS eavrov /cal Sov\ov a 
rro\ireia<$; a\Xa Sia TI /z^ ravri^v avTrjv elire rr)v 
alriav, GK TMV evavriwv 8e TT]V irapaipovfJiev^v ov 
crfjLifcpa TT}? TMV /jLvaT'rjpLMV crs/jLvoTrjTos; icrco? fjiev 
av rt9 ra roiavra K.CLI TLvOayopa /^aXic 
fyeiev, OVK opOws \oyi6jjivo<>. ovre <yap p 
Trdvra earLv^ aviwv re olfjiai TOVTWV, wv 
<>dvai, evict TT^O? TOL/? TTO\\OVS cnwirr]Teov elval 
fjioi $aii>Tai. (fiavepa be O/AW? earl /cal TOVTWV 1} B 
atria, /caravoijcras yap afjuekovvra [lev ri}s rrepl 
rov ftlov 6p66rrjros, eVl ^e TCO yue/u 
(frpovovvra 1 rov Trapaivovvra avrw roiavra, 
(f>povia)i> a/jia /cal $L$d(TKWv avrov, ori rols ~ 
ot? a^tw? rov yt,VY]Or]vai /Beftiwrai, /cal 
Oeicriv ol 6eol ra? ayLtoiySa? d/cepaiovs cf)v~\.drr overt, 
Tot? Se fjLoxOrjpol? ovSev ean rr\eov, KCLV eia-a) rwv 
iepwv el&fyprjo-wcn, r rrepif^o\(i3v. TJ yap ov ravra 
/cal o iepo<f)dvrr)$ Trpoayopevei, oarL? %elpa ^ 
xaOapos Kal ovnva ^ Xpil, rovroi? drrayopevwv 
fir) /jLVL(r0ai; 

Tt Trepan r)/j,li> earai rwv \6ywv, el ravra 
ae rceiOei; 

2 . 


ifya Qpovovvra Cobet, /j.eya\o<t)povovi'Ta Hertlein, MSS, 
o?s Naber, rovrots Hertlein, MSS. 


he says himself that at home and in private he re- 
ceived the commands of that oracle and hence came 
his impulse to philosophy l is it likely I say that such 
a man would not very gladly have entered the temples 
of the gods but for the fact that he was trying 
to avoid submitting himself to any set of laws and 
making himself the slave of any one constitution ? 
But why, you will say, did he not assign this reason, 
but on the contrary a reason that detracted not a 
little from the dignity of the Mysteries ? Perhaps 
one might bring this same reproach against Pythagoras 
as well, but the reasoning would be incorrect. For 
everything ought not to be told, nay more, even of 
those things that we are permitted to declare, some, 
it seems to me, we ought to refrain from uttering to 
the vulgar crowd. 2 However the explanation in this 
case is obvious. For since he perceived that the 
man who exhorted him to be initiated neglected to 
regulate his own life aright, though he prided himself 
on having been initiated, Diogenes wished at the 
same time to reform his morals and to teach him 
that the gods reserve their rewards without stint for 
those whose lives have earned them the right to be 
initiated, even though they have not gone through 
the ceremony, whereas the wicked gain nothing by 
penetrating within the sacred precincts. For this is 
what the hierophant proclaims, when he refuses the 
rite of initiation to him " whose hands are not pure 
or who for any reason ought not ! 3 " 

But where would this discourse end if you are 
still unconvinced by what I have said ? 

1 Diogenes like Socrates claimed that he had a 8ai/j.6i>iov, a 
private revelation to guide his conduct ; cf. 212 D. 

2 Cf. Oration 4. 148 A, note. 

3 This was the TrpSpprjcris or praefatio sacrorum ; cf. Livy 
45. 5. 



M 2 


THE Eighth Oration is a "speech of consolation" 
(TrapafjLvOrjTiKos Xoyos), a familiar type of Sophistic 
composition. In consequence of the attacks on 
Sail ust by sycophants at court, and moreover jealous 
of his friendship with Julian, Constantius ordered 
him to leave Gaul. In this discourse,, which was 
written before the open rupture with Constantius, 
Julian alludes only once and respectfully to his 
cousin. But Asmus thinks he can detect in it a 
general resemblance to the Thirteenth Oration of 
Dio Chrysostom, where Dio tries to comfort himself 
for his banishment by the tyrant Domitian, and that 
Sal lust was expected to appreciate this and the 
veiled attack on Constantius. Julian addresses the 
discourse to himself, but it was no doubt sent to 

After Julian's accession Sallust was made prefect 
in 362 and consul in 363. He was the author of 
a manifesto of Neo Platonism, the treatise On the 
Gods and the World, and to him was dedicated 
Julian's Fourth Oration. 1 

1 cf, vol. i. p. 351. 




el fir) fcal Trpbs ae 8ia\'%0eir)v oaa TT/OO? 
^0t]v, 7rei8)j (re ftafti^eiv eirvOofJiriv 
Trap' r^wv, eXarrov e^eiv olijcro/jiai Trpos 
> <pi\e eraipe, /JLO\\OV Be ov$e rrjv 
7re7ropicrdai nva pacrraivrjv ef^avTO) VO/AIO), 
aoL ye ov yLtera^eSw/ca- KOivwvrjcravTas jap B 

8e rjbewv ep<ywv re /cal \6jwv, ev 
re Kai Sy/Aoaiois, OIKOI /cal eVl 
KOLVQV l evpifTKeffOai yprj TMV irapovrwv, oirola 
TTOT } av y, Traiwviov a/to?. aXXa rt? av r]fuv rj 
rrjv 'O^eco? fja^aairo 2 \vpav rj rot? ^eipr^vwv 
avrrj^ijo'ete 3 fjueXeoiv rj TO vrjTrevOes e^evpoi 
fydppaicov; etVe ^0709 fy eicelvo TrXrjprjs At- 
, eW* oTrep atro9 eVot^cre^, 
vu</)^a9 ra Tpaurca TrdQrj, C 
rovro T/79 c EXe;^9 Trap Af/yuvrTtW /JLaOova^, ov% 

KCLI T^)coe9 d\\rj\ovs eBpacrav, 
elvai Tot "> T^oovs, ol ra<; 

1 Koivbv Wright, KfHvhv Hertlein, MSS. 

2 &j/ fj.i/jL-f]ffairo Hertlein suggests, ^i^fferai MSS. 

3 ctj/TTjx^e'e Hertlein suggests,\x^ ffei MSS T 





AH, my beloved comrade, unless I tell you all 
that I said to myself when I learned that you were 
compelled to journey far from my side, I shall think 
I am deprived of some comfort ; or rather, I shall 
consider that I have not even begun to procure some 
assuagement for my grief unless I have first shared 
it with you. For we two have shared in many 
sorrows and also in many pleasant deeds and words., 
in affairs private and public, at home and in the 
field, and therefore for the present troubles, be they 
what they may, we must needs discover some cure, 
some remedy that both can share. 

But who will imitate for us the lyre of Orpheus, 
who will echo for us the songs of the Sirens or dis- 
cover the drug nepenthe ? 1 Though that was perhaps 
some tale full of Egyptian lore or such a tale as the 
poet himself invented, when in what follows he w r ove 
in the story of the sorrows of the Trojans, and Helen 
had learned it from the Egyptians ; I do not mean 
a tale of all the woes that the Greeks and Trojans 
inflicted on one another, but rather tales such as 

1 Odyssey 4. 227 ; a sophistic commonplace ; cf. 412 D, 
Themistius 357 A ; Julian seems to mean that the nepenthe 
was not really a drug but a story told by Helen. 



Be Kal yaXrjvrjs ainoi Karacmja'ovTai. /cal <ydp 
TTCO? eoiKev rjBovrj KOL \v7rr) T^? aur?}? Kopv(f)f)<> 

/cal irapd uepos aXX^Aou? dvTiueOi- 241 
. TWV TrpocrTriTrTovTtov Be Kal ra \iav 
alv ol cro(f)ol ra) vovv e^ovn (frepeiv 
OVK e\aTTOva rfjs &V(TKO\ia$ rrjv evTrdOeiav, eVel 
Kal rrjv fjieXirrav K r/)? BpL^vraT^ Troa? rr}? 
Trepl TOV "T/jurjTTOV (^uo/zezn?? <y\vKeiav dvifJLaa'Oai 
Spocrov Kal TOV fJLe\iros elvai Brj/juiovpyov. d\\a 
Kal TWV crci)p,dT(0i' ocra [Jiev vyiewa KCLI po)/jia\ea 


Kal rd Bvaveprj SoKovvra TroXXaKis eKeivoi? OVK 
d/3\a/3r/ JJLOVOV, d\\a Kal TT}? Icr^vo^ aiTia 
yeyovev oVot? Be 7ro^?;pw? e^ei fyvcrei Kal rpo<f)fj 
Kal eTTLTrj^evcrei TO awua, TOV TrdvTa (3ioi> voar]- 
Xefo/Lte^ot?, Tourot? KOL ra /cof^orara ftapVTaTas 
eio)0e TcpovTiBzvai (3\dftas. OVKOVV Kal T?;? Sia- 
volas oo-oi, uev OUTCO? 7rea6\tj0r)o-av, 009 ^ 
7rafjL7rovr)pw$ e^eiv, a\X J vyiaiveiv /Lterptw?, el 
Kal /U-T) KaTa Trjv 'AvTL&devovs Kal Sw/f/oarou? 
pco/jirjv u^Se Trjv Ka\\icr0evovs dvBpeiav /jt,r)Se C 
TTJV HoXe/uwvos aTrdOeiav, aXV WO~T Bvvao-OaL 
TO /MTpiov ev rot? TOLOVTOLS aipelo~0ai, TV%OV av 
Kal ev Svo-KO\wTepot<> ev^paivoivTO. 

J Eiyco TOL Kal auro? Trelpav e/jiavTov \afjb(3dvwv, 
OTTW? Trpo? Trjv o~?jv Tropeiav eyjx> re Kal e^w, 
TO&OVTOV to$vv')j@r)v, oaov ore TrpwTov TOV eaavTov 
KaTeXiirov OILKOI' TrdvTwv yap d 

/J,e /JLvrjiMr), TT? TWV TTOVWV KOivwvias, wv 
T? aTi\a<jTov Kal 



they must be that will dispel the griefs of men's 
souls and have power to restore cheerfulness and 
calm. For pleasure and pain, methinks, are con- 
nected at their source 1 and succeed each other in 
turn. And philosophers assert that in all that befalls 
the wise man the very greatest trials afford him as 
much felicity as vexation ; and thus, as they say, 
does the bee extract sweet dew from the bitterest 
herb that grows on Hymettus and works it into 
honey. 2 Even so bodies that are naturally healthy 
and robust are nourished by any kind of food, and 
food that often seems unwholesome for others, far 
from injuring them, makes them strong. On the 
other hand, the slightest causes usually inflict very 
serious injuries on persons who by nature or nurture, 
or owing to their habits, have an unsound constitu- 
tion and are lifelong invalids. Just so with regard 
to the mind : those who have so trained it that it is 
not altogether unhealthy but moderately sound, 
though it do not indeed exhibit the vigour of 
Antisthenes or Socrates, or the courage of Callis- 
thenes, or the imperturbability of Polemon, but so 
that it can under the same conditions as theirs adopt 
the golden mean, they, I say, will probably be able 
to remain cheerful in more trying conditions. 

For my part, when I put myself to the proof to 
find out how I am and shall be affected by your 
departure, I felt the same anguish as when at home 
I first left my preceptor. 3 For everything flashed 
across my mind at once ; the labours that we shared 
and endured together ; our unfeigned and candid 
conversation ; our innocent and upright intercourse ; 

1 Plato, Phaedo 60 B. 2 Cf. Oration 2. 101 A. 

8 Mardonius. 



as vrevj;(i)$, T/}? d$6\ov Kal BiKauas D 
6/M\ias, T?)9 ev cnracn rot? /mXofc Koivorrpayias, 


imera/Jie\r}rov rrpodv/jLia^ re KCL\ o/>//%, a>9 /ACT' 
ecrrriuev 7roXXa/a9 Icrov 0vaov 
Kal TTodeivol (f)i\oi,. Trpo? 8e av 
ela"f)ei fj.6 /jivij/uirj rov Ola)0ij S' 'OSucreu 
yap eycb vvv eiceivw TrapaTrX^o^o?, evret ere fj,ev 
Kara rov "Eitcropa 0eos e^rfryayev ea) /3eX<wz>, 
&v ol avKO(J)dvrai, 7ro\\d/cis d^ffKav erri ere, 242 
fjLa\\ov Se et? 6/i.e, Sta CTOI) rpw&at ftovXtOpevoi, 
ravrrj /JLC fjiovov ttXcocrtyitoz' v7ro\a/jL/3dvovre<?, el 
rov marrov <j)i\ov Kal rrpoOvjjiov avvacrrrLcrrov 
Kal TT/)O? rot/? Ktv&VPOVS drcpofyaGicrrov KOIVWVOV 
r?79 Gvvovcrias (ireprjffeiav. ov /JLrjv e\arrov oluai 
ere 8ia rovro u\yelv rj 6700 vvv, on croi rwv 
TTOVCOV Kal rwv KtvSvvcov e\arrov fj^ereanv, aXXa B 
Kal 7r\eov vrrep eaov SeSievai Kal T/}? e/u,?}? 
K(f>a\f]s, fjirf ri rrdOrj. Kal yap roi Kal auro? 
OVK ev Sevrepw r&v euaiv ede/jirjv ra era, Kal crov 
Be oyu-ot&>9 e%ovros rrpos ^/Lta9 rjcrdo/ji^v. oOev 
eiKorcos Kal //,aXa BaKvoaai, on croi, r&v a\\Q)V 
eveKa \eyeiv Bvva/jLevw 

OvSev fie\i fJLOi' rdad yap :aXw? e%ei, 

Moz^09 elpl \v7rr)<; alnos Kal (frpovrioos. 1 C 

aXXa rovrov aev ef lo-r)<$, 0)9 eoixe, Koivwvov/jiev, 
crv /j,ev vrrep TJ^WV d\ywv JAOVOV, eyw Be del TTO@WV 
rrjv crrjv avvovcriav Kal r/}9 
rjv K rfjs dperris. fjiev /j,d\icrra Kai 

1 /j.6vos Qpov-rtios Brambs regards as a verse ; Hertlein 
prints as prose. 



our co-operation in all that was good ; our equally- 
matched and never-repented zeal and eagerness in 
opposing evildoers. How often we supported each 
other with one equal temper ! l How alike were our 
ways ! How precious our friendship ! Then too 
there came into my mind the words, " Then was 
Odysseus left alone." ' For now I am indeed like 
him, since the god has removed you, like Hector/ 
beyond the range of the shafts which have so often 
been aimed at you by sycophants, or rather at me, 
since they desired to wound me through you ; for 
they thought that only thus should I be vulnerable 
if they should deprive me of the society of a faithful 
friend and devoted brother-in-arms one who never 
on any pretext failed to share the dangers that 
threatened me. Moreover the fact that you now 
have a smaller share than I in such labours and 
dangers does not, I think, make your grief less than 
mine ; but you feel all the more anxiety for me and 
any harm that may befall my person. 4 For even as I 
never set your interests second to mine, so have I ever 
found you equally well disposed towards me. I am 
therefore naturally much chagrined that to you who 
with regard to all others can say, " I heed them not, 
for my affairs are prosperous," 5 I alone occasion sor- 
row and anxiety. However this sorrow it seems we 
share equally, though you grieve only on my account, 
while I constantly feel the lack of your society and 
call to mind the friendship that we pledged to one 
another that friendship which we ever cemented 
afresh, based as it was, first and foremost, on virtue, 

1 Iliad 17. 720. 2 Iliad 11. 401. 

3 Iliad 11. 163. 4 Iliad 17. 242. 

5 Nauck, Adespota fragmenta 430. 


Kal Bid rrjv ^peiav, r)v eyu> fjiev croi, crv 
Be e/jiol (ivve%MS rrapeo")(es, dvaKpaOevres aXX^Aot? 
u>fjLO\O'yrj(Ta^v ) oi>% op/cot,<f ovSe roiavrai^ dvdy- 
Kai<$ ravra niarov^evoi, warrep o tyrjaevs Kal D 
o TLeipiOovs, a\V ef wv del ravra voovvres teal 
rrpoaipovfjievoi Ka/cbv fjiev Sovvai rwv rro\irMV 
nvi roaovrov Sew \eyeiv drrea^Ofiev, ware ovSe 
e{3ov\evcrd/j,e0d IT ore (Jiera atCkrjXwv %prjcrrov Se 
el n yeyovev 17 /3e/3ov\evrai Koivf) Trap' VUJL&V, 
rovro aXXot? elrrelv /AeX^crei. 

'O? fj,ev ovv el/cor MS d\ya) rot? rrapovcriv, ov 
(f>i\ov fiovov, aXXa KOI <rvvep<yov mcrrov, Boirj Be 6 243 
Baifjiwv, /cal Trpbs O\LJOV d-jraXXarrofJievo^, olfjiai 
/cal ^w/cpdrr/ rov /jueyav r^? dperfjs Kijpv/ca icai 
ioiye crvvo/jLO\oy)ja'Li> e a)V eicelvov 
ejw Se rwv Tl\dra)vos \6ywv, 
vTrep avrov. 0r/crl yovv ori XaXe- 
Trwrepov efaivero fjioi opOws ra Tro\iriica Sioitceiv 
ovre yap avev fy'ikwv dvbpwv Kal eralpwv rrKrrwv 
olov re elvai Trpdrreiv, ovr evrropelv rovrcov 
vv TroXX^ pq(rr(i)vr). tcalroi rovro ye el FlXa- 
rwvu /jiei^ov e^aivero rov Siopvrreiv rov "A^a), ri B 
TrpoaBo/cdv rj^a^ vrrep avrov rovs rr\eov 
rri<$ e/ceivov crwecrea)? re Kal 
77 Vei^o? rov Oeov; e/u-ot oe ov$e rrjs xpeias 
evexa, rjv dvnSiSovres aXXr/Xo^? ev rf) 
rro\irelq pqov e'fyofjiev 7rpb$ rd rrapd yvay/jiijv vrro 
TT}? rvxrjs Kal rwv dvrLrarro/jbevwv r)[j,iv rrparro- 
, aXXa 1 Kal TT}? /J,6vr)s del JJLOL 0a\7r(oprj<? re 

1 a\\a Reiske supplies, lacuna Hertlein : after TT parr 
several words are lost. 



and secondly on the obligations which you con- 
tinually conferred on me and I on you. Not by 
oaths or by any such ties did we ratify it, like 
Theseus and Peirithous, but by being of the same 
mind and purpose, in that so far from forbearing to 
inflict injury on any citizen, we never even debated 
any such thing with one another. But whether 
anything useful was done or planned by .us in 
common, I will leave to others to say. 

Now that it is natural for me to be grieved by the 
present event, on being parted for ever so short 
a time and God grant that it may be short ! from 
one who is not only my friend but my loyal fellow- 
worker, I think even Socrates, that great herald and 
teacher of virtue, will agree ; so far at least as I may 
judge from the evidence on which we rely for our 
knowledge of him, 1 mean the words of Plato. At 
any rate, what he says is : " Ever more difficult did 
it seem to me to govern a state rightly. For neither 
is it possible to achieve anything without good 
friends and loyal fellow-workers, nor is it very easy 
to obtain enough of these." l And if Plato thought 
this more difficult than digging a canal through 
Mount Athos, 2 what must we expect to find it, we 
who in wisdom and knowledge are more inferior to 
him than he was to God ? But it is not only when I 
think of the help in the administration that we gave 
one another in turn, and which enabled us to bear 
more easily all that fate or our opponents brought to 
pass contrary to our purpose ; but also because I 
am destined soon to be bereft also of what has ever 

1 Julian quotes from memory and paraphrases Epistle 
7. 325 c. 

a This feat of Xerxes became a rhetorical commonplace. 



/cal Teptyews vBer)<f ov/c 6i? /jLarcpav eaevOai C 
fj,e\\a)V, el/coTO)? Bdfcvo/j,ai, re /cat BeBr^y/jiaL rrjv 
e/jbavTov /capBtav. e? TIVCL <ydp OVT(OS ecrrai fj,oi 
\OLTTOV evvovv dTToftXetyat, (f)i\ov; TWOS & ava- 
rijs d86\ov icai /ca@apa<? Trappriaias; rt? 
(TV nftovXevcrei /j,ev efji^povw^, eTriTi/mijcrei 
e yu-er' evvoias, eTrippwcrei Be TT/JO? ra KaXa %o)/3t? 
/cal rv(f>ov, Trappier lateral 8e TO Tri/cpbv 

Mcnrep ol TWV <f>ap/j,d/ca)v D 
TO \iav Svaxepes, aTroXetVo^Te? 
8e aitTO TO xptfcrifjuov; d\\a TOVTO /j,ev etc T7/9 cr^? 
adfjiriv. TOCTOVTWV Be O/JLOV 
, TLVWV av eviropriaai^i \6ya)V, 01 pe, 
Bid TOV crov TTodov era re fj,r)Bea CTTJV re dyavocftpo- 
crvvrjv avTrjv TrpoeaOau TTJV "^rv)(rjv KivBvvevovTa, 
7Ti(rov<Tiv aTpepelv KOI (pepeiv oaa BeBwfcev 6 ^609 
<yevvai(i)<> ; et? TCLVTO >ydp eoucev avT& vowv o /jieyas 244 
avTO/cpaTcop Tav& OVTW vvvl ftovXevcravQai. TL 
7TOT6 ovv dpa xp7) BiavorjQevTO, /cal Tivas eTrwSa? 
evpovTa Trelaai Trpacw e^eiv VTTO TOV TrdOovs dopv- 
Trjv ^rv^v; dpa fjfjuv ol 

elai /jLi/jbrjTeoi, \6yot,, \eyfo Be ra? e/c 
67Tft)8a9, a? ' KOrjva^e (frepwv 6 ^co/cpaTr^ Trpb TOV 
TTJV oBvvrjv id&Oai Tt}<? /ce<f)d\f)s eTrdBew r]j~lov T& 
Kokq> Xap/AiBy; r) TOVTOVS fiev are 8r) 
/cal Trepl fieifcovwv ov /civijTeov, wcnrep ev 



been my only solace and delight, it is natural that 1 
am and have been cut to the very heart. 1 For in the 
future to what friend can I turn as loyal as your- 
self? With whose guileless and pure frankness shall 
I now brace myself ? Who now will give me prudent 
counsel, reprove me with affection, give me strength 
for good deeds without arrogance and conceit, and 
use frankness after extracting the bitterness from 
the words, like those who from medicines extract 
what is nauseating but leave in what is really 
beneficial ? ' 2 These are the advantages that I reaped 
from your friendship ! And now that I have been 
deprived of all these all at once, with what argu- 
ments shall I supply myself, so that when I am in 
danger of flinging away my life out of regret for 
you and your counsels and loving kindness, 3 they 
may persuade me to be calm and to bear nobly 
whatever God has sent ? 4 For in accordance with 
the will of God our mighty Emperor has surely 
planned this as all else. Then what now must 
be my thoughts, what spells must I find to per- 
suade my soul to bear tranquilly the trouble with 
which it is now dismayed ? Shall I imitate the 
discourses of Zamolxis 5 I mean those Thracian 
spells which Socrates brought to Athens and de- 
clared that he must utter them over the fair 
Charmides before he could cure him of his head- 
ache ? 6 Or must we leave these alone as being, 
like large machinery in a small theatre, too lofty for 

1 Aristophanes, Acharnians 1 ; cf. 248 D. 

2 A commonplace ; Plato, Laivs 659 E ; Julian, Caesars 
314 c ; Dio Chrysostom 33. 10 ; Themistius 63 B, 302 n ; 
Maximus of Tyre 10. 6. 3 Odyssey 11. 202. 

4 Demosthenes, De Corona 97 ; cf. Julian, Epistle 53. 439 D. 
6 Cf. Caesars 309 c note. 6 Plato, Charmides 156 D. 



a^ fjieyd\as, \V ere TWV e^TTpocrOev B 
eoywv, wv eTTvOo/neOa TCL tc\ea, (f)Tjo-lv 6 Troirjrrjs, 
etc \eijiwvos Sedjievoi 7ronci\ov KOI 

TroXf et8oi>9 l avdr) ra KahXiara 
avTovs Tot9 $Lr)yijjjuao~i, fJUKpa TWV etc (f)i\ocro<f)ia<i 
avTots Trpoa'Tidevres; wairep yap ol^ai TO?? \iav 
y\VK6(Tiv ol 7rapey%ovT<; OVK olB' ovrot' arra 
(j)dp/jLafca TO TrpovKOpes avrwv afyaipovcnv, OVTCO 
rot? &ir)yr]/jiacnv etc fyikoaofyias evta TrpoariOe/jLeva 
TO Sotceiv % i&TOpias dp%aias oVkov ejreicrdyeiv, C 
ov&ev &eov, teal TrepiTTrjv d^oXecr^iav dfycupel'rai. 
Ti TrpMTOv; TL 8' eTretra; rL 8' ixTrdriov tcara- 


Trorepov a>9 o ^tcrjiricav etcelvos, 6 rov Aai\iov 
dyaTnjcras teal $i\r)6els TO \eyofJievov tcra) vyq> 
Trap* etceii'ov 7rd\iv, ^Sew? fjiev avTW crvvfjv, 
7rpaTT Se ovbev, wv /JLTJ TrpoTepov e/cetvo? irvOoiTO 
KOL (frrfcreiev elvai, trpa/CTeov; 06 ev oi/jiai ical \oyov 
7rapea"%e rot? VTTO (f)06vov TOV ^Kr^iriwva \oiSo- D 
pova-iv, a>9 TTOt^T^? /Jiev o AatXto? ir] TMV epyoov, 
'A<f)pt,fcavos $e 6 TOVTWV vTrotcpiTijs. avT^j TOL KOL 
rjfuv rj <f)rj/Jir} Trpcxr/ceiTai, teal ov fJiovov ov Bv%6- 
paivw* ^aipw 8e e?r' avTy 7r\eov. TO yap rot? 

TTOielTcn yva>pio-/jia TOV yv&vai 245 
Tiva CLVTOV e'| avTov TO, SeovTa, TTJV ' 

Oro? JAW TravdpLGTOS, 09 ev elirbwn 

1 TroAi/etSoOs Cobet, no\vTf\ovs Hertlein, MSS. 

2 ov fj.6vov ov ovffx*p&'u'to xzlpu 8e Hertlein suggests, cf. 
37 B, 255 D ; Kal \alpu> 76 MSS. 

* aperris Hertlein suggests, TT)S dperf/s MSS. 

I 7 6 


our purpose and suited to greater troubles ; and 
rather from the deeds of old whose fame we have 
heard told, as the poet says/ shall we gather the 
fairest flowers as though from a variegated and 
many-coloured meadow, and thus console ourselves 
with such narratives and add thereto some of the 
teachings of philosophy ? For just as, for instance, 
certain drugs are infused into things that have too 
sweet a taste, and thus their cloying sweetness is 
tempered, so when tales like these are seasoned by 
the maxims of philosophy, we avoid seeming to drag 
in a tedious profusion of ancient history and a super- 
fluous and uncalled-for flow of words. 

" What first, what next, what last shall I relate ? " 2 
Shall I tell how the famous Scipio, who loved Laelius 
and was loved by him in return with equal yoke of 
friendship, 3 as the saying is, not only took pleasure 
in his society, but undertook no task without first 
consulting with him and obtaining his advice as to 
how he should proceed ? It was this, I understand, 
that furnished those who from envy slandered Scipio 
with the saying that Laelius was the real author 
of his enterprises, and Africanus merely the actor. 
The same remark is made about ourselves, and, far 
from resenting this, I rather rejoice at it. For to ac- 
cept another's good advice Zeno held to be a sign of 
greater virtue than independently to decide oneself 
what one ought to do ; and so he altered the saying 
of Hesiod ; for Zeno says : " That man is best who 
follows good advice " instead of " decides all things 
for himself." 4 Not that the alteration is to my 

1 Iliad 9. 524. 2 Odyssey 9. 14. s Theocritus 12. 15. 
4 Hesiod, Works and Days 293, 295 &s O.VT$ irtivra. vofori ; 
Diogenes Laertius 7. 25. 




\eyu>v dvrl rov vo^cry rrdvff eavrw. e/jiol Be ov 
Bid rovro ^apiev elvai BoKer rreLBofjiai jap d\r]6e- 
crrepov [lev \\a ioBov \eyeLv, d/Acfioii; Be d/jueivov 
TlvOayopav, 69 Kal rfj TrapoL/Jiia Trapea^e rrjv 
ap^v Kal TO \6yea-0cu KOLVCL ra <f>L\.a>v eSwtce rq> 
/3Lrp, ov SrJTrov ra xprjfjLara \eywv fiovov, dX\,a Kal B 
rrjv rov vov Kal rrjs (frpovrjcrea)? Koivwvlav, MdO" 
oaa juiev evpes avros, ovoev eXarrov ravra rov 
ireiaOevros earlv, oaa Be rwv awv VTreKpivd^v, 
rovrcov avrwv et/corw? TO to~ov /Aere^et?. d\\d 
ravra /jiev oTrorepov fjid\\ov dv <paivr)rai, Kal 1 
Oarepw Trpocn^Kei, Kal rot? (BaaKavots ovbev earai 


e eiravireov erri rov ' A.(f)piKavov Kal rov 
7T6i8r) yap dvrjpr)ro fiev r] KapfflSoDV 
Kal ra rrepl rrjv Aiftvrjv diravra rr}? 'Pw/jL^ C 
eyeyovei oov\a, rck^nrei /Jiev 'AtypiKavos rov 
Aai\t,ov dvrjyero Be eicelvos evay<ye\ia ry 
<j)pa)V Kal 6 ^KTJTTLCOV ij^Oero /lev 
rov <f)i\,ov, ov /j,rjv drrapa/jivOrjrov avra) ro 
wero. Kal rov Aai\tov Be Bvayepaiveiv 

>^\r >/ >\> i 7 

eTTeiorj /JLOVO^ avrjyero, ov JJL^V a<poprjrov 
rrjv av/ji(f)Opdv. errKei Kal Kartoz/ aTroKiTrcav OLKOL 
TOI*? avrov <rvvr)0ei<$, Kal TlvQayopa?, Kal T\\dra)v 
Kal ArjjjiOKpiros ovBeva 7rapa\a/36vre<> KOIVWVOV 
r?}? 6Bov, Kairot 7ro\\ov<> OLKOL rwv <f>i\rdra)v 
drro\ifjirrdvovTes. eVr par ever aro Kal TIepiK\f)<$ 
7rl TYJV ^djjiov OVK dywv rov 'Ava^ayopav, Kal rrjv 
Qvftoiav Trapeo-rrjcraro rat? /jiev eiceivov /3ov\als, 
o ydp vrc KLV(p, rb <7w//-a Be OVK (pe\- 
wairep aXko ri rwv dvayKaiwv rrpos ra? 24 

1 Kal Oarfpii) Hertlein suggests, Qartpw AISS. 
I 7 8 


liking. For I am convinced that what Hesiod says 
is truer, and that Pythagoras was wiser than either 
of them when he originated the proverb and gave 
to mankind the maxim, " Friends have all things in 
common." l And by this he certainly did not mean 
money only, but also a partnership in intelligence 
and wisdom. So all that you suggested belongs just 
as much to me who adopted it, and whenever I was 
the actor who carried out your plans you naturally 
have an equal share in the performance. In fact, to 
whichever of us the credit may seem to belong, it 
belongs equally to the other, and malicious persons 
will gain nothing from their gossip. 

Let me go back now to Africanus and Laelius. 
When Carthage had been destroyed 2 and all Libya 
made subject to Rome, Africanus sent Laelius home 
and he embarked to carry the good news to their 
fatherland. And Scipio was grieved at the 
separation from his friend, but he did not think 
his sorrow inconsolable. Laelius too was probably 
afflicted at having to embark alone, but he did not 
regard it as an insupportable calamity. Cato also 
made a voyage and left his intimate friends at 
home, and so did Pythagoras and Plato and Demo- 
critus, and they took with them no companion on 
their travels, though they left behind them at home 
many whom they dearly loved. Pericles also set out 
on his campaign against Samos without taking 
Anaxagoras, and he conquered Euboea by following 
the latter's advice, for he had been trained by his 
teaching : but the philosopher himself he did not 
drag in his train as though he were part of the 

1 Diogenes Laertius 8. 10 ; Pythagoras persuaded his dis- 
ciples to share their property in common. 2 Cf. Livy 27. 7. 

N 2 


. tcairoi KOI rovrov d/covra, fyaalv, ' 
7T/9O9 Tov BiBdcrKa\ov aTreaT^aa 
' (f>epev 009 dvrjp e/j,(f)pa>v wv l rrjv avoiav TWV 
aurov TTO\LTWV eyKparws KOI Trpdws. KOI yap 
dvdytcr) rfj TrarpiBi KaOaTrep fjbrjrpl 8t/cat&>9 JJLCV ov, 
^aXe7r<5>9 Be oyu-co? %ovcrr) 7T/ao? rrfv CTVVOVGICLV 
avrwv, eiKtiv wero ^ptjvai, ravra, a>9 el/cos, 
\oyL%6/jL6vos' aK.ove.iv Be %pr) rwv ef?}? ft>9 rov 
HepiK\eov<> auroO* ^E/zot ?roXt9 ^ev ecrri teal 
jrarpls 6 KOG-JJLO^, /ecu (f)i\oi Oeoi KOL 


Be Kal rrjv ov' 3 yeyova/Jiev rifjidv, etreiBr) TOVTO 
Oelbs eaTt vofios, KOI TreudecrOai ye 0*9 av 
KOI fir] (Sid^ecrOai /JbrjBe, o ^rjatv 77 
7T/309 /cevTpa \aKri^eiV dTrapairrjrov ydp ean 
TO \eyofjievov %vybv r^9 avdyxrfi. ov yJr]V oBvpreov 
ovBe QprjvrjTeov e(f> ofc eVtraTret rpa^vrepov, 
d\\d TO Trpdy/jia \oyia-Teov avro. vvv d7ra\\dr- 
rov *Avaj;ay6pav d<j> TUJLWV tce\evi, KCU 
apidTov OVK o^ro/JieOa rwv eraipajv, BS ov 
fjir}v /J,ev rf) VVKTL, on JJLOL TOV <$>i\ov OVK 
eBeifcvvev, r)/J<epa Be /cal rf\,iw x^P LV 
QTI fjLot irapel^ev opdv ov /j,d\iara tfpwv. 
el fjiev Ofji/jLard aoi BeBw/cev rj (frvcris, w 
\LOVOV w&irep Tot9 Orjpioi?? ovBev aTreiicbs ecrri 
ere Bia(f)ep6vTa)<; d^jdeaOai' el Be <7Oi "frv%r)V eve- D 

1 </ Hertlein would add. 

2 dirovovv Cobet, faov Hertlein, MSS. 

3 TT\V ov Hertlein suggests, o5 MSS. 

4 depicts Cobet, upviffiv Hertlein, MSS. 



equipment needed for battle. And yet in his case 
too we are told that much against his will the 
Athenians separated him from the society of his 
teacher. But wise man that he was, he bore the 
folly of his fellow-citizens with fortitude and mild- 
ness. Indeed he thought that he must of necessity 
bow to his country's will when, as a mother might, 
however unjustly, she still resented their close 
friendship ; and he probably reasoned as follows. 
(You must take what I say next as the very words of 
Pericles. 1 ) 

" The whole world is my city and fatherland, and 
my friends are the gods and lesser divinities and all 
good men whoever and wherever they may be. Yet 
it is right to respect also the country where I was 
born, since this is the divine law, and to obey all her 
commands and not oppose them, or as the proverb 
says kick against the pricks. For inexorable, as the 
saying goes, is the yoke of necessity. But we must 
not even complain or lament when her commands 
are harsher than usual, but rather consider the 
matter as it actually is. She now orders Anaxa- 
goras to leave me and I shall see no more my best 
friend, on whose account the night was hateful to 
me because it did not allow me to see my friend, 
but I was grateful to daylight and the sun because 
they allowed me to see him whom I loved best. 2 
But, Pericles, if nature had given you eyes only as 
she has to wild beasts, it would be natural enough 
for you to feel excessive grief. But since she has 

1 Cobet rejects this sentence as a gloss ; but Julian 
perhaps echoes Plato, Menexenus 246 c. 

2 This a very inappropriate application to Pericles of the 
speech of Critoboulos in Xenophon, Symposium 4. 12 ; cf. 
Diogenes Laertius 2. 49. 



Kal vovv evrjKev, v<fi ov ra ^ev TroXXa 
TWV jeyevrj/jLevcov Ka'nrep ov Trapovra vvv o 
Bid rr}? /jLvri/jirjs, vroXXa 8e Kal rwv 

o \o f yicr/Jios avevpiffKwv wo~Trep o/j^fJiao'LV opav 
7T/9ocr/3aXXet TW vw, Kal TWV evecrT&TWv ov TO. 
Trpo TWV O^CLTWV T) (fravTaffia /JLOVOV aTTOTVTrov- 

avTW Kpiveiv Kal KaOopav, aXXa 
\"\/ \' / ?>'' * 

n ia TTOppco Kai fjivpiaGi crTaotcav aTTWKio'fJLeva 

ryevo/jievcov rrapd jroBa Kal rrpo TWV o(^da\^MV 247 
SeiKvvanv evapyecTTepov, TI XPV TOO~OVTOV dvidadai 
Kal cr^erXto)? (frepeiv; OTL Be OVK d/jidpTVpos o 

XO^O? e<TTl fJLOl, 

Not)? 6/077 Kal vov<$ 

, coatf orav nvd rwv 
eOeXy Ke^priiJLevov diriGTw Tropeias 

'fl? 8' or av dtj;r) voos dvepos 

rovro) TOL ^coyLtei^o? paara plv ^AOijvrjOev B 
TOV v 'Icovia, paara Se ex KeXrwi/ TOI^ ev 
? Kal %paKr), Kal TOV ev KeXrot? e/c 
Kal 'iXXvpiwv. Kal yap ov&, axnrep rot? 
OVK evL aw^eadai rrjv avvrjOrj X ( * ) P av A tera - 
3d\\ov(Tiv, OTav fj rwv aypwv r) Kpd&is evavria, 
Kal rot? dvOpcoTTOis a-v/ji/Baivei TOTTOV eV TOTTOV 
fjLTa/3d\\ovcriv rj BLa^OeipeaOai Tra^reXw? r) TOV 
TpoTrov dueiftew Kal fieTaTiOevOai Trepl wv 6p0ws 
iTpoo-Oev e<yva>Keaav. OVKOVV ovSe TTJV evvoiav C 
dfj,/3\VTpav e%et^ et/co?, el p.r) Kal /j,a\\ov dyairav 



breathed into you a soul, and implanted in you 
intelligence by means of which you now behold in 
memory many past events, though they are no longer 
before you : and further since your reasoning power 
discovers many future events and reveals them as it 
were to the eyes of your mind ; and again your 
imagination sketches for you not only those present 
events which are going on under your eyes and 
allows you to judge and survey them, but also reveals 
to you things at a distance and many thousand 
stades l removed more clearly than what is going on 
at your feet and before your eyes, what need is 
there for such grief and resentment ? And to show 
that I have authority for what I say, ' The mind 
sees and the mind hears,' says the Sicilian ; 2 and 
mind is a thing so acute and endowed with such 
amazing speed that when Homer wishes to show 
us one of the gods employing incredible speed in 
travelling he says : ' As when the mind of a man 
darts swiftly.' 3 So if you employ your mind you 
will easily from Athens see one who is in Ionia ; 
and from the country of the Celts one who is in 
Illyria or Thrace ; and from Thrace or Illyria one 
who is in the country of the Celts. And moreover, 
though plants if removed from their native soil when 
the weather and the season are unfavourable cannot 
be kept alive, it is not so with men, who can remove 
from one place to another without completely de- 
teriorating or changing their character and deviating 
from the right principles that they had before 
adopted. It is therefore unlikely that our affection 
will become blunted, if indeed we do not love and 

1 The Attic stade = about 600 feet. 

8 Epicharmus/r. 13. 8 Iliad 15. 80. 



real (rrepyew errerat, yap v/3pis fj,ev /copw, e/o&>9 
Be evBeia. Kal ravrrj roivvv e^opev fteXriov, 
^Liv rr\<$ 7T/)O9 aXX^Xov? evvoias, 
re aXXTJXoi^ ev ral<$ eavrwv Biavoiais 
i$pv/4evovs wcnrep aydX^ara. KOI vvv fjiev ejci) 
TOV 'Ava^ayopav, avOis Be e/ceivo? otyerai e'/u-e* 

Be ovBev KOI a pa ft\67reiv aXX^Xou?, D 
crap/cia KOL vevpa KOI yuo/x^r)? TV7ray/j,a, 
a-Tepva re egei/caa /jLeva TT/JO? ap^ervrrov 
KCLLTOI teal TOVTO Kw\vet, TV)(OV ovBev rat9 

fyaiveaOai' aXX' et? rrjv aperrjv real ra? 
Kal TOV? \6yov$ /cal TO.? o/xtXta? Kal 
ra? evrev^ei^, a? TroXXa/ct? eTroirjcrd/jLeOa per 
d\\ij\wv, OVK dfJLOixro)^ vpvovvres rraiBeiav Kal 
/cal rov eTTirpOTrevovra vovv ra 
a Kal ra avOpwirtva, Kal rrepl TroXireta? Kal 248 
VO/JLCOV Kal rpoTTWV dperijs Kal xprjcrrwv eTurij- 
Bev/jidrcov Biegiovres, oaa ye f)/niv ernrjet l ev Kaipw 
rovrwv [Ae/jLvrj/jLevois. ravra evvoovvres, rovrois 
rpe(f)6pevoi rot? eiBcoXois rv^ov OVK oveipcov 
WKrepcov 2 IvBaX/naai, rrpoae^opev ovBe KCVCL Kal 
/jidraia irpoo'ftdX.ei r& v> ^avrdapara rrovrfpws 
iirro TT}? rov crwparo^ Kpdaews aur07?<74$ BiaKei,- 
ovBe yap avrrjv Trapa^^ofJieda rrjv al- 
vrrovpyelv rj/Mv Kal vTr^perelcrdau' aXX' B 
arrofyvyciov avrrjv o 1/01)9 epfjieXerijaei, rovrois 
Karav6r)(Tiv Kal crvveO t,& JJLOV rwv d 

Reiske adds. 

Cobet, wKTeptvwv Hertlein, MSS. 



cherish each other the more for the separation. For 
1 wantonness attends on satiety/ l but love and long-- 
ing on want. So in this respect we shall be better 
off if our affection tends to increase, and we shall 
keep one another firmly set in our minds like holy 
images. And one moment I shall see Anaxagoras, 
and the next he will see me. Though nothing 
prevents our seeing one another at the same instant ; 
I do not mean our flesh and sinews and "bodily 
outline and breasts in the likeness " 2 of the bodily 
original though perhaps there is no reason why 
these too should not become visible to our minds 
but I mean our virtue, our deeds and words, our 
intercourse, and those conversations which we so 
often held with one another, when in perfect 
harmony we sang the praises of education and 
justice and mind that governs all things mortal and 
human : when too we discussed the art of govern- 
ment, and law, and the different ways of being 
virtuous and the noblest pursuits, everything in 
short that occurred to us when, as occasion served, 
we mentioned these subjects. If we reflect on these 
things and nourish ourselves with these images, we 
shall probably pay no heed to the ' visions of dreams 
in the night,' 3 nor will the senses corrupted by the 
alloy of the body exhibit to our minds empty and 
vain phantoms. For we shall not employ the senses 
at all to assist and minister to us, but our minds 
will have escaped from them and so will be exercised 
on the themes I have mentioned and aroused to 
comprehend and associate with things incorporeal. 

1 Theognis 153. riKret rot icdpos v@ptv, OTO.V *ca/cy oA$os 


2 Euripides, Phocnissae 165, /u.op<f>ris rvircafj.a ortpva r' 
e'lflKaojueVa. 3 Nauck, Adespota trag. frag. 108. 



v> jap rj tea r Kperrovi o~vv- 
a-uev, Kal rd rrjv aio-@rj(Tiv uTro^vyovra KOI 
SieGrrjKora TOO TOTT&), adXKov Be ovBe Beofieva 
roTrov opdv re real alpelv TretyvKauev, ocrots d^icos 
TT}? roiavrrjs dea<$, zwoovvres avrrjv /cat 

o fjiV TlepitcXrjS, are Srj 

avrjp Kal r/oa^el? eX,v0epw$ ev e\evOepa rfj ?roXet, C 
v^rr]\orepoi<; e^v^ajM'yet \6<yoi<> avrov eyo) Be 
yeyovcos etc rwv oloi vvv fiporoi elaw avOpwTTLKw- 
repois efjiavrov 6e\yco Kal Trapdyw \oyoi^, teat, ro 
\lav TTtfcpov afyaipw rr}? XuTrry?, Trpo? eicacrrov rwv 
ael fjioi, irpoaTrtTrrovrwv CLTTO rov irpay/Aaros 

re Kal aroirwv fyavTaa-fjbdrwv (f)ap- D 
riva Trapa^vOLav TreipcoiMvos, axTTrep eirw- 
Orjpiov Srjy/jLan Sd/cvovros avrrjv evco rr)V 
KapSiav y^fJLMV Kal ra? fypevas. eKelvo rot Trpwrov 
ecrri /JLOI rwv (^aivo/jievwv 8vff^epa)V. vvv eyco 
aTToXeXet-v/ro/zat /ca^a/oa? evSerjs 6/jLi\ia<; Kal 
eWeufew?- ov yap ecrrt yu-ot rect)? orca 
OappMv o/u-otw?. Trorepov ovv ovS* 
Qai pdbiov earl ^01; aXX* d(f)ai- 
ptj(rerai ae Tt9 Kal rrjv evvoiav Kal Trpoo-avayKacrei 
voelv erepa Kal Oav/xd^eLV Trap a /Soi/Xo/Aai; rj 
rovro aev eari repas ^8ij Kal irpocrofJiOLOV r& 
ypdffreiv 6^>' uSaro? Kal rw \L6ov efyew Kal rta 
Irfra^kvwv opviOwv epevvdv fyvr) r?}9 Trrrjcrecos; 
OVKOVV eTreiBrj rovrwv rjuds ouSei? d(f>aipelrai, 249 
a-vvea-o/jieda Bijirovflev avroL TTW? eafrot?, t<r&)9 ^6 
Kal o Bai/jLwv V7ro0r)<rerai ri %pr)a-r6v' ov yap 
avSpa eavrov eTrirptyavra rq> Kpeirrovi, 



For by the mind we commune even with God, and 
by its aid we are enabled to see and to grasp things 
that escape the senses and are far apart in space,, 
or rather have no need of space : that is to say, all 
of us who have lived so as to deserve such a vision, 
conceiving it in the mind and laying hold thereof." 

Ah, but Pericles, inasmuch as he was a man of 
lofty soul and was bred as became a free man in 
a free city, could solace himself with such sublime 
arguments, whereas I, born of such men as now 
are, 1 must beguile and console myself with arguments 
more human ; and thus I assuage the excessive 
bitterness of my sorrow, since I constantly endeavour 
to devise some comfort for the anxious and uneasy 
ideas which keep assailing me as they arise from 
this event, like a charm against some wild beast 
that is gnawing into my very vitals 2 and my soul, 
And first and foremost of the hardships that I shall 
have to face is this, that now I shall be bereft of our 
guileless intercourse and unreserved conversation. 
For I have no one now to whom I can talk with any- 
thing like the same confidence. What, you say, 
cannot I easily converse with myself? Nay, will not 
some one rob me even of my thoughts, and besides 
compel me to think differently, and to admire what 
I prefer not to admire ? Or does this robbery amount 
to a prodigy unimaginable, like writing on water or 
boiling a stone, 3 or tracing the track of the flight of 
birds on the wing? Well then since no one can 
deprive us of our thoughts, we shall surely commune 
with ourselves in some fashion, and perhaps God 
will suggest some alleviation. For it is not likely 
that he who entrusts himself to God will be utterly 

1 Iliad 5. 304. 2 Cf. 243 c. 3 Two familiar proverbs. 

l8 7 


rravrdrraaiv d{jL\r)0r}vat KOI Kara\ei<j>6rivai rrav- 
aX\' avrov /cal 6 #eo? X W a ^'l v 
KOI Odpaos evSlftwri l KOI fievo? eparvei B 
KOI rd Trparcrea riffrjoriv eirl vovv KOLI rwv pr) 
Trpatcrewv dfyicrrrjaiv. eiTrero rot KOI ^wKpareu 
Sai/jbovia (fxovr) KwKvovaa TrpdrTeiv bora /JLIJ ^pewv 
rjv (f)rja-l Se /car'OfjLrjpos vTrep 'A^iXXew?- rw jap 
eirl <j>p(rl Orjicev, &)? rov Oeov KOI TO,? evvoias 
rj/jiwv <yLpovTO<;, OTCLV eirLcrTpetyas o 1/01)9 et? 
eavrov avrw re irporepov ^vyjevrjrai, KOI rw dew 
Si* eavrov fiovov, Kcai\v6fievo^ UTT' ovBevos. ov jap C 
a,Kor)<$ 6 vovs Setrat TT/JO? TO jj^aOelv ov&e /JLIJV 6 
#60? <f)0)vfjs Trpo? TO Si&dgai TO, SeovTCL' aXX' 
aiGOrjcrews efw TTOLO-^ OLTTO rov Kpeirrovos rj 
/jLerovaria jiverai TW vq>' riva {lev rpoirov KOI 
O7ro)9 ov o"%o\r) vvv CTre^ievai, TO S' OTI jiverat 
$f)\ov 2 Kal o-a<et9 ol /jidprvpes, OVK aSogoi rives 
ovft ev rfj Meyapewv dioi rdrrecrdai /juepiSi, d\\a D 
rwv aTreveyKafjievwv ejrl aotyia ra rrpwrela? 

OVKOVV eVeiSr/ %pr) rrpoff^oKav Kal Bebv r^Liv 
TrapeaeadaL ndvru><$ /cal r)fj,ds avrovs avrois crvve- 
aeaOai, rb \iav Sucr^epe9 d^aipereov ear] rrjs 
\vrrr)<s. eirel teal rbv 'QSuffcrea JJLOVOV ev rf) vrfcrq> 
/caOeipyfievov errra rovs rrdvras eviavrovs, clr* 
oSvpofjievov, T?}9 fJiev d\\rj<; erraivw Kaprepias, rwv 

Se OVK dya/JiaL. ri yap 6'<e\o9 rrovrov eV 250 
SepKeaOai real \eifteiv Bd/cpva; rb 

1 88 

1 V5/5o><n Hertlein suggests, SiSwffi MSS. 

2 Srj\of Cobet, S^Aot Hertlein, MSS. 

3 irptareiti Cobet, irpura Hertlein, MSS. 


neglected and left wholly desolate. But over him 
God stretches his hand, 1 endues him with strength, 
inspires him with courage, and puts into his mind 
what he must do. We know too how a divine 
voice accompanied Socrates and prevented him from 
doing what he ought not. And Homer also says 
of Achilles, " She put the thought in his mind," 2 
implying that it is God who suggests our thoughts 
when the mind turns inwards and first communes 
with itself, and then with God alone by itself, 
hindered by nothing external. For the mind needs 
no ears to learn with, still less does God need a 
voice to teach us our duty : but apart from all sense- 
perception, communion with God is vouchsafed to 
the mind. How and in what manner I have not 
now leisure to inquire, but that this does happen is 
evident, and there are sure witnesses thereof men 
not obscure or only fit to be classed with the 
Megarians, 3 but such as have borne the palm for 

It follows therefore that since we may expect that 
God will be present with us in all our doings, and 
that we shall again renew our intercourse, our grief 
must lose its sharpest sting. For indeed in the case 
of Odysseus 4 too, who was imprisoned on the island 
for all those seven years and then bewailed his lot, I 
applaud him for his fortitude on other occasions, but I 
do not approve +hose lamentations. For of what avail 
was it for him to gaze on the fishy sea and shed 

1 Iliad 9. 420. 2 Iliad 1. 55. 

3 The Megarians on inquiring their rank among the Greeks 
from the Delphic oracle were told that they were not in the 
reckoning at all, vnt'ts 8' 01 Mc/apels OVK tv \6y(f ou8' 4v 
apt6/j.({j ; cf. Theocritus 14. 47. 

4 Cf. Dio Ohrysostom 13. 4, Arnim. 



Be fJiri Trpoeo~0ai /jLr}& aTrayopevo-ai Trpo? rr)v 
aXX' dvBpa ne^pis etr)(&T&v yeveo-0ai Trovcov 1 teal 
KivBvvoov, rovro e/jLOiye fyaiverai /nei^ov r) Kara 
dvOpwTrov. ov 6V; BiKaiov eiraivelv fjiev avrovv, fJ>w 
/jiifjLela-0ai &e, ov8e VO/JLL^IV, o>? e/cetvois pev 6 deos 
7rpo6v/jiay<? avvekd/jblBave, TOU? Be vvv TrepLo^erai, B 
TT)? a/36T^9 opwv avTiTTOiov/juevovs, &t' rjvnep apa 
Ka/ceivois fycupeV' ov <yap Sta TO /caXXo? rov 
era) paras, eirel TOL TOV N^ea /jid\\ov %pr)v aya- 
TrdcrOat, ov&e Sia TIJV Ia")(vv 3 cnreipq) jap<y6ve$ /cal Ku/cXeoTre? rjaav avrov 
TOU?, ov$ Bia rov TT\ovrov ) ovro) yap av 
aTTopQrjTos Tpoia. TI 8e Bel Trpdyf^ara 
avrov eiTL^rovvra TIJV air lav, Bi r)v 'OBvacrea 
(frrja-lv 6 Trot^T^? 6eo^>i\ff, avrov ye e6v d/covetv; C 

Ovve/c 1 eTrrjrtfs ecr&i teal dy%ivoos KOI tyefypwv. 

Bfj/Xov ovv co?, eiTrep rjfuv ravra Trpovyevoiro, TO 
Kpelrrov OVK eXXeti^et ra Trap' eavrov, d\\a KCLI 
Kara rov BoOevra ird\ai Trore Aa/ceBai/jLOViois 
XprjcrfMov /fa\ov/jiv6$ '-e teal atc\r)ro<; 6 $eo? 

Tovrois epavrov ^rv^aywyrjcya^ eV e/ceivo TO D 
yLtepo? aTrei/Jbi Trd\iv, o Bo/cel rfj fjiev d\r)0eia 
fjiL/cpov elvai, Trpos Bo^av Be o/xtw? OVK dyevves. 
'O/jitfpov roi fyaai Seladai Kal rov 'A\ej;avBpov, ov 
BrJTrov a-vvovros, d\\d Krjpvrrovros wcnrep 'A^tX- 
Xea Kal TidrpOK\ov Kal PClavras a/jicpa) Kal rov 

1 Tc6vcav Hertlein suggests, <t>&&Mi> MSS. 


tears ? L Never to abandon hope and despair of one's 
fate, but to play the hero in the extremes of toil and 
danger, does indeed seem to me more than can be 
expected of any human being. But it is not right 
to praise and not to imitate the Homeric heroes, or 
to think that whereas God was ever ready to assist 
them he will disregard the men of our day, if he 
sees that they are striving to attain that very virtue 
for which he favoured those others. For it was not 
physical beauty that he favoured, since in that case 
Nireus 2 would have been more approved ; nor 
strength, for the Laestrygoiis 3 and the Cyclops were 
infinitely stronger than Odysseus ; nor riches, for 
had that been so Troy would never have been 
sacked. But why should I myself labour to discover 
the reason why the poet says that Odysseus was 
beloved by the gods, when we can hear it from 
himself? It was " Because thou art so wary, so 
ready of wit, so prudent." 4 It is therefore evident 
that if we have these qualities in addition, God 
on His side will not fail us, but in the words of 
the oracle once given of old to the Lacedaemonians, 
" Invoked or not invoked, God will be present 
with us." 5 

Now that I have consoled myself with these 
arguments I will go back to that other consideration 
which, though it seems trivial, nevertheless is gener- 
ally esteemed to be not ignoble. Even Alexander, 
we are told, felt a need for Homer, not, of course, to 
be his companion, but to be his herald, as he was for 
Achilles and Patroclus and the two Ajaxes and 

1 Odyssey 5. 84 2 Iliad 2. 673. 

3 Odyssey 10. 119 foil. 4 Odyssey 13. 332. 

5 Cf Oration 6. 201 c ; Thucydides 1/118. 



. XX' o pev virepopSiv del TWV Trap- 
6i>TO)v, e&Le/jievos 8e TMV inrbvTwv ovK rjyaTTa 
rot? Ka6 eawrov ovSe rjpfceLro TOM, 8o$eto~r /ecu 

erw^ev r Q/j,tfpov, rrjv 'ATroXXcoi'o? "(TO)? av 251 
ae \vpav, fj roi9 IT^Xeo)? Gtcelvos e(f)v/j,vr)cr 
ov TT}<? QfHjpov crvvecrews TOVTO 7r\da-jj,a 
, a\X' d\r)0e<> epyov evvtyavOev TO?? eireaiv, 
wairep olfjLai TO 

'Ho)? jj,v /cpo/fOTreTrXo? eKiSvaro Traaav evr' alav 


'HeXto? 8' dvopovae 

/col o&a roiavrd $CLGIV ol Troi^Tai, &f)\a KOI 
evapyfj ra fj,ev ovra KOA, et? ^/xa? eVt, ra Se yiyvo- 


'AXXa TW yu-ez/ etVe ^76^09 dperfjs virepe^ov 1 B 
/cat TOJI/ Trpocrovrtov d<ya6Mv ovSa/jiws ekdrrwv 
o-vveais et? TO<javTj]v eiriOvfjiiav rqv ^v^rjv egijyev, 
ware fjieL^bvwv rj Kara TOU? aXXoL9 opeyeaOai? 

^9 dv&peia<$ teal Odp&ovs et9 aXa- 
ayovaa 3 /eal 7T/OO9 avOd&eiav /3\e7rovcra, 

lv ev KOU<> T049 /3ov\o/j,6vois evrat- 
j'etv 17 -tyeyeiv avrov, el Tt9 a/oa A:at ravTrjs viroXa/j,- C 
/3dvt T?79 fiepibos Trpocnj/ceiv 6KiVM. r)/j,is ^e TOt9 
TrapovGiv dyaTTMvre^ del KOL rwv dirbvTWV iJKKrra 
fjieTa7roiov/j,evoi crrepyo/Jiev /nei>, OTrbrav o Kijpvt; 

I 9 2 

Naber, virdpxov Hertlein, MSS. 

2 bplytaBai Petavius, lacuna Hertlein, MSS. 

3 #7oyo-a Cobet, pe-rrovva Hertlein, . . . ovffa V. 


Antilochus. But Alexander, ever despising what he 
had and longing for what he had not, could never be 
content with his contemporaries or be satisfied with 
the gifts that had been granted to him. And even if 
Homer had fallen to his lot he would probably have 
coveted the lyre of Apollo on which the god played 
at the nuptials of Peleus ; l and he would not have 
regarded it as an invention of Homer's genius but 
an actual fact that had been woven into the epic, 
as when for instance Homer says, "Now Dawn 
with her saffron robe was spread over the whole 
earth " ; 2 and " Then uprose the Sun " ; * and " There 
is a land called Crete " ; 4 or other similar statements 
of poets about plain and palpable things partly 
existing to this very day, partly still happening. 

But in Alexander's case, whether a superabundance 
of virtue and an intelligence that matched the 
advantages with which he was endowed exalted his 
soul to such heights of ambition that he aimed 
at greater achievements than are within the scope of 
other men ; or whether the cause was an excess 
of courage and valour that led him into ostentation 
and bordered on sinful pride, must be left as a 
general topic for consideration by those who desire 
to write either a panegyric of him or a criticism ; 
if indeed anyone thinks that criticism also can 
properly be applied to him. I on the contrary can 
always be content with what I have and am the 
last to covet what I have not, and so am well con- 
tent when my praises are uttered by a herald who 
has been an eyewitness and comrade-in-arms in all 

i Iliad 24. 63. 2 Iliad 8. 1. 

3 Odyssey 3. 1. 4 Odyssey 19. 172. 




7Tcuvf), 6earr)S re Kal a-vvaywvia-rrjs iravrwv rj/j,tv 
yeyovcos, /JLVJ TOi>9 ^oyov^ Trapabe^d/jLevos et9 
Kal aTre^Oeiav elicfj TreTrXacryLtefou?- dpnel 8e rj 
real (f)i\eiv 6fj,o~\,oywv /JLOVOV, e? Se ra a\\a 
\6repos &v KOL TWV YlvOayopa re\(r0evTCt)v. 

^vravda virep^eraL /JLOL KOL TO QpvKovpzvov, D 
&)? OVK et? I\\vpiov<> /Jiovov, d\\a /cal et? 0pa/ca? 
a(j)ir) Kal row? Trepl rrjv Bd\arrav e/ceivijv OLKOVV- 
ras^EXXrym?, eV 049 ^evofievw JJLOI real rpa^evrt 
TTO\V$ evrerrjfcev epws dvBpwv re /cal ^copimv KCU 
7ro\,ea)v. t'crft)9 Be ov <^>auXo9 ovSe e/ceivwv evcnro- 
\e\ei7TTai rat9 -x/ru^afc e/3&)9 ^pwv, ot9 ev ol& on 
rb \ey6 fjievov adirdcno^ e\6wv av yevoio, Sircaiav 252 
dvriSi&ovs avToi? vTrep wv rjfjias a7ro\e- 
vOd&e. /cal rovro fjiev ovft ft>9 
evrel TO ye levai 777)09 yfjias TVJV ainrjv Ta 
afjLeivov a\X' 0)9, el yevoiro, Kal 77/009 rovO^ 
ov/c a7rapa/jiv(/r)T(i)<> ovoe d^lfvyaycoyiJTO)^ evvow, 

eKeivois, OTL ere Trap' rjfji 
t9 yap e/Jiawrbv rf^rj 8ia ere (rvvrdTTO), a 

669 TOU9 7rpft)TOf9 TWV 'EXX^Z/O)^ T\OVVTa 

evvo/jiiav Kal Kara dperrjv rrjv aXkr^v, Kal pyropeiav B 
aKpov Kal <f>i\0(TO(f)i,a<; OVK aireipov, ^9 r/ 
ra Kpdriara /jLere\rj\v0ao-i, \6ya) 
ovv 7re(j)VK, Ovjpevcravres, OVK 
ovBe TrapaSo^oj repareia Trpocre^etv rjfJia^, 
ol TroXXot r&v ftapftdpwv, edo~avre$. 



that I have done ; and who has never admitted any 
statements invented at random out of partiality or 
prejudice. And it is enough for me if he only admit 
his love for me, though on all else he were more 
silent than those initiated by Pythagoras. 

Here however I am reminded of the report current 
that you are going not only to Illyria but to Thrace 
also, and among the Greeks who dwell on the shores 
of that sea. 1 Among them I was born and brought 
up, and hence I have a deeply rooted affection for 
them and for those parts and the cities there. And 
it may be that in their hearts also there still remains 
no slight affection for me : I am therefore well 
assured that you will, as the saying is, gladden their 
hearts by your coming, and there will be a fair 
exchange, since they will gain in proportion as I 
lose by your leaving me here. And I say this not 
because I wish you to go for it were far better if 
you should return to me by the same road without 
delay but the thought in my mind is that even for 
this loss I shall not be without comfort or consola- 
tion, since I can rejoice with them on seeing you just 
come from us. I say " us/' since on your account I 
now rank myself among the Celts, 2 seeing that you are 
worthy to be counted among the most distinguished 
Greeks for your upright administration and your 
other virtues ; and also for your consummate skill in 
oratory ; in philosophy too you are thoroughly 
versed, a field wherein the Greeks alone have 
attained the highest rank ; for they sought after 
truth, as its nature requires, by the aid of reason 
and did not suffer us to pay heed to incredible fables 
or impossible miracles like most of the barbarians. 
1 The Propontis. 2 Sallust was a native of Gaul. 

1 95 
o 2 



ere Be m Trpoirei&Treiv ijBrj jap a^iov per 
ayoi /juev $eo? ev/jievift, OTTOI TTOT' av 
Bey TTOpevecrOai, SeWo? Be v7roSe%oiTO KOL <Duo<? C 
evvovs, ay OL re Sta 77)9 da^aXws: KCLV 7rXeo> Sey, 
crropev^vcrdco ra Kv/juara" Tracri &e fyaveir]? 
Kal Ti/jiios, rjBvs fjiev Trpo&iwv, aXyeivbs 8e c 
TTWV avrovs' GTepywv Se ^a? rfK 

eraipov Kal (j)i\ov TTKTTOV KOivwviav. 
>e Kal TOV avroKpdropd croi ^eo? aTroffrijveie 
Kal ra a\\a Trdvra Kara vovv SfcSo/^, Kal T^V D 
OLKaSe Trap 1 rj/Aas nropeiav dcr(f)a\fj 

aoi //-era rwv Ka\wv KayaQwv dv&pwv 
Kal ert TT/JO? rouroi? 

Ov\e T6 Kal /jieya %alpe, Oeol 8e TOL oXftia Boiev, 
oiKovBe <pL\vjv 69 TrarpiBa yaiav. 



However, this subject also, whatever the truth 
about it may be, I must lay aside for the present. 
But as for you for I must needs dismiss you with 
auspicious words may God in His goodness be your 
guide wherever you may have to journey, and as the 
God of Strangers and the Friendly One 1 may He 
receive you graciously and lead you safely by land ; 
and if you must go by sea, may He smooth the 
waves ! 2 And may you be loved and honoured 
by all you meet, welcome when you arrive, regretted 
when you leave them ! Though you retain your 
affection for me, may you never lack the society of a 
good comrade and faithful friend ! And may God 
make the Emperor gracious to you, and grant you all 
else according to your desire, and make ready for 
you a safe and speedy journey home to us ! 

In these prayers for you I am echoed by all good 
and honourable men; and let me add one prayer 
more : " Health and great joy be with thee, and may 
the gods give thee all things good, even to come 
home again to thy dear fatherland ! " 3 

1 These are regular epithets of Zeus. 

2 Theocritus 7. 57. 3 Odyssey 24. 402 ; and 10. 562. 




ON the strength of his Aristotelian " Paraphrases " 
Themistius may be called a scholar, though hardly 
a philosopher as he himself claimed. Technically he 
was a Sophist : that is to say he gave public lectures 
(7ri6Veis), wrote exercises after the Sophistic 
pattern and went on embassies, which were entrusted 
to him solely on account of his persuasive charm. 
But he insisted that he was no Sophist, because he 
took no fees l and styled himself a practical philoso- 
pher. 2 He was indifferent to the Neo- Platonic 
philosophy, 3 and, since Constantius made him a 
Senator, he cannot have betrayed any zeal for the 
Pagan religion. From Julian's Pagan restoration he 
seems to have held aloof, and, though Julian had 
been his pupil, probably at Nicomedia, he did not 
appoint him to any office. Under the Christian 
Emperor Theodosius he held a prefecture. There is 
no evidence for a positive coolness, such as Zeller 4 
assumes, between Themistius and Julian, and we 
know too little of their relations to assert with some 
critics that the respectful tone of this letter is 
ironical. 5 It was probably written after Julian had 

1 Themistius 260 c, 345 c. 

2 245 D. 3 33, 295 B. 4 Vol. 5, p. 742. 

5 Libanius Epistle 1061 mentions an Oration by Themistius 
in praise of Julian, but this is not extant. 



become Emperor,, though there is nothing in it that 
would not suit an earlier date ; it is sometimes 
assigned to 355 when Julian was still Caesar. The 
quotations from Aristotle are appropriately addressed 
to Themistius as an Aristotelian commentator. 



0) a-oi, fteftaiwa-ai /j,ev, wcnrep ovv 
7Ti$as /cal cr<f)68pa ev^ofJiaiy BeBoL/ca Be prj 
yLietbz>O9 ovarjs rrj<; U7rocr^ecrea>9, fjv 
virep e/Jiov Trpos re rou? aXXou? avra^ra? /cal en 
jjiaXKov 7r/>09 aeavrov Troif)' Kai pot, irakai /JLCV 

OiOfjLV(t) 7T/309 T TOV ' AXegdvBpOV KOi TOV NLdptCOV, 

Kai ei r^9 aXXo9 yeyovev apery Sia<f>epa)v, elvai B 
rrjv a/jii\\av (frpitcr) Tt9 TTpocrysi KOL Seo9 Qavpacr- 
TOV, /jurj rov fjiev aTroXetTrecr^afc 7ra^TeXw9 r?}9 
(t), TOV 8e Tr<s reXeta9 aoerr9 ouSe e?r' 


' ' 

Tr)V a"%o\r]V eiraivelv, KCU TWV ' ' A.TTLKWV 

auro9 re ^Sea)9 e/jifj,vij/jir)v /cal TO49 < 1X049 
TTpoa-dSeiv rjgiovv, coaTrep ol TCL ftapea (feopTia 

V Tat9 ft)5at9 7TlKOV(f)i%OVCrLV aUTOt9 

^ Ta\aiTTwpLav. crv Be jj,oi vvv pelfyv eTroirj- C 
o-a9 Sia r?}9 eVa7%o9 eVtcrToX7}9 TO Seo9 /cat 
TOZ/ dywva r&> TravTi %a\7ra)Tpov e'Setfa9, eV 
TavTr) Trapa TOV Oeov TeTa^Oat yue r^ jjiepL&i, \eywv, 
ev rj TTpoTepov ( HpaK\fj$ /cal Aiovvaos eyeveaO^v 
o^ov Kai ftaaikevovTes real Traaav 

v Naber, St^Tj/iaTcoi' Hertlein, MSS. 


I EARNESTLY desire to fulfil your hopes of me even 
as you express them in your letter, but I am afraid I 
shall fall short of them, since the expectations you 
have raised both in the minds of others, and still 
more in your own, are beyond my powers. There 
was a time when I believed that I ought to try 
to rival men who have been most distinguished for 
excellence, Alexander, for instance, or Marcus ; l but 
I shivered at the thought and was seized with terror 
lest 1 should fail entirely to come up to the courage 
of the former, and should not make even the least 
approach to the latter's perfect virtue. With this in 
mind I convinced myself that I preferred a life of 
leisure, and I both gladly recalled the Attic manner 
of living, and thought myself to be in sweet 
accord with you who are my friends, just as those 
who carry heavy burdens lighten their labour by 
singing. 2 But by your recent letter you have in- 
creased my fears, and you point to an enterprise in 
every way more difficult. You say that God has 
placed me in the same position as Heracles and 
Dionysus of old who, being at once philosophers and 

1 The Emperor Marcus Aurelius. 

2 Apparently an echo of Dio Chrysostom, Oration 1. 9, 



o-fteBbv rf)<> eTTirroXa^ovcrrj^ /carda? ava/caOaipo- 254 
fievot, yrjv re KCLI Od\arrav. Ke~\,evei$ Be rracrav 
dTrooreicrdfjLevov o"%o\r)S evvoiav KCU 
<TKOTrelv, OTTCO? TT}? UTroflecretw? aft'co? 
elra eV avrol? TMV vofJboOerwv /jLe/j,vr)crai,, 


%ova yjpr)vai nap* TI^WV \6j6is TOVS avOpwTrovs eV 
vvv Trept/jieveiv. TOVTOIS eya) rot? \6yois 

7r\dyr)v fjuiKpov' crol /jiV yap v7T\djji- B 
fBavov ov8a/j,w<; OC/JLITOV KO\afceveiv r) ^rev^edOai,, 
e/mavro) 8e (Tu^etScb? fyvaews /JLEV V/ca Stacfrepov 
ov$ev ovre e% dp^s ovre vvv vjrdp^av, (f)i\o- 
(Tofyias Be epavOevn JJLOVOV ra? yap ev 
at Atot rbv epwra TOVTOV 
' OVK el%ov ovv o, TL ^prj jrepl rwv 
\6yo)v (rv/jL/SaXeiv, e&>9 ejrl vovv ijyayev 
6 9ebs, j^rj TTore dpa irporpeTreiv e^eXe*? Sta rwv C 
67raivo)v Kal TWV dywvwv Sel^ai TO /JieyeQos, ot? 
dvdyicr) Tracra TOV ev TroXtreta ^wvra 7rapa(3e/3\f)- 
ff6ai TOV aTravra %povov. 

TOUTO Be dirorpeTTOvrb^ eari TT\OV fj Trpbs TOV 
(BLov TrapopfjLwvTos. w<r7rep ydp ei rt? TOV TcopOfjbbv 
TOV Trap 1 vfjuv 7r\e(av KOI ovSe TOVTOV paSta)? ovSe 
evKokws v(f)i(TTdfjievos CLKOVOL rrapd TOV ^CIVTIKIJV 
e7rayye\\oijLVOv Te%V7jv, a>? ^pecbv avTov TOV D 
A.lyaiov dva^eTpriaau KOI TOV *\OVLOV KCU TT;? e^co 
^aaOai, KOL " Nvv /Jbev " 6pa$ 6 Trpo- 
\eyoi " Tei^rj KCU XtyLte^a?, e/cet Be yevo/jievos 



kings, purged almost the whole earth and sea of the 
evils that infested them. You bid me shake off all 
thought of leisure and inactivity that I may prove 
to be a good soldier worthy of so high a destiny. 
And besides those examples you go on to remind me 
of law-givers such as Solon, Pittacus, and Lycurgus, 
and you say that men have the right to expect from 
me now greater things than from any of these. 
When I read these words I was almost dumb- 
founded ; for on the one hand I was sure that it was 
unlawful for you as a philosopher to flatter or deceive ; 
on the other hand I am fully conscious that by nature 
there is nothing remarkable about me there never 
was from the first nor has there come to be now, 
but as regards philosophy I have only fallen in love 
with it (I say nothing of the fates that have inter- 
vened i to make that love so far ineffectual). I could 
not tell therefore how I ought to interpret such ex- 
pressions, until God brought it into my mind that 
perhaps by your very praises you wished to exhort 
me, and to point out how great are those trials to 
which a statesman must inevitably be exposed every 
day of his life. 

But your method is more likely to discourage than 
to make one eager for such an existence. Suppose that 
a man were navigating your strait, 2 and were finding 
even that none too easy or safe, and then suppose some 
professional soothsayer should tell him that he would 
have to traverse the Aegaean and then the Ionian 
Sea, and finally embark on the outer sea. " Here," 
that prophet would say, "you see towns and harbours, 

1 Euripides. Orestes 16. 

2 The Bosporus ; Themistius was probably at Constanti- 




, > 

teal vavv Tcbppw6ev KaTibwv rrpocreiTreiv TOV$ G/JL- 
irXeovTas, KOI 7% 7779 o^e Trore dtyd/jievos , r&> 
06O) 7roXXa/a9 Trpoarev^rj, rrpos avTw yovv T&> reXet 


Trapa&ovvai KOI rovs e^'jrX.eovTas airaOeis rot? 
oltcioi<? KCLKWV 7rapa(TTr}crai, Kal TO 
fj,rjrpl yy SOVVCLL, rovro <$e eaofjievo 
ecrrcu aoi pe^pi TT}? re\v rata? efceivijs 
ap otL TOVTWV a/coixravTa TWV Xoycov eicelvov 
TTO\,IV ' av l oltcelv e\ea6ai Tc\r}aiov ^aXacrcr^?, 
xalpeiv eiTrovra TT\OVTW /cat rot? e 
ayaOois Trepiyiyvo/jievois, yvcopifjucov TTO\- 
\wv, ^eviKyjs (^tXta?, laropias eOvwv Kal iroKewv B 
vTrepiSovra aofyov cnrofyaiveLV TOV TOV 
09 Ke\evt \aOelv ftiwaravTa; real crv 8e 
TOVTO KaTa/jt,aOa)V TTpOKaTaka^av 
et9 TOV ^TTLKovpov \oi&oplais Kal Trpoegaipeiv TTJV 
wfirjv. <f>r}$ yap TTOV (T%o\?jv eTraiveiv 
Kal &ia\ej;i,<; ev TrepLTraTOis rrpoo-iJKeiv 
eya) 8e OTI JJLGV ov :aXco9 'EtTriKovpay C 
oKei, 7rd\ai Kal (7(f)6$pa TreiOofiat,' el 8e 
Trdvd' OVTIVOVV 7rl Tro\iTeiav TTpoTpeTreiv afyov, 
Kal TOV rjTTov rrefyvKOTa Kal TOV OVTTW TeXeco9 
Svvd/jLevov, errl TrXelaTOV tcra)? SiaTropfjcrai, xprf. 
\eyovcri yap TOI Kal TOV ^coKpaTrj 7roXXou9 fjbev ov 
drrayayelv TOV 

1 y Uv Hertlein suggests, 700^ MSS. 

2 v<f>v(ias Reiske adds. 



but when you arrive there you will see not so much 
as a watch-tow r er or a rock, but you will be thankful 
to descry even a ship in the distance and to hail her 
crew. You will often pray to God that you may, how- 
ever late, touch land and reach a harbour, though that 
were to be the last day of your life. You will pray 
to be allowed to bring home your ship safe and 
sound and restore your crew unscathed to their 
friends, and then to commit your body to mother 
earth. And this indeed may happen, but you will 
not be sure of it until that final day." Do you 
think that such a man after being told all this would 
choose even to live in a sea-port town ? Would he 
not bid adieu to money-making and all the advantages 
of commerce, and caring little for troops of friends 
and acquaintances abroad, and all that he might 
learn about nations and cities, would he not ap- 
prove the wisdom of the son of Neocles 1 who bids 
us " Live in obscurity " ? Indeed, you apparently 
perceived this, and by your abuse of Epicurus you 
tried to forestall me and to eradicate beforehand 
any such purpose. For you go on to say that it was 
to be expected that so idle a man as he should com- 
mend leisure and conversations during walks. Now 
for my part I have long been firmly convinced that 
Epicurus was mistaken in that view of his, but 
whether it be proper to urge into public life any and 
every man, both him w r ho lacks natural abilities and 
him who is not yet completely equipped, is a point 
that deserves the most careful consideration. We 
are told that Socrates dissuaded from the statesman's 
profession 2 many who had no great natural talent, and 

1 Epicurus ; his advice was \a9e Pidxras. 

2 Literally "from the #}/*>" i-e- the stone on the Pnyx 
from which the Athenian orator addressed the people. 



/cal T\avK(ova etcelvov, Eevotywv \eyei~ TOV Be * 
TOV K\eiviov TralSa TreipaOr/vai /juev emcr^e'lv, ov D 
&wr)8f)vcu Be TrepiyeveaOai TOV veavlaicov T?}? 
rjfjiei^ Be Kal atcovTa<$ KOI %vvievTa<$ avrwv 
, Oappetv vTrep rtj\iKOvr(av ep- 
&v OVK aperrj f^ovov early ovBe 
opdrj tcvpia, TroXu Se 7r\eov 77 
Kparovaa Travra^ov /cal ftia^o/jievr) peTretv 
av eOeXr) ra TT pay par a; XpvcriTTTros be So/eel TO- 
pev a\\a cro(o? etvau fcal vopjidOrfvai Si/caia)s, 
dyvorjaas Be rrjv rv^v ical TO avTopaTOV Kai 

aXXa? curias roiaura? egwQev rot? TrpatcTi- 256 
Trape/jLTrnrTOvaas ov atyoSpa ofJLoKoyovfJbeva 
\eyeiv ol? o %povo<$ ^/^a? Sia /jLVpiayv evapyws 
$i$derKi TrapaSeiy/jLaTcov. TTOV yap evTV^rj /cal 
jjiatcdpiov KaTcova ^^ao/jbev; TTOV Be &Lc0va TOV 
^L/ce\i(*)Tr)v evSaifjiova; ot? TOV /Jbev aTroOavelv 
fjLe\ev i(7&)9 ovSev, TOV Se fjirj \eiTreiv areXet? ra? 
vrpafet?, e<fi a? ef /o%?5 wpp'Tja-av, /cal a(f)6Spa B 
e/jie\e, KOI irdvTa av e f i\ovTO iraOelv vTrep TOVTOV. 
o-^aXeVre? Se ev eiceivois el /jiev evo-^yitoVft)? 
e<j)epov, w<T7rep ovv \eyeTai, Trjv TV^V Trapa- 
fjivOiav ecr^ov e/c TTJS aperf? ov /Jbitcpdv, ev 
$e OVK av \eyoiVTO TWV Ka\\iaTwv 
Sirj/jLapTr/KOTes, 7T\rjv tcrft)? oia Trjv 
evcrTacriv 717509 yv prjTeov, a)? ov TavTov eo~Tiv 
eTcaivelcrOai /cal fjiaKapi^eaOai, /cal el <pvo~ei TO 

opeyeTai, /cpeiTTOv elvai TO /caT* C 

Kal r\avKcava . . . \eyei- rbv 8e Wyttenbach, T\avK(ava Se 
'ivov us Hevotp&v \fjfi, Kal -r^v Hertlein, MSS. 



Glaucon too, Xenophon l tells us ; and that he tried 
to restrain the son of Cleinias 2 also, but could not 
curb the youth's impetuous ambition. Then shall 
we try to force into that career men who are 
reluctant and conscious of their deficiencies, and 
urge them to be self-confident about such great 
tasks? For in such matters not virtue alone or 
a wise policy is paramount, but to a far greater 
degree Fortune holds sway throughout and compels 
events to incline as she wills. Chrysippus 3 indeed, 
though in other respects he seems a wise man and 
to have been rightly so esteemed, yet in ignoring 
fortune and chance and all other such external 
causes that fall in to block the path of men of affairs, 
he uttered paradoxes wholly at variance with facts 
about which the past teaches us clearly by countless 
examples. For instance, shall we call Cato a fortunate 
and happy man ? Or shall we say that Dio of Sicily 
had a happy lot ? It is true that for death they 
probably cared nothing, but they did care greatly 
about not leaving unfinished the undertakings which 
they had originally set on foot, and to secure that 
end there is nothing that they would not have 
endured. In that they were disappointed, and I 
admit that they bore their lot with great dignity, as 
we learn, and derived no small consolation from 
their virtue ; but happy one could not call them, 
seeing that they had failed in all those noble enter- 
prises, unless perhaps according to the Stoic con- 
ception of happiness. And with regard to that same 
Stoic conception we must admit that to be applauded 
and to be counted happy are two very different 

1 Memorabilia 3. 6. 1. ' 2 Alcibiades. 

3 The Stoic philosopher. 



/jLa/capta-Tov re'Xo? rov /car' dperrjv e 
verov. YIKLGTCL Se (j>i\el r?}? evSat fjiovias rj fteftaio. 
TT;? ry Tv^y TTio-reveiv. /cal TOVS ev TroKireia 
a)VTa$ ov K. evevriv avev raur^? avairvetv TO 
Brj Xeyo/Jievov % ^ ^. l a\ri6w<$ Oewpovvres etre KCU 
KOL a-rparrjybv \6yw, z KaOdirep ol 
tSea? etre /cal -^reuSa)? ^vvrtOevTe^, ev rot? 
l vorjrois ISpvcrOai TTOV rwv rvyaiwv 
TTCLVTWV, r) Tov kwyevovs eiceivov 

/, CLOLKOV, 7rar/)tSo? eareprj/jiepov, 

OVK e%ovra fiev et? o,rt Trap avTrjs ev irddr) teal 
TOVVCLVTIOV ev TIVI cr<j)d\,f)' TOVTOV Se ov 77 
0ia Kd\elv elwOe /cal "OjJLrjpos Trpwros, 

*Ili Xaot T* 67riTTpd(f)aTai KOI roaaa 
7TW9 dv rt? efft) ru%^9 aTrayaytov rrjv Qeaiv (f)v- 

\d(T(TOl' ) TToXLV S' CLVTOV VTTOTlOels TdVTr) 7TOCT7/? 25' 

rerat TrapaaKevfjs 3 *:al (frpovriaeax; 
wcrre ra? e<' etcdrepa pOTrds, /caOdwep 

OVK ecrri, Oav/Jiaa-Tov dvTLrd^aaOai TT poa-iro\e- 
va"r) /JLOVOV avry, TroXu Se davjuiacncorepov 

Twv Trap 1 avTrjs dyaOwv d%iov 
TOVTOIS 6 /jLeyiaTOS eaXco /3aa-i\vs 6 rrjv ' 

1 After \ey6/j.ei>ov several words are lost. 

2 \6y<f Reiske, \6yoi Hertlein, MSS. 

3 irapaerKev^s Hertlein would read, rrjs irapao-itevris MSS. 

4 6av/ji.a(Tiu>rfpoy MSS. ; Hertlein following Cobet reads 
Qav[j.a.m6rfpov but in later Preface would restore MSS. reading. 



things, and that if every living thing naturally desires 
happiness, 1 it is better to make it our aim to be 
congratulated on the score of happiness rather than 
to be applauded on the score of^ virtue. But happi- 
ness that depends on the chances of Fortune is very 
rarely secure. And yet men who are engaged in 
public life cannot, as the saying is, so much as 
breathe unless she is on their side . . . and they 
have created a merely verbal idea of a leader who 
is established somewhere above all the chances of 
Fortune in the sphere of things incorporeal and 
intelligible, just as men define the ideas, whether 
envisaging them truly or falsely imagining them. 
Or again they give us the ideal man, according to 
Diogenes " The man without a city, without a home, 
bereft of a fatherland," 2 that is to say, a man who 
can gain nothing from Fortune, and on the other 
hand has nothing to lose. But one whom we are 
in the habit of calling, as Homer did first, " The 
man to whom the people have been entrusted and 
so many cares belong," 3 how I ask shall we lead 
him beyond the reach of Fortune and keep his 
position secure ? Then again, if he subject himself 
to Fortune, how great the provision he will think 
he must make, how great the prudence he must dis- 
play so as to sustain with equanimity her variations 
in either direction, as a pilot must sustain the 
variations of the wind ! 

Yet it is nothing wonderful to withstand Fortune 
when she is merely hostile, but much more wonderful 
is it to show oneself worthy of the favours she bestows. 
By her favours the greatest of kings, the conqueror 4 

1 Cf. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 1. 10. 6. 

2 Cf. Oration 6. 195s, note. 3 Iliad 2. 25. 4 Alexander. 

P 2 


Aapelov /cal 3epj;ov '%a\eTcw- B 
re/30? fcai paXkov dka^wv (f>aveis, eTreiBrj T/)? 
etceivwv dp%?)<; Karecrr^ /cvpios, TOVTOIS 
rot? /3e\o~iv dpBrjv uTrw\ovTo Tlepaai, 
o TWV *A.0r)vaiwv Bfj/jbos, ^vpa/covcrioi, ra 
jjLtovlwv Te\r), 'Pw/jiaiwv (rrpar^yol /cal CTT' aurot? 


TrdvTCts aTrapiO/nov^eva) rovs Sia TT\OVTOV /cal 
vitcas /cal Tpvtyrjv a7ro\o/>te^ou9' ocroi Be VTTO TWV 
Svo-Trpayiwv 7riK\vcr0ei>T6s $ov\oi /JLGV avr \eu- C 
Oepwv, TaTretvol Be dvrl yevvaiwv /cal (T(j)6Spa 
evreXet? dvrl TWV irpoaOev ae/JLVwv ajracriv w- 
(f)6rj<Tav, TI /J,e xprj vvv wcnrep etc Se\rov jjueraypd- 
(frovra Kara\ej6Lv; el yap a>(f)e\V 6 TWV dvdpw- 
aTTOpelv TrapaBety/jidTwv TOLOVTWV. aA\' 


OVT eaT\v OVT* av yevoiTO vrore TWV TOLOVTWV 
rjs TrapaBeiy/jidTwv, eict)? av TO TWI> dvdpwTrwv 

r/ Ort Be ov/c eyw JJLOVO^ Trjv Tv^rjv ejrl Tr\elcrTov D 
ev rot? 7rpa/CTeot9 fcpaTctv vevo/jLL/ca, \eyot,/ji av 
r)Br) ffot TO, TOV nXarw^o? e/c TWV Oavfjiaviwv 
, elBoTi JJLGV real BiBdgavTi /JLC, aTroBei&v Be 
TOV fjt,r) paOvfJielv Tcoiov^vo^ rrapayeypacfrd 
TTJV prja'iv wBe TTW$ e^ovaav. " eo? fiev 
/cal /^era Oeov TV^TJ ical /caipbs ra dvOpw- 
&LaKvpepvw(Ti ^v/jLiravTa. rjpepwTepov /^rjv 
TOVTOLS (Tvy^wpijaaL TpiTOv Belv eirearBai Te^vrjv." 258 
etra OTTOLOV dvai %pr) TOV Te^viT^jv /cal Brj/uovpybv 
TWV KO\WV rrpdgewv teal (3acri\ea Oeiov 1 VTTO- 
ypdcfrwv " Tivwa/cwv 6 Kpovos dpa, /cadaTrep 
Tj/jbel^, (frrjcri, SteX^Xu^a/^ez^, ft>? dvOpwireia 

1 Qeiov Hertlein suggests, 6ebt> MSS. 


of Asia was ensnared, and showed himself more cruel 
and more insolent than Darius and Xerxes, after he 
had become the master of their empire. The shafts 
of her favours subdued and utterly destroyed the 
Persians, the Macedonians, the Athenian nation, 
Spartan magistrates, Roman generals, and countless ab- 
solute monarchs besides. It would be an endless busi- 
ness to enumerate all who have fallen victims to their 
wealth and victories and luxury. And as for those 
who, submerged by the tide of their misfortunes, from 
free men have become slaves, who have been humbled 
from their high estate after all their splendour and 
become poor and mean in the eyes of all men, what 
need now to go through the list of them as though I 
were copying it from a written record ? Would 
that human life afforded no such instances ! But it 
does not nor ever will lack such, so long as the 
race of man endures. 

And to show that I am not the only one who 
thinks that Fortune has the upper hand in practical 
affairs, I will quote to you a passage from that 
admirable work the Laws of Plato. You know it 
well and indeed taught it to me, but I have set 
down the speech which runs something like this, 
and offer it as a proof that I am not really in- 
dolent. "God governs all things and with God 
Fortune and Opportunity govern all human affairs : 
but there is a milder view that Art must needs go 
with them and must be their associate." l He then 
indicates what must be the character of a man who is 
the craftsman and artificer of noble deeds and a 
divinely inspired king. Then he says : " Kronos there- 
fore, as I have already related, knew that human 
1 Laws 709s. 



ov$a/J.f) ovSe/jLia iKavrj rd dv6pa>7riva 
avTOKparcop Trdura pr) ov% vftpew^ re teal d 


/3acrtXea5 KOL ap^ovras rat? TroKea-iv rj/jiwv OVK 
, d\\a <yevov$ deiorepov KOI dfieivovos, 
, olov vvv ^/Aet? &pwfjLev rot? iroi^Lvioi^ teal 
oacov rj/jiepoi elcnv dye\ai' ov /Sov? fiowv ov&e aiyas 
al<ywv ap^ovras Troiovfj^u auroi? rivas, aXX* ^et? 

aVTWV Se(77ro^OyLt6V, a/JLlVOV KLVG)V 76^0?. TdVTOV 

8r) KOI 6 #eo9 <f>i\dvdpci)7ro<; tov yevos cifjieivov ^JJLWV 
e^iarr) TO rwv Sai/jiovwv, o Bia TroXX^}? JJLZV av- 
rot? pacrTtovrjs, Sia TroXX^? 8' fjjjuv, eVt/xeXo- C 
jjuevov rj/Jiwv, elprjvrjv re /cal alSco /cal 8rj d<f)doviav 
$LKr]s Trape^o/jievov, d<TTacria(na /cal evSai/jbova 
ra rwv dv6pa)7T(0v direipyd^ero yevr). \eyei Brj /cal 
vvv ouro? o Xo7o? aX^^eta %pct)/j,vos, oacov TTO- 
\ewv fir) 0eo5, aXXa Tt? ap%i OvrjTos, OVK ecrrt 
tca/cwv avrols ov&e irovwv dvdtyv^is' aXXa JJLI,- 
/jLeiaOai Beiv rjfjias oUrai Trda-rj w%avfj rbv 
7rl rov Kpo^ou \eyo^vov j3iov, /cal ocrov ev rj/juv D 
dOavaalas eveart, rovTO) ireiOofjievov^ 
ical IBia rds re ot'/t^cret? fcal ra? 7roXei5 
rrjv rov vov Siavofj,r)V 6vo/j.d^ovTa<; VO/JLOV. el Be 
el? ^ 6\iyapxla rt5 rj Brj/jLOffparia 
fypvcra rjSovMv /cal eiTiOv^LLMV opeyofjLevrjv 
/cal 7T\r)povcr0ai rovrcov Seo/mevtjv ap%ei Brj 7roXeft)5 259 
Ttvo5 f) ISitoTOV /caraTraTijaas 701)5 VO/JLOVS, OVK 



nature when endowed with supreme authority is never 
in any case capable of managing human affairs with- 
out being filled with insolence and injustice ; there- 
fore^ having regard to this he at that time set over 
our cities as kings and governors not men but beings 
of a more divine and higher race, I mean demons ; thus 
doing as we do now for our flocks and domestic herds. 
We never appoint certain oxen to rule over other 
oxen or goats to rule over goats, but we are their 
masters, a race superior to theirs. In like manner 
then God, since he loves mankind, has set over us 
a race of beings superior to ourselves, the race of 
demons ; and they with great ease both to themselves 
and us undertake the care of us and dispense peace, 
reverence, aye, and above all justice without stint, 
and thus they make the tribes of men harmonious 
and happy. And that account is a true one which 
declares that in our day all cities that are governed not 
by a god but by a mortal man have no relief from 
evils and hardships. And the lesson is that we 
ought by every means in our power to imitate that 
life which is said to have existed in the days of 
Kronos : and in so far as the principle of immortality 
is in us we ought to be guided by it in our manage- 
ment of public and private affairs, of our houses and 
cities, calling the distribution of mind Maw.' 1 But 
whether the government be in the hands of one 
man or of an oligarchy or democracy, if it have a 
soul that hankers after pleasure and the lower appe- 
tites and demands to indulge these, and if such a 
one rule over a city or individual having first trampled 
on the laws, there is no means of salvation." 2 

1 A play on words : 5iavo,u^ and v6/j.os are both connected 
with vffj.w = " to distribute." 2 Laivs 713-714 ; Julian 
condenses and slightly alters the original. 



TavTijv eya) CTOL rrjv PTJCTLV e^eTriTrjBes 6\ijv 
Trapeypatya, pr) /JLC K\e7TTeiv VTroXaftys KOI 
KaKOVpyelv /Jbvdovs dp^aiov<; 7rpo(f)epovra, 
fjiev efj,(f)epw<>, ov /Jir)V d\r)6w<s irdvrr] 
aXX' 6 ye a\,r)6r)s VTrep avrwv 

atcoveis on, KOLV avdpwrros Ti? TI rfj 
Qelov elvai %/o^ rf) Trpocupecrei KCU Bai- 
Trav a7rX&)9 K/3a\,6vra TO Ovr^rov KOI 

r?)? ^V^TJ^, 7r\r)V ova dvdyKij Bta B 
rrjv TOV (Tcoyw-aTO? Trapafjievew awrr^piav; ravra 
el T5 evvowv SeBoifcev 7rl rr]\iKOVTov eX/co- 
iov, dpd croi (fraiveTai rrjv ^iriicovpetov 
iv aTTpay/jioa-vvriv ical rovs rcrJTrovs /cal 

TO TTpoa-Teiov Tv vjvwv KOI Ta? 

Kal TO ^co/caTOVs SayjLaTiov; dXV OVK (TTLV OTTOV 

ye eya> raura TrpOTifjirjcras TWV Tfovwv 
ijSicrTa dv aot TOVS e/jiavTOv TTOVOVS ^Le^rfKOov Kal 
TO, eTTiKpefJiaaOevTa Trapa TWV <f>i\wv Kal gvyyevwv, 
ore T7}9 Trap 1 V/JLLV r}px6fj,r]v 7rat8eta9, ^et/xara, C 
e* f^r) a-(j)6&pa avro? ^Trto-rao-o. ra e ev 'Iwvia 
Trpos TOV Kal yevei Trpocr^KOVTa Kal $i\ia H,CL\\OV 
OLK6LOV oina /AOL Tcpa'xpevTa TrpoTepov virep dvbpos 
%evov /jiLKpd Traz^reXft)? yvonptfjiov /JLOL yevofjuevov, 
TOV (To^iaTov (f)ij/jii, \e\rj0ev ovSev ere, dTroSrj/jitas 
Be ov% VTrecTTrjv TWV (friXcov eveKa; KaiTOL Kapre- 
pta) jjLev olcrd* 07TW9 (Tvvrjpdfirjv 7rpo$ TOV CTaipov D 
d(f)LKOfievo<; 'Apd^iov dK\vjTO<>, vTrep avTOV 
. virep Be TWV r^9 Oav/jbaaia^ 'Aper^9 
Kal wv eTreTrovOei jrapd TWV yeiTovcov 
"Mt]vS>v Cobet, 'AOyvalav Hertlein, MSS. 


I have purposely set down the whole of this speech 
for you lest you should think that I am cheating and 
defrauding by bringing forward ancient myths which 
may have some resemblance to the truth, but on 
the whole are not composed with regard to truth. 
But what is the true meaning of this narrative ? You 
hear what it says, that even though a prince be 
by nature human, he must in his conduct be divine 
and a demi-god and must completely banish from 
his soul all that is mortal and brutish, except what 
must remain to safeguard the needs of the body. 
Now if, reflecting on this, one is afraid to be con- 
strained to adopt a life from which so much is 
expected, do you therefore conclude that one ad- 
mires the inaction recommended by Epicurus, the 
gardens and suburbs of Athens and its myrtles, or 
the humble home of Socrates ? But never has any- 
one seen me prefer these to a life of toil. That toil 
of mine I would willingly recount to you, and the 
hazards that threatened me from my friends and 
kinsfolk at the time when I began to study under 
you, if you did not yourself know them well enough. 
You are well aware of what I did, in the first place, 
in Ionia in opposition to one who was related to me 
by ties of blood, but even more closely by ties of 
friendship, and that in behalf of a foreigner with 
whom I was very slightly acquainted, I mean the 
sophist. Did I not endure to leave the country for the 
sake of my friends ? Indeed, you know how I took 
the part of Carterius when I went unsolicited to our 
friend Araxius to plead for him. And in behalf of the 
property of that admirable woman Arete and the 
wrongs she had suffered from her neighbours, did I 



OVK et5 TTJV <&pvyiav TO Sevrepov dtyiKo/Jirjv ev 
ovBe 0X045 /jiijo'l Bvo, daOevovs rjBr) poi 7rai>TeX&>5 
6Wo5 TOU crtojjuaTos Bid Trjv e r jrLyevop,evr)v VTTO Trjs 
irporepov Ka/co7ra6eia<> appaxniav; a\\a By TO 

d<f) tfea)?, ore 7T6/ot rwv ecr^drcov, co? 
ol TroXXot, Kiv8vvevwv eya) rw 

, OTrota? eypa^ov CTTicrToXa? 77/305 
VTTO/jLVija'QrjTL, firjTTore o&vpfAwv 7r\r)pis } 

rj TCLTTGLVOV T) \iciv dyevves 
CLTTICDV 5e eVt T^ 'EXXaSa TrdXw, ore yu-6 

Trvres, ov% 005 e eopr TT / 
rrjv rv-xyv GTraivwv r)$i<TTr)v (f>rjv elvcn, rrjv 

e/jiol Kal TO Srj \yo/jievov B 

6crTta5 Tr)^ 'EXXa^a Xa^obi/ eyavv/jUjv, OVK dypov, 
ov /CTfrrov, ov ScofjLaTLOv Ki /ceKTrj/jievos. 

'AXXa tcr&)5 eoL/ca eya) ra5 /iei' SvaTrpayias OVK 
dyevvws (frepeiv, Trpos Be ra5 irapa Tr)<; ry^5 
Scoped? dyevvrfs TIS elvai Kal jjLiKpos, o ye dycnriov 
ra5 'A^^a5 pa\\ov TOV vvv Trepl rj/Jids oyKov, TTJV 
SiJTrovOev eKeivr^v eTratvwv, Bid Be TO 
TWV irpdgewv TOVTOV aiTi(t>/Aevo<; TOV fiiov ; C 
d\\d fj,i'i 7TOT6 %pr) irepl r)/LLwi> a/mewov Kplveiv, OVK 
et5 dirpa^lav Kal Trpd^iv ftXeTrovTas, fjid\\ov Se et5 
TO YvwOi cravTov Kal TO 

"EtpBoi 8' 6ao-T05 



not journey to Phrygia for the second time within 
two months, though I was physically very weak from 
the illness that had been brought on by former 
fatigues ? 1 Finally, before I went to Greece, while I 
was still with the army and running what most 
people would call the greatest possible risks, re- 
call now what sort of letters I wrote to you, never 
filled with complaints or containing anything little 
or mean or servile. And when I returned to Greece, 
when everyone regarded me as an exile, did I not 
welcome my fate as though it were some high festival, 
and did I not say that the exchange to me was most 
delightful, and that, as the saying is, I had thereby 
gained "gold for bronze, the price of a hundred 
oxen for the price of nine " ? 2 So great was my joy 
at obtaining the chance to live in Greece instead of 
in my own home, though I possessed there no land 
or garden or the humblest house. 

But perhaps you think that though I can bear 
adversity in the proper spirit, yet I show a poor 
and mean spirit towards the good gifts of Fortune, 
seeing that I prefer Athens to the pomp that now 
surrounds me ; because, you will doubtless say, I 
approve the leisure of those days and disparage my 
present life because of the vast amount of work that 
the latter involves. But perhaps you ought to judge 
of me more accurately, and not consider the question 
whether I am idle or industrious, but rather the 
precept, "Know thyself," and the saying, "Let 
every man practise the craft which he knows." 3 

1 We know nothing more of the events here mentioned. 

2 A proverb derived from Iliad 6. 236, where Glaukos ex- 
changes his golden armour for the bronze armour of Diomede. 

3 Aristophanes, Wasps 1431. 



e/jioiye (fiaivercu TO fiao-iXeveiv r) /car' 
avOpwTTov teal (frvcrews BeicrOai Bai/jLOViwrepas 
/3acri\,v$, wcTTrep ovv Kal TlXdrcov e\eye' Kal vvv D 
' Apta-TOTe\ov<$ et9 ravrb (rvvreivovra Trapaypd^rw 
\6yov, ov y\av/ca 'AOrjvaiois aycov, aXX' ore /Jbrj 
//,eXw TWV e/ceivov \6ya)v eTTiSei/cvv- 
<J)r)(rl 8e 6 avrjp ev rot? 7roXtTt/cot9 <rvy- 
" Ei Se Sr; ri? apt&TOV deirj TO 
fSacn\veadai rat? TroXecrt, 7r<W9 e^et TO, Trepl TCOV 
TCKVWV ; TTOTepov Kal TO yevos Set j3acri\veiv ; 

d\\a ov 7rapa8cocrL Kvpios wv rot? Teicvois; a\X' 261 
OVK en paSiov TOVTO 7rio-Tev(rai' ^a\7roi> yap 
/cal yLtet^oz/o? dpeTr)s rj /ear' dvOpwTriwrjv 

, Kal TOVTOV ov&e (BaGikea Ka\wv, ov&e TOV 
TOIOVTOV etSo9 7roXtre/<x9 2 oto//.e^o9, rrpoaTidrjar 
" Hepl 8e T^9 ira/jipao-ikeias Ka\ovfjiev^, avTtj ' B 
eVrl KaO" 1 r)v ap^ei TrdvTcov KaTa Trjv auTov /3ov\rj- 
<TLV o /3a(ri\evs, &oKi TIGIV ov$e KaTa (pvcriv elvai 
TO Kvpiov eva TrdvTfav elvai TWV TTO\LTWV' rot9 
yap ouoiois (j)vcrt TO avTo SiKaiov dvayKalov 
eivau" elra ytter' o\iyov (frrjo-iv " 'O /jiev ovv TOV 
vovv KeKevwv ap^euv SOKCL Ke\evei,v ap%iv TOV 
Oeov Kal TOU9 voaovs' 6 Be avOpwjrov Ke\evo3V 

1 <5>s Klimek, '6s Hertlein, MSS. 

2 r'bv TOIOVTOV eiSos TroXiTfias Hertlein suggests, cf. Aristotle 
Politics 3. 16, 1287 a, rb TOIOVTOV elSos MS 



To me, at any rate, it seems that the task of 
reigning is beyond human powers, and that a king 
needs a more divine character, as indeed Plato too 
used to say. And now I wift write out a passage 
from Aristotle to the same effect, not " bringing owls 
to the Athenians," l but in order to show you that I 
do not entirely neglect his writings. In his political 
treatises he says : " Now even if one maintain the 
principle that it is best for cities to be governed by 
a king, how will it be about his children ? Ought 
his children to succeed him? And yet if they 
prove to be no better than anybody else, that would 
be a bad thing for the city. But you may say, 
though he has the power he will not leave the 
succession to his children ? It is difficult indeed to 
believe that he will not ; for that would be too hard 
for him, and demands a virtue greater than belongs 
to human nature." 2 And later on, when he is 
describing a so-called king who rules according to 
law, and says that he is both the servant and 
guardian of the laws^, he does not call him a king at 
all, nor does he consider such a king as a distinct 
form of government ; and he goes on to say : " Now 
as for what is called absolute monarchy, that is to say, 
when a king governs all other men according to his 
own will, some people think that it is not in 
accordance with the nature of things for one man 
to have absolute authority over all the citizens ; 
since those who are by nature equal must necessarily 
have the same rights." 3 Again, a little later he says : 
" It seems, therefore, that he who bids Reason rule 
is really preferring the rule of God and the laws, 

1 A proverb ; cf. "bringing coals to Newcastle." 

2 Aristotle, Politics 3. 15. 1286B. 3 Ibid 3. 16. 1287A. 


KOL Or^pia' r\ re yap 7ri@vfi,ia TOIOV- C 

TOV KOl 6 Ov/jLO^ O? l $iaO~Tp(f)l KCU TOW? apiCTTOVS 

avopas' OLOTrep avev ope few? 6 vovs vopos Itrrlv" 
opas, o <f>i\6cro(f)o$ eoiKev evravda <ra<w9 a,7ri- 

GTOVVTi KOL KCLT ^V to KQ7 1 TT}<? avQ pWniVY]^ (j)V(Ta)<;. 

-1 yap OVTW prjfjLaTi TOVTO \eya)v ovSepiav 
eivai (frvcriv dvOpcoTriwrjv Trpo? rocravT'rjv 

ovre yap TMV irai^wv TO KOIVT) D 
rot? TToXtrai? (Tvpfyepov Trporifjiav avOpwirov ye 
ovra paSiov vTroXa/jL/Sdvei, KOI 7ro\\wv 6/jLoi(t)v 
ov Sitcaiov elvai ^ai, KOI reXo? eVt^el? rov 
&va rot? e/ATTpoaQev Xoyois VOJJLOV /jiev elvai 
rbv vovv %(opl<> opefea)?, &> fjuovw ra? 
eTTirpeTreiv %prjvai,, dvSpwv Se ovSevi. 6 
yap ev aurofr 1^01)9, KCLV MCTIV dyaOoi, 
TCLL 0v/jiq) real eTTiOv/JLia, OTJP'IOI 
raOra e/jiol So reel rot? TOV ITXaTwz'o? a/cpcos 262 
6fjLo\oyelv, TrpwTov pev OTL /cpeiTTOva %prj TWV 
dp%ojjL6vci)v elvat TOV ap%ovTa, OVK eTriTTjSevcrei, 
fjiovov, a\\a real fyvcrei Sia(f)epovTa' OTrep evpelv 
ev avOpwTTOis ov paoiov 2 . . . real TpiTOv OTi7rd<7y 
$ Kar a ovva/jiLv vocals irpoa-eicTeov OVK eic TOV 
vois ovSe co? eoi/ce vvv TeBelcnv 
vir dvSpwv ov irdvTrj tcaTa vovv fieftKo/coT 
6'(TTi? fiaXXov TOV vovv KaOapOels /cal Trjv 
OVK et9 ra TrapovTa dcfropwv dSiK^aTa ovoe et? B 

1 As Hertlein would add. 

2 Several words indicating the second point enumerated 
seem to have been lost. 



but he who bids man, rule, adds an element of 
the beast. For desire is a wild beast, and passion 
which warps even the best men. It follows, there- 
fore, that law is Reason exempt from desire." You 
see the philosopher seems here clearly to dis- 
trust and condemn human nature. For he says 
so in so many words when he asserts that human 
nature is in no case worthy of such an excess of 
fortune. For he thinks that it is too hard for one 
who is merely human to prefer the general weal of 
the citizens to his own children ; he says that it is 
not just that one man should rule over many who 
are his equals ; and, finally, he puts the finishing 
stroke 1 to what he has just said when he asserts that 
"law is Reason exempt from desire," and that 
political affairs ought to be entrusted to Reason 
alone, and not to any individual man whatever. For 
the reason that is in men, however good they may 
be, is entangled with passion and desire, those most 
ferocious monsters. These opinions, it seems to me, 
harmonise perfectly with Plato's ; first, that he who 
governs ought to be superior to his subjects and 
surpass them not only in his acquired habits but also 
in natural endowment ; a thing which is not easy to 
find among men ; . . . thirdly, that he ought by every 
means in his power to observe the laws, not those 
that were framed to meet some sudden emergency, 
or established, as now appears, by men whose lives 
were not wholly guided by reason ; but he must 
observe them only in case the lawgiver, having 
purified his mind and soul, in enacting those laws 
keeps in view not merely the crimes of the moment 

1 Cf. Plato, Theaetetus 153. 



ra? TT a peer TWO- as rir^a? rLOvfcn TOI>? VO/JLOVS, aXXa 
Trjv rrjs TroXireias (frvcriv tear a pad wv KOI TO 
BitcaLov olov 1 eo-TL rfj (frvcrei teal TTOTCLTTOV earn 
TaBifCfjfjLa TeOeapevos TTJ (frvcrei, eW oaa Svvarov 
ecrnv eiceWev evravOa /j,6Ta(f)epa>v teal Ti0el<> 


e^dpav d<popwv OVTG et? yelrova KOI 

KpeiGCTOv &e, el /JLTJ^C roi? xaff eavrov 

aX\a rot? vcrrepov rj 

v6/Jbov$, %a)v <ye ovSev 

efeiv ibiwriKov (rvvdX\a<yfj,a. eVet KOL TOV ^o 

TOV (T0<f)bv dtCOVd) /JL6TCL 

vTrep rrfs TWV ^pewv dvcupeaews TO?? fj,ev 
ias a^opfjirjv, avry Se cd<jyvvr)<$ alriav Trapa- 
, Kal ravTa TW TroXtrev/xaTL TOV Sij/jiov e'Xef- 

ovrws ov paSiov ecm Ta? TOiavras D 
tcrjpas, Kav TOV avrov vovv Trapda^rj Tt? 
vrpo? TTJV Tro\iTeiav. 
*A Seb'iws eyob TroXXa/tt? et/toTw? eVan/co TOJ; /JL- 
Trpocrdev (Blov, teal crol TreidojLievos fjid\i(TTa Tavra 
eyot) SiavooviJLCU, ov% QTL (JLOL TOV ty~f\.ov rrpo^ 
fjiovov e<r?? TrpOKeiaOai TOU? av&pas, 
KOL AvKovpyov Kal HiTTatcov, aXXa /cat 
uTa/3rjvai yue 0^? eic T^? v-TroarTeyov <pi\o- 
ias TT/oo? Tr)V i)TcaiQpiov. wcnrep ovv, el TW 263 
/col yu-oXt? t^yteta? ^veica TT}? aiiTov ryvp- 
Tpit*; OLfcaSe 7rpov\eye<?, em " Nvv 
a? 'OXv///7rtai' teal /JLeraftefirj/cas CK T/}? ev 
ra> Sa)/j,aTi<p TraXato-Tpa? eVt TO ffTa&iov TOV Ato?, 
ov OeaTas efet? Toy? Te aTravTa^oOev " 

1 o16v Hertlein suggests, & MSS. 


or immediate contingencies ; but rather recognises 
the nature of government and the essential nature of 
justice, and has carefully observed also the essential 
nature of guilt., and then applies to his task all the 
knowledge thus derived,, and frames laws which 
have a general application to all the citizens without 
regard to friend or foe, neighbour or kinsman. And 
it is better that such a lawgiver should frame and 
promulgate his laws not for his contemporaries only 
but for posterity also, or for strangers with whom he 
neither has nor expects to have any private dealings. 
For instance, I hear that the wise Solon, having 
consulted his friends about the cancelling of debts, 
furnished them with an opportunity to make money, 
but brought on himself a disgraceful accusation. 1 
So hard is it to avoid such fatalities, even when 
a man brings a passionless mind to the task of 

And since this sort of thing is what I dread, it is 
natural that I should often dwell on the advantages 
of my previous mode of life, and I am but obeying 
you when I reflect that you said not only that I 
must emulate those famous men Solon, Lycurgus 
and Pittacus, but also that I must now quit the 
shades of philosophy for the open air. This is as 
though you had announced to a man who for his 
health's sake and by exerting himself to the utmost 
was able to take moderate exercise at home : " Now 
you have come to Olympia and have exchanged the 
gymnasium in your house for the stadium of Zeus, 
where you will have for spectators Greeks who have 

1 Before Solon's measure to cancel debts was generally 
known, some of his friends borrowed large sums, knowing 
that they would not have to repay them. 




real Trpairovs 76 row? aavrov rro\lra<$, vjrep MV 
dywvi^eo-ffai, Xptf' i/a9 &* Ka ^ T&V fiapftdpwv, 
01)9 K7r\ij%at, 'xpetov, (pofiepwrepav avroi? rrjv 
TrarpiBa TO ye et? <re vvv rjKov eTTiBei^avra^ Kare- 
av evOea)? real rpe/jLCLv eVot^cra? irpo rfjs 
OVTCO /cape vvv vo/Jbi^e SiareOfjvai rot? B 

TOtOUTOi? \07Oi?. KOI 7Tpl fjiV TOVTWV LT Op^OJ? 

eryvcotca vvv elVe cv /jLepei (T^aXXo/x-tit rov irpocrij- 
KOVTOS eire /cal rov Tra^ro? BiajJbaprdva), oiodgei? 
avriKa /j,d\a. 

"TTrep Be wv dTroprjaai /JLOL TT/OO? rrjv iri<TTO~Kr]V C 
TTJV arjv Trapecrrv), w (f)i\rj K6(f)a\r) /cal 
efjuovye n/jirj^ d^La, /5ouXo/iat BrjXcoffai,' cr 
yap Tret)? VTrep avrwv eTTiOvfjiw jJiaOelv. 
ort rov ev rfj Trpd^ei Trapd rov <f)t,\6(ro<f)ov 
vels jBLov, Kal rov 'Kpiarorekr) rov aocfrbv e'/ca/Ut? 
fjidprvpa, rrjv v&ai/j,oviav ev ry rrpdrreiv ev n0e- 
fjievov, real rrjv Biafopdv a/coTrovvra rov re iro\L- 
ri/cov ftiov /cal rfjs ev rfj OewpLa ^"0)^9, Biajropelv 
arra Trepl avrwv, Kal rrjv fjiev Oewpiav ev a\\oi<; 
TTpori/juav, CTraivetv Be evravOa rov9 rwv KaXcov 
Trpd^ecov dp^ireKrovas. rovrovs Be avros /^ev 
elvat, $7)9 701)9 /3acrtX,ea9, * A.p terror e\r)s Be elprjKev 
ovBa/iov Kara rqv VTTO o~ov TrpocrreOelo-av \e%iv, 
7r\eov Be Odrepov e% &v 7rapayeypa(f)as av Tt9 
vor)0~eie. TO yap " MaXto-ra Be Trpdrreiv \eyojxev 
Kvpicos Kal ra>v e^corepiKcov Trpd^ecav rou9 rai<j 
Biavoiais dp%t,reKrova<$ " et9 TOU9 vo/j,o6era<; Kal 



come from all parts, and foremost among them your 
own fellow-citizens, on whose behalf you must enter 
the lists ; and certain barbarians will be there also 
whom it is your duty to impress, showing them your 
fatherland in as formidable a light as lies in your 
power." You would have disconcerted him at once 
and made him nervous before the games began. 
You may now suppose that I have been affected in 
the same manner by just such words from you. And 
you will very soon inform me whether my present 
view is correct, or whether I am in part deceived as 
to my proper course or whether indeed I am wholly 

But I should like to make clear to you the points 
in your letter by which I am puzzled, my dearest 
friend to whom I especially am bound to pay 
every honour : for I am eager to be more precisely 
informed about them. You said that you approve 
a life of action rather than the philosophic life, 
and you called to witness the wise Aristotle who 
defines happiness as virtuous activity, and discussing 
the difference between the statesman's life and the 
life of contemplation, showed a certain hesitation 
about those lives, and though in others of his writings 
he preferred the contemplative life, in this place you 
say he approves the architects of noble actions. But 
it is you who assert that these are kings, whereas 
Aristotle does not speak in the sense of the words that 
you have introduced : and from what you have quoted 
one would rather infer the contrary. For when he 
says : " We most correctly use the word ' act ' of those 
who are the architects of public affairs by virtue of 
their intelligence," 1 we must suppose that what he 
Aristotle, Politics 7. 3. 1325B. 

Q 2 


Toi>9 TTokiTiKovs <f)i\oo-6(f)ov<; KOI 
TOi>9 vq> T /ecu \6yw TrpdrrovTas, ov%l Be 669 
avTOVpyovs KOI TWV TTO^ITIKWV Trpd^ewv epydras 264 
elpijaOat, vo/MaTeov 0*9 OVK aTro^pr] /JLOVOV ev0v- 
Kal KCLTavorjcraL KOL TO Trpa/creov rot9 
Trpocrtj/cet, Se avTols eicacrra //.era- 
KOL 7rpdrrLi> wv ol VQ^OI Siayopevovat 
/cal 7roXXa/a9 ol Kaipol TrpoaavajKa^ova-i,, 'jr'Krjv 
el /JLT) TOV dpxireKTOva fcaXovftev, Ka0d7rep f/ O[jLrjpos 
rov 'Hyoa/cA-ea Ka\eiv elwOev ev rfj iroirjcrei 
\cov CTrdaropa epyo>v, avTovpyoTarov 

Et Be TOUT' d\7j0e<f v7ro\afii/3dvo/jLev rj KOL JAOVOV B 
ev TW Trpdrreiv rd Koiva (pa/uev ev8ai/jiova<> TOU9 
l ovras /cal (SacriKevovTas 7ro\\a)v, ri Trore 
^cD/cpdrovs epov/Jiev; HvOayopav Be KOI 
OKpirov /cal TOV K.\aofj,Vioi> *A.vaj;a<y6pav 
to-a>9 Bid rrjv dewplav KCLT* d\\o (ftrjaew evBai- 
fjbova?' ^wKpdrrjs Be rr)V Oewpiav irapaiT^ca^evo^ 
Kal rbv TrpaKTiKov dya7rrj(ras ftlov ovBe T^9 ya- 
/j,6rfjs rjv T^9 avrov Kvpios ovBe TOV TraiBos' rjTrov C 
ye Bvolv rj ipi&v TTO^ITCOV eKelvw Kparelv VTrrjp^ev; 
ap 1 ovv OVK rjv Kivo$ TrpaKTiKos, eTrel /jLTjBevbs rjv 
Kvpios; eya) jjuev ovv *A\edvBpov <?;/u pe'i^ova 
TOV ^co(j)povicrKOV KaTepydo~ao~6ai, Trjv IlXaTft)i'O9 
avT<p aofylav avcLTiQeis, TTJV tlevofywvTOs crTpa- 
Trjyiav, Trjv 'A.VTt<T0evov<; dvBpelav, TYJV 'E/36- 
TpiKrjv <f)i,\oo-o(l)iav, Trjv MeyapiKijv, TOV 

1 eV r<p trpa.TTeii' . . . rous itupiovs Hertlein suggests, TOWS eV 

T(f irpoi.TTtll' . . . KVp'lOUS MSS. 



says applies to lawgivers and political philosophers 
and all whose activity consists in the use of intelli- 
gence and reason, but that it does not apply to those 
who do the work themselves and those who transact 
the business of politics. But in their case it is not 
enough that they should consider and devise and 
instruct others as to what must be done, but it is 
their duty to undertake and execute w r hatever the 
laws ordain and circumstances as well often force 
on them ; unless indeed we call that man an archi- 
tect who is " well versed in mighty deeds," 1 a phrase 
which Homer in his poems usually applies to 
Heracles, who was indeed of all men that ever 
lived most given to do the work himself. 

But if we conceive this to be true, or that only 
those are happy who administer public affairs and who 
are in authority and rule over many, w r hat then are 
we to say about Socrates ? As for Pythagoras and 
Democritus and Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, you w r ill 
perhaps say that they were happy in another sense 
of the word, because of their philosophic speculations. 
But as for Socrates who, having rejected the speculative 
life and embraced a life of action, had no authority 
over his own wife or his son, can we say of him that he 
governed even two or three of his fellow-citizens ? 
Then will you assert that since he had no authority 
over any one he accomplished nothing ? On the 
contrary I maintain that the son of Sophroniscus 2 
performed greater tasks than Alexander, for to him 
I ascribe the wisdom of Plato, the generalship of 
Xenophon, the fortitude of Antisthenes, the Eretrian 3 

1 Odyssey 21. 26. a The father of Socrates. 

3 This school was founded by Phaedo in Elis and later was 
transferred by Menedemus to Eretria. 



TOP ^ifA/jiiav, TOV t&aiBcava, jjivpiovs aXXou?* KOI D 
ovTfw (?7/<u ra? yevofjievas r^lv evOevB^ airoiKtas, 
TO AvKeiov, TTJV %Todv, ra? 'A/ta^yueta?. rt? ovv 
crct)drj BLOL rrjv ' A.\edv8pov VLKIJV; 

flr); rt? avrov yeyove {3e\ria)v I 
avrip; TrXovcriwrepovs /JLGV yap 7ro\\ov$ av 
, &o(f)(t)Tpov 8e ovBeva ovSe crwtypovea-repov 
avrov avrov, el /jirj /cat fjua\\ov aka^ova KOL 
ocroi 8e aco^ovrai vvv etc <fci\ocro<f)ia<s, 
TOV ^to/cpaTrj O-M^OVTO,!,. teal TOVTO OVK eyo) 

oreX'^? Be TTpoTepos 1 eoifcev evvorjO'a^ 265 
eliretv, ort fj,rj jjueiov avTW 7rpocrrJK6i (frpoveiv eiri TTJ 
(Tvyypa<f)f] TOV KaOeKovTOs Ti]V TLepawv 
tcai /JLOL So/eel TOVTO etceivos opOw? %vv- 
VIKCLV [lev yap avbpeias eVrl /iaXtcrra /cat 
, KelcrOw Be, el (3ov\ei, ical r^9 eVrpe^oO? 
ja-ecos, a\tjOel<f Be VTrep TOV 9eov So^a? 
avcCKafBelv OVK apeT^ JJLOVOV TT}? reXeta? epyov 

vrto'T^cretef av Tt? et/cora)?, TroTepov B 
q TOV TOIOVTOV dvBpa f) 6eov tca\e2v. el yap 
opOws ^X ei ro ^yo/Jbevov, OTL 7re<f)VKV fcao~TOV 
V7rb TWV oltceiwv yvu>pl%ea-6ai, Trjv Oelav ovcriav 6 
Oelos rt? av etVorw? 

1 Trp6rfpos Hertlein suggests, -Kph-rspov MSS, 


and Megarian l philosophies, Cebes, Simmias, 2 Phaedo 
and a host of others ; not to mention the offshoots 
derived from the same source, the Lyceum, the Stoa 
and the Academies. Who, I ask, ever found salvation 
through the conquests of Alexander ? What city 
was ever more wisely governed because of them, what 
individual improved ? Many indeed you might find 
whom those conquests enriched, but not one whom 
they made wiser or more temperate than he was by 
nature, if indeed they have not made him more 
insolent and arrogant. Whereas all who now find 
their salvation in philosophy owe it to Socrates. 
And I am not the only person to perceive this fact 
and to express it, for Aristotle it seems did so before 
me, when he said that he had just as much right to 
be proud of his treatise on the gods as the conqueror 3 
of the Persian empire. And I think he was perfectly 
correct in that conclusion. For military success is 
due to courage and good fortune more than any- 
thing else or, let us say, if you wish, to intelligence 
as well, though of the common everyday sort. But 
to conceive true opinions about God is an achievement 
that not only requires perfect virtue, but one might 
well hesitate whether it be proper to call one who 
attains to this a man or a god. For if the saying is 
true that it is the nature of everything to become 
known to those who have an affinity with it, then 
he who comes to know the essential nature of God 
would naturally be considered divine. 

1 The Megarian school founded by Euclid was finally 
absorbed by the Cynics. 

2 Simmias and Cebes were Pythagoreans ; cf. Plato, Phaedo, 
where they discuss with Socrates. 

* Alexander ; Julian seems to be misquoting Plutarch, 
Aforalia 78o. 



'AXX' erretSi) 7rd\Lv eoi/caaev et? TOV 
TIKOV op/JirfcravTe^ ftiov TOVTW TrapaftdXXetv TOV 
Trpa/CTi/cov, e dp"^rf^ irapaiTrjcra/jLevov KOI aov rrjv 
(Tvy/cpia-iv, avTwv /ceivo)v, wv eTre/jivijcrO'r)?, 'Apelov, C 
Ni/coXdov, pao"uXXou KCU NLovcrwviov jjLvr^jjbo- 
vevcro). TOVTMV jap ov% O7rw9 rt? rjv Kvpios r?}? 
avrov TroXect)?, aXX' 6 jmev "Apeto?, &>? ^aai, /cal 
Si$o/jLvrjv avra) rrjv ALJVTTTOV 7riTpO7rV(Tai, 
iraprjrrjaaro, pacruXXo? Be Tt/3eptft> TTiKprp /cal 
<f>V(rei, ^aXe-TTW TVpdvvw gwyyevo/Jievos, el yu-r; Sia 
TWV KaTa\ei(j)@evTCi)v VTT avrov \6ya)V aTreXoyrf- 
craro, Set^-a? ocrrt? fjv, w(f)\6v av et? reXo? alcr%v- D 
VT;I/ dva7rd\XaKTOv, ovrco^ avrbv ov&ev wvrjcrev rj 
7ro\LTia, Nt/eoXao? Be Trpdgewv /JLCV ov fjieyd\wv 
avrovpybs yeyove, yvwpi}jLO<s 8e eVrt /jiaXXov Sid 
TOU? uTre/3 avrwv Xoyoi/?, -at Mouo-w^o? ef wv 
67ra0ev avSpeuws /cal vrj At" rjvey/cev ey/cparw<; rrjv 
TWV Tvpdvvwv w/jborrjra yeyove yvcopi/jios, t'<7a)9 OVK 
evSai/Aovwv e/ceivcov TWV ra? /meydXas 
dvTWv /SacrtXeta?. "Ape^o? Se 6 rrjv 
TT}? AlyvTrrov TrapaiTrjadfjievo^ e/cwv 266 
avrbv direarrepei TOV KpaTicrrov reXou? et TOUT' 
Kvpicorarov. av $e avrbs rjfuv aTrpa/CTOs el, 
crrpaTrjywv fjirfre Brjfi'rjyopwv /jitjre eOvovs r) 
v; aXX' OVK av (frairj vovv e%a)v 
dvijp. e^eaTL ydp aoi ^iXocro^ou? TroXXou? CLTTO- 
(frrjvavTi, el Be ^JLTJ, Tpet? rj rerrapas /jiei^ova TOV 
ftiov evepyeTfjcrai, TWV dvOpwTrcov iroXXwv O/JLOV 
ftacn\ea>v. ov fjuicpas ydp ^ept&o? 6 </>tXo(7o^>09 B 



But since 1 seem to have harked back to the life 
of contemplation and to be comparing it with the 
life of action, though in the beginning of your letter 
you declined to make the comparison, I will remind 
you of those very philosophers whom you mentioned, 
Areius, 1 Nicolaus, 2 Thrasyllus, 3 and Musonius. 4 So 
far from any one of these governing his own city, 
Areius we are told refused the governorship of Egypt 
when it was offered to him, and Thrasyllus by becom- 
ing intimate with the harsh and naturally cruel tyrant 
Tiberius would have incurred indelible disgrace for 
all time, had he not cleared himself in the writings 
that he left behind him and so shown his true 
character ; so little did his public career benefit 
him. Nicolaus did not personally do any great deeds, 
and he is known rather by his writings about such 
deeds ; while Musonius became famous because he 
bore his sufferings with courage, and, by Zeus, 
sustained with firmness the cruelty of tyrants ; and 
perhaps he was not less happy than those who 
administered great kingdoms. As for Areius, when 
he declined the governorship of Egypt he deliberately 
deprived himself of the highest end, if he really 
thought that this was the most important thing. 
And you yourself, may I ask, do you lead an inactive 
life because you are not a general or a public speaker 
and govern no nation or city ? Nay, no one with 
any sense would say so. For it is in your power by 
producing many philosophers, or even only three or 
four, to confer more benefit on the lives of men than 
many kings put together. To no trivial province 

1 Of. Caesars 326B note. 2 A historian under Augustus. 
3 The Platonic philosopher and astrologer, cf. Tacitus, 
Annals 6. 21. 4 The Stoic philosopher exiled by Nero. 



Trpoecrrrj/cev, ovBe, fcaOdrrep e<??9, av/j,/3ov\r)s ecrrt 
fjbovrjs TT}? vrrep rwv KOIVWV eicelvos icvpios, ovBe r) 
7rpai<> et9 \6yov avOis avrw Trepdo~rarai, epyw Be 
rovs \6yovs teal fyaivofievos roiovros, 

()V~\,Tai TOU? O\.\OV<f LVai, 7TldaVCt)TpOS 

eVt ra? /ca\a<; Trpd^ei? rrapop- C 

AXX CTTCtviTeov et? dp^r]v KOI 
TTJV 7riarTO\r)V fjuei^ova tVo)? ova-av rov 
ecrri, Se ev avry TO fcecfiaXaiov, on pr/re rov irovov 
(frevycov fJLrjre rrjv rj&ovrjv dripevwv /JLrjre aTrpay- 
/Aoavvrjs teal patfrwvrjs ep&v rov ev rf) 7ro\ireia 
^va"^epaivfi) ftlov a\V, oirep e^v ej; dp^rj<^, ovre 
TraiSeiav efjLavrw crvvei&oDs rocravrrjv ovre <ycre9 D 
VTrepoxrfv, KOI Trpoaeri, SeStco?, /JLTJ d>i\oa-(f)iav, 77? 

pO)V OVK e^iKOfJi^V, 6t? TOU? VVV dvO ptoTTOVS OV&6 

aXXw? evooKifjbova-av Si,a(3d\\a), vraXat Te eypa(f)ov 
exeiva KOL vvv Ta? Trap 1 V/JLWV eTTiri/Arja'eis a7re\v- 
<rdfjir)v et? Svvafjuv. 

AiSoiij Be 6 Oeos rrjv dpicrrrjv rv^Tjv KOI 
fypovriGiv d^iav rijs TU^T;?, co? eyw vvv etc re 
rov Kpeirrovos TO 7^ TT\OV KOI Trap V^MV rwv 
<j)i\O(ro<f>ovvra>v drrdcrr] /jLTj^avfj 1 ^orjO^reo^ elvai 267 
/AOL BOKO), Trporeray/Aevos v/j,wv KOI TrpoKivSvvevcov. 
el Be n /j,eiov dyadbv T^? rj/jierepas rrapao-Kevrj^ 
/cal ^9 VTrep efjuavrov yvw/jLrjs l^a) TOi? dvO pom ois 
Bt rjfjiMV 6 ^eo9 Trapda^oL, yaKerraiveiv ov 
Trpbs TOU9 e / ttou9 Xo7ov9. eyco yap ovBev 

1 airdffr) yu^xo^f? follows vpuv in MSS. ; Hertlein suggests 
present reading. 



is the philosopher appointed, and, as you said yourself, 
he does not only direct counsels or public affairs, nor 
is his activity confined to mere words ; but if he con- 
firm his words by deeds and show himself to be such 
as he wishes others to be, he may be more convincing 
and more effective in making men act than those 
who urge them to noble actions by issuing commands. 

But I must go back to what I said at the begin- 
ning, and conclude this letter, which is perhaps 
longer already than it should be. And the main 
point in it is that it is not because I would avoid hard 
work or pursue pleasure, nor because I am in love 
with idleness and ease that I am averse to spending 
my life in administration. But, as I said when 
I began, it is because I am conscious that I have 
neither sufficient training nor natural talents above 
the ordinary ; moreover, I am afraid of bringing 
reproach on philosophy, which, much as I love it, I 
have never attained to, and which on other accounts 
has no very good reputation among men of our day. 
For these reasons I wrote all this down some time 
ago, and now I have freed myself from your charges 
as far as I can. 

May God grant me the happiest fortune possible, 
and wisdom to match my fortune ! For now I think 
I need assistance from God above all, and also from 
you philosophers by all means in your power, since I 
have proved myself your leader and champion in 
danger. But should it be that blessings greater 
than of my furnishing and than the opinion that I 
now have of myself should be granted to men 
by God through my instrumentality, you must not 
resent my words. For being conscious 01 no good 



dyaOov 7r\r)v rovro JJLOVOV, OTL 
TO, /jLeyiara e^eiv e^wv re 1 ov&ev, co? 
aura?, aVoTfc><? ftow /cal /j,apTvpo/j,ai f^rj 

Trap TJ/JLMV aTratrelv, a\\a ru> dew TO B 
TTCLV e7nrpe7riv ovrco jap eyw TWV re 
eiyv av avevOvvos icai, jevo^evtov a 
, evyvcti/uLwv av /cal 

Be, a)(77Tp ovv Si/caiov, TrpocravareOeiKcbs ajrama 
avros re elaojjiai Kal uyLta? TrporpeTra) TT)V X a P LV 

1 re Hertlein suggests, -ye MSS. 



thing in me, save this only, that I do not even think 
that I possess the highest talent, and indeed have 
naturally none, I cry aloud and testify 1 that you 
must not expect great things of me, but must entrust 
everything to God. For thus I shall be free from 
responsibility for my shortcomings, and if everything 
turns out favourably I shall be discreet and moderate, 
not putting my name to the deeds of other men, 2 
but by giving God the glory for all, as is right, it 
is to Him that I shall myself feel gratitude and I 
urge all of you to feel the same. 

1 Demosthenes, De Corona 23. ' 2 Cf. Caesars 323 B. 




OF the manifestoes addressed by Julian to Rome, 
Sparta, Corinth,, and Athens, defending his acceptance 
of the title of Emperor and his open rupture with 
Constantius, the last alone survives. It was written 
in Illyricum in 361, when Julian was on the march 
against Constantius, and is the chief authority for 
the events that led to his elevation to the Imperial 
rank. Julian writes to the Athenians of the fourth 
Christian century as though they still possessed the 
influence and standards of their forefathers. He 
was well known at Athens, where he had studied 
before his elevation to the Caesarship and he was 
anxious to clear himself in the eyes of the citizens. 
For the first time he ventures to speak the truth 
about Constantius and to describe the latter 's 
ruthless treatment of his family. His account of the 
revolution at Paris is supplemented by Ammianus 
20, Zosimus 3. 9, and the Epitaph on Julian by 





epyaafievwv rot? Trpoyovoi? 

06? OVK 6K6LVOIS fJLOVOV TOT6 %r)V, d\\d KOI VfUV 

vvv e^eari ^LKonfjieldOaL, KOL iroXXwv 677776/9/^6- 
vtov TpoTraiwv VTrep re airda^ TT}? f E\ 
KOI /car' ISiav vjrep avrfjs T% TroXew?, ev 
^7&>z/t<raTo /to^ Tr/ao? re TOU? aXXou? f 
/cat 7T/30? TOZ^ ftdpftapov, oi>$ev can 
epyov ovSe dv$pa<ya0ia roaavTrj, TT/JO? fjv OVK B 
eVecrri /cat rat? aXXat? d/jLi\\r)@r/vai, 7roXeo"i. 
ra /Aet' 7p ytte^' ty/,&)i> /cat avrai, ra 5e /car' 
ISiavelpydcravro. /cal Iva ^ /ze/^/xeVo? eVetra 
dvTnrapafSdXXwv 77 TrpOTL^av erepas erepav ev ot? 
8ia/uL(f)io'(3'r]TOV(n, vo/JbLcrOeLrjv 77 TT/OO? TO Xu<rtreXoi)f , 
wcrirep ol prfropes, evbeecrrepov eTraiveiv ra? e'Xar- 
rov/jievas, rovro e'^t'Xct) (fipdacu IJLOVOV inrep V/JLWV, <j> C 
avTiTrcCKov e^o/jiev e^evpelv Trapd rot? aX- 

dp^ovrwv /JLCV AaKeBat/jLOvicov ov 
v, aXXa 



MANY were the achievements of your forefathers 
of which you are still justly proud, even as they 
were of old ; many were the trophies for victories 
raised by them, now for all Greece in common, 
now separately for Athens herself, in those days 
when she contended single-handed against all the 
rest of Greece as well as against the barbarian : 
but there was no achievement and no display of 
courage on your part so prodigious that other 
cities cannot in their turn rival it. For they too 
wrought some such deeds in alliance with you, and 
some on their own account. And that I may not by 
recalling these and then balancing them be thought 
either to pay more honour to one state than to another 
in the matters in which they are your rivals, or 
to praise less than they deserve those who proved 
inferior, in order to gain an advantage, after the 
manner of rhetoricians, I desire to bring forward on 
your behalf only this fact to which I can discover no- 
thing that can be set against it on the part of the other 
Greek states, and which has been assigned to you by 
ancient tradition. When the Lacedaemonians were 
in power you took that power away from them not 
by violence but by your reputation for justice ; and 



l TOV ' A.pKTTlBr)V TOV BlKaiOV OL Trap 

VO/JLOL. KCLITOI ye ravra OVTCOS ovra 
\a/JL7T pa TeK/Jiijpia Bia \aair poTepwv olfjbai TMV -69 
epyayv oyu-co? eTricrrwaaa'de. TO aev yap So^ai 
t / <roo9 av TW Kal tyevBo)? GVfjiftai'r), Kal 
ov TrapdSo^ov eV TroXXot? $av\ois eva 
yevecrOai crTrovSalov. fj yap ov%l teal Trapa 
v/LLVirai rt? A^to/c^? "A/3a/)t? re ev 
eois Kal 'Avd^apcrLS ev l^ 
TOVTO r]V Oav/jiaa-Tov, on nrapa rot? a 

yeyovores edvecn, rrjv Sifcrjv Of 
TO) jjuev &\vjd&$, 6 Be r^? %/aeta? X a pw TrXarro- B 
jj,evos. Sfjfjiov 8e o\ov KOI 7ro\iv epacrras epywv 
ical \6ya)V biKaiwv e^co T/}? Trap' VJM.V ov pa 
evpeiv. ftov\ofjba{, $e uyLta? ei/o? TWV Trap 1 
TroAAwf ye OVTWV epywv vTro^vijaai 
K\eov$ yap /aera ra M^St/ca yva>p,r]v 

\dOpa Kara^Ke^ai ra vewpia 
, eiTa yu-?) roX/xw^ro? et? TOV Sfjuov C 
\eyetv, evl Se 6/jLO\oyovvTos Tricrreva-etv TO a 
TOV, ovjrep av o 1)^0? xeipOTOVijaa 
7rpov/3d\,TO /Jiev 6 S'rjfios TOV ' ' KpLaTei^v o Be 
aKovcras rP;? yvw/jLrjs etcpvtye JJLEV TO prjQev, 
e^ijvey/ce Be et? TOV Brj/jLOi>, &>9 OVTC \vo~iT6\(TTepov 
ovTe aBi/cwTepov eh] TL TOV /3oiAeu/-taro9' Kal 



it was your laws that nurtured Aristides the Just. 
Moreover,, brilliant as were these proofs of your 
virtue,, you confirmed them by still more brilliant 
actions. For to be reputed just might perhaps 
happen to any individual even though it were not 
true ; and perhaps it would not be surprising that 
among many worthless citizens there should be found 
one virtuous man. For even among the Medes 
is not a certain Deioces l celebrated, and Abaris 2 
too among the Hyperboreans, and Anacharsis 3 among 
the Scythians ? And in their case the surprising 
thing was that, born as they were among nations 
who knew nothing of justice, they nevertheless 
prized justice, two of them sincerely, though the 
third only pretended to do so out of self-interest. 
But it would be hard to find a whole people and 
city enamoured of just deeds and just words except 
your own. And I wish to remind you of one out 
of very many such deeds done in your city. After 
the Persian war Themistocles 4 was planning to 
introduce a resolution to set fire secretly to the 
naval arsenals of the Greeks, and then did not dare 
to propose it to the assembly ; but he agreed to 
confide the secret to any one man whom the people 
should elect by vote ; and the people chose Aristides 
to represent them. But he when he heard the 
scheme did not reveal what he had been told, but 
reported to the people that there could be nothing 
more profitable or more dishonest than that advice. 

1 The first King of Media ; reigned 709-656 B.C. 

2 A priest of Apollo whose story and date are uncertain. 

8 A Scythian prince who visited Athens at the end of the 
sixth century B.C. ; cf, Cicero, Tusculan Disputations 5. 32; 
Lucian, Anacharsis. 

4 The story is told in Plutarch, Themistocles. 



r) TroXfc? d'jre^rrj^idaro Trapa^prjfjba KOI Traprjrrj- 
(raro, .Trdvv <ye vrj Ata fji<ya\o'^rv'%a)<> fcal bv 

rpoTrov avBpas VTTO fJidpTVpt, rf] (frpovi/jia)- D 
6e& rpefyopevovs. 
OVKOVV el ravra Trap* V/JLLV fiev r)v irakai, 
(Tco^erai, Be e'f eiceivov Kal et? u/za? en rr}? TWV 
Trpoyovcov aperr/? waTrep e^Trvpevfjid TL 
el/cos ecmv V/JLCIS OVK et? TO /xe^ye^o? rwy 

d(f>opdv ovSe el rt? wa-jrep St' aepo? 
Sia TT}? 77}? e/3aSto-ei> dfJL,r)%dvw 
Kal drpvra) pco/jbrj, crKOTrelv Be orw ravra 
TOV Bifcaiov KaTeipjaarat, Kara av fj,ev (fraivrjrai 270 
%vv Si/crj Trpdrrcov, l$ia re CLVTOV tcrw? /cal 
Brj/jLocrLa Trdvres eTraiveire, r% 8t/c^5 Be o\i<yw- 
prjaa? aTipdfyiTO av Trap VJJLWV el/corax;. ovBev 
yap OVTO)? ea"rlv 009 TO Bircaiov dBe\(f)ov (frpovijaei. 
Tot/? ovv aTi/jidovTa<s TOVTO Siicauo? av Kal 
w? et? rrjv Trap' V/JLCV Oeov da-e^ovvra^ ege^avvoire. 
/3ov\o/Aai ovv v/Jilv ra Kar* eftavrbv OVK dyvoov&i 
fiev aTrayyeTKai Be o/u-w?, OTTW?, et 11 \e\7j0ev et#o9 B 
Be evia KOI ocra ^dXicTTa TO?? Traai 

7TpO(T7JKi' VfMLV T6 Kal Bl V/JLWV TOt? 

r/ ^i\Xrj(7i, yevoiro yvoopL/Jia. //,?;8el9 ovv i> 

fjue \rjpeiv TJ fyKvapelv, el Trepl TWV iraa'iv 

ev o(f)da\/jiol<; yeyovorcav ov iraXai fjibvov, d\\a 

Kal /jLiKpq) trporepov, jroielaQai TIVCLS e7ri%eiptf- 

(rai/jLi, \6yovs' ovBeva yap ovBev dyvoelv (3ov\op,aL 

T>V ejiavTOV, \av0dveiv Be d\\ov d\\a 



Whereupon the city at once voted against it and 
rejected it, very nobly, by Zeus, and as it behoved 
men to do who are nutured under the eyes of the 
most wise goddess. 1 

Then if this was your conduct of old, and from 
that day to this there is kept alive some small 
spark as it were of the virtue of your ancestors, 
it is natural that you should pay attention not to 
the magnitude merely of any performance, nor 
whether a man has travelled over the earth with 
incredible speed and unwearied energy as though he 
had flown through the air ; but that you should rather 
consider whether one has accomplished this feat 
by just means, and then if he seems to act with 
justice, you will perhaps all praise him both in public 
and private ; but if he have slighted justice he will 
naturally be scorned by you. For there is nothing 
so closely akin to wisdom as justice. Therefore 
those who slight her you will justly expel as showing 
impiety towards the goddess who dwells among you. 
For this reason I wish to report my conduct to 
you, though indeed you know it well, in order that 
if there is anything you do not know and it is 
likely that some things you do not, and those 
in fact which it is most important for all men to 
be aware of it may become known to you and 
through you to the rest of the Greeks. Therefore 
let no one think that I am trifling and wasting 
words if I try to give some account of things that 
have happened as it were before the eyes of all 
men, not only long ago but also just lately. For, 
I wish none to be ignorant of anything that 
concerns me, and naturally everyone cannot know 
1 Athene. 



Be dirb TWV Trpoyovwv TrpWTOv TWV C 


Kal on fJiev ra Trpo? Trar/oo? rj/nlv evTevOev 
oOevrrep KOI KayvcrTavTiw TCL Trpbs Trarpo? wp/jirj- 
TCLL, <fiavpov. rw yap rjfjLerepw jrarepe yeyovarov 
dSe\<f)(t) TrarpoQev. ovra) Be TT^G'IQV Ty/xa? 6Vra? 
awyyevels 6 (f)L\av0pa)7r6raTO^ ouro? {3acri,\ev<; 
ola elpjdaaro, ej; jnev avetyiovs C/JLOV re /cal 
eavrov, Trarepa Be TOV ejuov, 1 eavrov Be delov, 
/cal TrpocreTi KOIVOV erepov rbv vrpo? Trar^oo? 1) 
Oelov dBe\(f)6i> re G/JLOV TOV Trpeafivrarov dtcpi 
Krelvas, e//,e Be /cal erepov dBe\,<j)bi> e/j,bv e' 
fjiev Krelvai, reXo? Be eV^/SaXcbz/ tfcvyyv, d^' 
e'yLte /juev affifcev, e/ceivov Be 6\lyw Trporepov Tfj^ 
a(j)a<yrjs ej;eBv<T 2 TO TOV Katcrapo? ovo/jba, TI 
/j,e Bel vvv WGirep e/c TpaypBias TCL apprjTa 
dva/jieTpeicrdai.; //ere/cteXT/cre yap avTw, fyaGi, 
KOI eBrj^Qr) Beivws, aTraiBiav re evTevdev VO/JLL^CI 271 
BvaTv^elv, Ta re e<; TOL/? vroXeyutou? TOJ)? Tlepcras 
OVK euTf^w? TTpaTreiv e/c TOVTWV v7ro\afjL^dvei. 
Tavra e6pv\ovv ol Trepl TTJV av\rjv rore KOI 
TOV fj.a/capiT'rjv dBe\(f)bv e/jibv Td\\ov, TOVTO 
vvv TrpcoTov d/covovTa TO ovo/^a- KTeivas yap 
avTov Trapa TOL/9 VO^JLOVS ovBe TMV 
emcre Ta<pa)v ovBe TT 

ovv ecfrrjv, e\eyov ToaavTa /cal Brj /cal B 
eireiOov rj/jLas, 3 OTL TCL fjiev aTraTrjdels elpydaaTo, 
TO, Be ftia Kal Tapa%al<$ el%a$ aTa/cTOV /cal 

Hertlein suggests, tfj&v MSS. 
2 ee'5t/<re Hertlein suggests, ippixraro ou8e Cobet, fppvffaro 
MSS. 3 T)/ Hertleiu, Reiske suggest, uyuaj MSS. 



every circumstance. First I will begin with my 

That on the father's side I am descended from the 
same stock as Constantius on his father's side is 
well known. Our fathers were brothers, sons of 
the same father. And close kinsmen as we were, 
how this most humane Emperor treated us ! Six 
of my cousins and his, and my father who was his 
own uncle and also another uncle of both of us on the 
father's side, and my eldest brother, he put to death 
without a trial ; and as for me and my other brother, 1 
he intended to put us to death but finally inflicted 
exile upon us ; and from that exile he released 
me, but him he stripped of the title of Caesar just 
before he murdered him. But why should I " recount," 
as though from some tragedy, " all these unspeakable 
horrors ? " 2 For he has repented, I am told, and 
is stung by remorse ; and he thinks that his unhappy 
state of childlessness is due to those deeds, and 
his ill success in the Persian war he also ascribes to 
that cause. This at least was the gossip of the 
court at the time and of those who were about 
the person of my brother Gallus of blessed memory, 
who is now for the first time so styled. For after 
putting him to death in defiance of the laws he 
neither suffered him to share the tombs of his 
ancestors nor granted him a pious memory. 

As I said, they kept telling us and tried to 
convince us that Constantius had acted thus, partly 
because he was deceived, and partly because he 
yielded to the violence and tumult of an undis- 

1 Gallus. 

2 Euripides, Orestes 14, Tl r&pprjr' ava^erp-fiffaffOai /*e Se?; 



Tapa%ct)Bov<; aTparev/jLaro^. roaavra TJ/JLLV eTrfjBov 
ev dypw TIVL rwv ev KaTTTraBoKia KaraKeK\eio-- 
fjLevois, ovBeva eMvres 7rpoae\deLV, rov /Jiev CLTTO 
T?;9 ev Tpd\\(ri, x (frvyfjs 
Be KOfjiiBfj /j,ipdfciov eri rwv 
yayovres. TTW? av evravOa (frpda-at/jii, Trepl TWV 
e eviavTwv, oO? ev d\\orpiw KT^^aii Bidyovres, 2 
wcnrep ol Trapa TO?? Tlepaais ev rot? <f>povploi<s 
rrjpovfjbevoL, /jLifSevos rjfuv TrpoanovTOS evov /jLrjBe 
TWV Trdkcu yvcopi/Jicov eTTLTpeTro^evov TLVOS ft>9 
(froirav, Sie^wfJbev d r 7roKeK'\,eio-/jLevoi TTCLVTOS 
crjrovBalov, Trd&rjs Se e\evBepa,s 
, ev row? \afJbTrpals oiKereiais Tpefyo/Jievoi 
KOL rot? 'fjuwv CIVTWV $ov\oi$ worTvep eraipois D 

irpoayei yap ouSet? ou8e eVe- 
TWV rjXiKiwrwv. 

eyob pev yu-oyt? dfaiOrjv Sia TOU? 
o Se aSeX<^)09 o 6yu,o9 et9 rrjv av\rjv 
vxws, elirep rt9 aXXo9 rcov TTCOTTOTC. 
teal yap ei TL Trepl TOV rpoTrov aypiov Kal 
rpa^ij rov eiceivov /care(f)dvr), TOVTO CK Trjs 
opeiov T/?o^>^9 o-vvrjv^rjdr). Si/caios ovv 
Kal ravrrjv G^CLV rrjv alriav o 

9eoL 8i 

l e^dvrr), TO> Be ovBels eveBcotcev. " evdvs yap 
rwv dypwv e? ra ftacri\ia 

1 airb TT?S ev TpaXXevi Qvyrjs Hertlein suggests, airb rpa 

V, OTTO rpa Qvyris Petaviu's. 

2 Stdyovres Hertlein suggests, Siayay6vres MSS, 



ciplined and mutinous army. This was the strain 
they kept up to soothe us when we had been 
imprisoned in a certain farm l in Cappadocia ; and 
they allowed no one to come near us after they had 
summoned him from exile in Tralles and had dragged 
me from the schools,, though I was still a mere boy. 
How shall I describe the six years we spent there ? 
For we lived as though on the estate of a stranger, 
and were watched as though we were in some 
Persian garrison, since no stranger came to see 
us and not one of our old friends was allowed to 
visit us ; so that we lived shut off from every liberal 
study and from all free intercourse, in a glittering 
servitude, and sharing the exercises of our own slaves 
as though they were comrades. For no companion 
of our own age ever came near us or was allowed to 
do so. 

From that place barely and by the help of 
the gods I was set free, and for a happier fate ; but 
my brother was imprisoned at court and his fate was 
ill-starred above all men who have ever yet lived. 
And indeed whatever cruelty or harshness was re- 
vealed in his disposition was increased by his having 
been brought up among those mountains. It is 
therefore I think only just that the Emperor, should 
bear the blame for this also, he who against our will 
allotted to us that sort of bringing-up. As for me, 
the gods by means of philosophy caused me to 
remain untouched by it and unharmed ; but on my 
brother no one bestowed this boon. For when he 
had come straight from the country to the court, 
the moment that Constantius had invested him with 

1 The castle of Macellum. 



r) TrpwTov avTw TrepieOrj/cev d\ovpye<? Ifia 
avTirca <j)0oi>eiv dp^dfjievos ov TrpoTepov eTraixraro 
Trplv Ka6e\elv avTov, ovSe rw TrepteXeiv rb 
TTop^vpovv ifjidriov dpKeaOds. tcairot, TOV %fjv 
yovv agios, el /j,r) fta(Ti\eveiv e^auvero e 
d)OC )(prjv ai)TOV KOI rovrov (Trepecr 
pw, \6yov 76 TTtti'Tft)? VTTO(T%6vTa irporepov, B 
wcnrep rovs Ka/covpyovs. ov yap S?) rou? fjiev 
\rjara^ o vofJLO^ drrayopevei, TO) Stjfravrt Krelveiv, 
rou? dfyaipeOevras 8e Ti/nds, a? d^ov, KCU yevo- 
fjievovs e^ dpftovrcov t^icora? d/cpiTOV? (frycrl Selv 
dvaipeicrOai. ri ydp, et rwv dfjLaprri^drwv el^v 
a7ro(f)rjvat, roO? alriovs; eSe&oi/ro ydp avrw C 
TIVWV 7TLaTO\ai, 'HpdfcXeis, oVa? e%of<7<xt /car' 
avrov Karrjyopias, e<^)' al? e/cetyo? dyavafcrijcras 
dfcparea-Tepov fjiev KOI ij/ctara ftavi'h-iKws tyij/ce 
), TOV fjievrot, ^8e %r)V ajftov ovSev eTreirpd- 

ydp; ov% ovros eariv dvdpu>7roi<$ 
OS f/ EXA?7crz> a^a KOI /3ap/3dpoi<> 6 

TOV? d&i/clas vTrdpftovTas; aXX' 
jjuev rj/jLvvaro TTLKporepov. ov fjLTjv ea) 
rov elicbTos' TOV ydp e^Opov VTC 0/07779 et/co? 
TL fcal Tcoieiv, eiprjTai /cal 7rp6cr0ev. a\X' els D 
%dpiv evbs dvSpoyvvov, TOV KaTa/coi/LLLo~TOV, real 
TTpoaeTi TOV TWV /jbayeipwv eTriTpoTrov TOV dvetyiov, 
TOV tcaio-apa, TOV TT}? aSeX</>^9 dvSpa yevopevov, 



the purple robe he at once began to be jealous of 
him, nor did he cease from that feeling until, not 
content with stripping him of the purple, he had 
destroyed him. Yet surely he deserved to live, even 
if he seemed unfit to govern. But someone may say 
that it was necessary to deprive him of life also. I 
admit it, only on condition that he had first been 
allowed to speak in his own defence as criminals are. 
For surely it is not the case that the law forbids one 
who has imprisoned bandits to put them to death, 
but says that it is right to destroy without a trial 
those who have been stripped of the honours that 
they possessed and have become mere individuals 
instead of rulers. For what if my brother had 
been able to expose those who were responsible 
for his errors ? For there had been handed to him 
the letters of certain persons, and, by Heracles, 
what accusations against himself they contained ! 
And in his resentment at these he gave way in 
most unkingly fashion to uncontrolled anger, but 
he had done nothing to deserve being deprived 
of life itself. What ! Is not this a universal law 
among all Greeks and barbarians alike, that one 
should defend oneself against those who take the 
initiative in doing one a wrong ? I admit that he did 
perhaps defend himself with too great cruelty ; but 
on the whole not more cruelly than might have been 
expected. For we have heard it said before l that an 
enemy may be expected to harm one in a fit of anger. 
But it was to ratify_a eunuch, 2 his chamberlain 
who was alscTTiis chief cook, that Constantius gave 
over to his most inveterate enemies his own cousin, 

1 Cf. Demosthenes, Against Meidias 41. 

2 Eusebius ; cf. Ammianus Marcellinus 14. 11 ; 22. 3. 



TOV r??9 dSe\(f)iof)<; Trarepa, ov tcai avros TrpoTepov 
rjv dyayof^evo? rrjv dSeX^ijv, TT/)O? ov avTW 
TocravTa Oewv 6/JLoyvicav vTrrjp^e Sb/caia, Krelvcu 
TrapeSco/ce rot? iftQltnow e'yue Be atyfj/ce 7^07^9 
a JMJVWV o\o)V \Kvcra<> T^Se Ka/celae KOI 

epfypovpov, ware, el fir} Oewv rt? 273 
crwOrfvai rrjv /ca\rjv KOI dyadrjv 
TO rrfVLKavTa poi irapkayjcv ev/juevrj J&vaeftiav, 
ovft av eyco ra? %et/oa? CLVTOV rare 
Kalroi /za rot/? ^0^9 ou$ ovap fjLOL Ravels d 
eire'JTpd'^ei' /cal yap ovSe crvvrjv avr& ov$e 
e<t>oiTO)i> ovSe e{3d8i,%ov Trap 1 CLVTOV, o\iydici,<$ Be 
eypa<f>ov /cal vTrep o\iywv. 009 ovv diro^vyo^v B 
e/celOev aa/jievos CTropevo/ji^v eTrl T^V T^9 /Ayrpos 
eaTiav Trarpwov yap ovSev V7rr)p%e fioi ovSe 
IK TOCTOVTWV, ocrwv el/cbs r\v Trarepa 
TOV G^JLOV, OVK e\a%ia'Tr)v jBw\ov, ov/c dv- 
SpajroSov, OVK ol/Ciav 6 yap rot, /ca\o9 KwvaTdv- 
Ti09 K\rjpov6/jir]a-V avr e/jiov rrjv irarpwav ova-Lav 
aTraaav, e/j,oi re, OTrep etyrjv, ovBe ypv 
d\\a KOI ry d$\<pti) TW/AW TWV 
6\iya, Trdvrcov avrbv a0eXoyue^o9 TWV 

"Ocra fjiev ovv eirpage irpos pe Trplv ovo^aro^ C 
/jiev ^eraBovvai JJLOL TOV ae/JLVOTdrov, epyw Se 
et9 TriKpOTaTrjv /cal ^aXeTrayTaTijv e/jL/3a\eiv Sov- 
\elav, el /cal /JLT) Trdvra, TO, TrXetcrra yovv o 



the Caesar, his sister's husband, the father of his 
niece, the man whose own sister he had himself 
married in earlier days, 1 and to whom he owed so 
many obligations connected with the gods of the 
family. As for me he reluctantly let me go, after 
dragging me hither and thither for seven whole 
months and keeping me under guard ; so that 
had not some one of the gods desired tnat I should 
escape, and niadejbhe beautiful andjrirtuous Eusebia 
kindly disposed to me, I could not then have es- 
caped from his hands myself. And yet I call the 
gods to witness that my brother had pursued his 
course of action without my "liavmg a sight of 
him even in a dream. For I was not with him, nor 
did I visit him or travel to his neighbourhood ; and I 
used to write to him very seldom and on unim- 
portant matters. Thinking therefore that I had 
escaped from that place, I set out for the house that 
had been my mother's. For of my father's estate 
nothing belonged to me, and I had acquired out 
of the great wealth that had naturally belonged to 
my father not the smallest clod of earth, not a slave, 
not a house. For the admirable Constantius had in- 
herited in my place the 'whole of my father's 
property, and to me, as I was saying, he granted not 
the least trifle of it ; moreover, though he gave my 
brother a few things that had been his father's, he 
robbed him of the whole of his mother's estate. 

Now his whole behaviour to me before he granted 
me that august title 2 though in fact what he did 
was to impose on me the most galling and irksome 
slavery you have heard, if not every detail, still the 

1 The sister of Gallus was the first wife of Constantius. 

2 The title of Caesar. 



d/crj/coaTe l TropevofJievov Srj 2 \0iirov eirl Trjv eaTiav, 

dve(f)di>rj Trepl TO ^ipfiiov, 09 rofc e/cet TTpdy- 

eppatyev o>9 vecorepa Siavoov/jLevow tcrre D 
8tJ7rov@V d/cofj rov 'Acfrpifcavov KOI rbv Maplvov 

7T6p TOV9 vpCOTTOVS. X ft>9 TOVTO 

avrw KaTefjLtjpvOrj TO TT/oay/za, KOI Aui/ayLtto9 e'fat- 

OCFOV OVTTW TOV ^i\ovavov CLVTw 7ToA,e/uot> az/a- 
(fraveladai, Setcra9 iravraTracri /cal *f>oj3r)0el? avTiica 
eV e'yLte Tre/ATret, ^at /JUKpov els rrjv f E\\dSa ice\ev- 
aas V7ro%ajpr)a-ai irakiv eiceWev e/cdXei Trap 1 eavrov, 274 
OVTTCO Trporepov reOea^evo^ TT\r]V aira% fiev ev 
a, aira^ 8e ev 'IraXta, d<ywvicrafjievri<$ 
&>9 av VTrep r/}9 crtorrjpias rfjs efiav- 
rov Oappijo-ai/Ai,. KCLITOI Trjv avrrjv avrw iro\iv 
ef WKi^ara fMrjvwv, /cal fjuevroi ical vTrea^ero /JLG 
OedaeaOai Trd\iv. aXX' o Oeols e^Opos dv&po- 
jvvos, 6 7TCTT09 avrov KaTaKoi/jLia-Tijs, e\a0e JJLOV 
KOI CLKWV Vp<y6Tr)$ yevopevos' ov yap slavey 

yw-6 7ro\\aKi<f avrw, rv^oi' fjiev ovSe B 
Ti, Tr\r]v d\Xd TO ice$a\aiov eicelvos rjv 
yap 609 av fjiij TLVOS avvr]9eias eyyevo/jievrjs 
7T/3O9 d\\r)\ou$ eVetra dya7rr)06irjv /cal TTter- 
T09 dva<f)av6i<> eTriTpaTreirjv TL. 

Sij /ae rore TrpwTov aTro TTJS 
avTL/ca Bid T&V Trepl Trjv Oepajrelav 

1 a.Kr]K6are Cobet, r//coi'<raT6 Hertlein, MSS. 

2 5^ Hertlein suggests, Se MSS. 


greater part. As I was saying, I was on my way to 
my home and was barely getting away safely, beyond 
my hopes, when a certain sycophant l turned up near 
Sirmium 2 and fabricated the rumour against certain 
persons there that they were planning a revolt. You 
certainly know by hearsay Africanus 3 and Marinus : 
nor can you fail to have heard of Felix and what was 
the fate of those men. And when Constantius was 
informed of the matter, and Dynamius another 
sycophant suddenly reported from Gaul that 
Silyanus 4 was on the point of declaring himself his 
open enemy, in the utmost alarm and terror he forth- 
with sent to me, and first he bade me retire for 
a short time to Greece, then summoned me from 
there to the court 5 again. He had never seen me 
before except once in Cappadocia and once in Italy, 
an interview which Eusebia had secured by her 
exertions so that I might feel confidence about 
my personal safety. And yet I lived for six months 
in the same city 6 as he did, and he had promised that 
he would see me again. But that execrable eunuch, 7 
his trusty chamberlain, unconsciously and involun- 
tarily proved himself my benefactor. For he did not 
allow me to meet the Emperor often, nor perhaps 
did the latter desire it ; still the eunuch was 
the chief reason. For what he dreaded was that if 
we had any intercourse with one another I might be 
taken into favour, and when my loyalty became 
evident I might be given some place of trust. 

Now from the first moment of my arrival from 
Greece, Eusebia of blessed memory kept showing me 

1 Gaudenllus. 2 A town in Illyricuiru " 

3 For the account of this alleged conspiracy cf. Ammianns 
Marcellinus 15. 3. 4 Cf. Oration 1. 48 c ; 2. 98 c, D. 

6 At Milan. 6 Milan. 7 Eusebius. 


VOL. II. 8 


evvov^wv 7] /jLafcaplris ^vaeftia KOI \iav e'(/uXo- 
(frpovelro. fjiLKpbv Be vo~repov erre\dovrof rovrov 
Kal yap roi Kal ra rrepl ^i\ovavov errerrpaKro' C 

\OITTOV 6(T0809 T6 49 TTJV ttV\r)V Sl&OTCU, KCU TO 

Xeyofievov 77 erra\LKr) Trepi(3d\\eTai 7TL0avdyKr). 
dpvov/jLevov yap fiov Trfv crvvov&iav (nepeax; ev 
Tot? /3aai\eiois, ol {lev wairep ev icovpelw Gvve\- 
Obvres (iTTOKeipovo-L rov TTMywva, x\aviBa Be 
ajjifyievvvovcri KOI a%r)/jiaTL%ovcn,v, co? Tore VTreXa/t- 
fSavov, irdvv ye\oiov a"TpaTi(*>Trjv ovSev yap fioi D 
rov Kd\\wjri(7 fjiov TMV KaOapfJiCLTfov rjpfjio^ev 
eftdoi^ov Be ov% wairep efceivoi 7repi/3\e7ra)v 
aofiwv l dX)C elf yrjv /3\e7ra)V, wffirep eWi 
VTTO TOV Ope-fy-avTos (JL6 TraiBayayyov. Tore JJLCV ovv 
aurot? Trapea-vov yeXcora, fJiiKpov Be vcrrepov VTTO- 
tyiav, elra dveXa/ju^ev 6 Toaovros (f)06vo<>. 

'AXX' evravOa xpr) firj 7rapa\ei r JTeiv exelva, 
eya) (rvv%a)pri(ra, TTCO? eBe^ojLLrjv 2 6/jLO)p6(f) 
efccivois yeve&dai, 01)9 ^TTicrTa//,?;^ iravrl pen 
\v{j,r)vafjLevovs ru> yevei, vTrcoTrrevov Be OVK elf 275 
fia/cpav 7ri/3ov\evaovTas Kal efwL Trrjyas pep 
ovv 07ro(ja9 d<j>r)Ka BaKpvtov Kal 6prjvov<$ otoiKi, 
dvaTeivwv elf rrjv dKpo7ro\iv rrjv Trap 1 vjuv raf 
ore eKaXovarjv, Kal rrjv 'Adrjvav iKerevcov 
rov iKerrfv Kal pr) eKBiBovai, 7ro\\ol 
rwv Trap* v/jilv eopaKoref e.iai IJUOL /j,aprvpef, avrrj 
Be 77 #609 TT/OO rwv aXkwv, on Kal Odvarov 

reap avrrjf 'AOrjvrja-i rrpo rf)f rore B 

1 irfpifi\firwv. . . ffoftuv Hertlein suggests, ire 


8 tfcxtw Naber, Se fi\6piiv Hertlein, MSS. 
3 6/j.wp6<t>ios Cobet, 6fj.op6(f)ios Hertlein, MSS. 



the utmost kindness through the eunuchs of her 
household. And a little later when the Emperor 
returned for the affair of Silvanus had been con- 
cluded at last I was given access to the court, and, 
in the words of the proverb,, Thessalian persuasion l 
was applied to me. For when I firmly declined 
all intercourse with the palace, some of them, as 
though they had come together in a barber's shop, cut 
off my beard and dressed me in a military cloak and 
transformed me into a highly ridiculous soldier, as 
they thought at the time. For none of the decora- 
tions of those villains suited me. And I walked not 
like them, staring about me and strutting along, but 
gazing on the ground as I had been trained to do 
by the preceptor 2 who brought me up. At the 
time, then, I inspired their ridicule, but a little later 
their suspicion, and then their jealousy was inflamed 
to the~TTEmost. 

But this I must not omit to tell here, how I 
submitted and how I consented to dwell under the 
same roof with those whom I knew to have ruined 
my whole family, and who, I suspected, would before 
long plot against myself also. But what floods of 
tears I shed and what laments I uttered when I was 
summoned, stretching out my hands to your Acro- 
polis and imploring Athene to save her suppliant 
and not to abandon me, many of you who were 
eyewitnesses can attest, and the goddess herself, 
above all others, is my witness that I even begged 
for death at her hands there in Athens rather than 

1 Of. Oration 1. 32 A. The origin of the proverb is obscure ; 
cf. Cicero, Letter to Atticus 9. 13. 2 Mardonius. 

S 2 


6Bov. ft>9 fjiV OVV OV 7rpOV&(0KV tj 0O<$ TOV 

Ifcerrjv ovBe e^eBwKev, 6/07049 eBetgev l rjyrjcraro 
yap drravra^ov fjioi KOI rrapeartjcrev drravra^bOev 
Toi>9 fyvkaicas, e 'HXiou Kal SeXf/Vr;? ayye\ov<; 

^vveftri $e TL KCU TOIOVTOV. e\6a>v e? TO MeSto- 
\avov to/cow ev TLVL TTpoacTTeiw. evravfla eire/jiTrev 
Evcre/3ta TroXXa/c^? TT/OO? /JLC (f)(,\o<f)povovfjLevr) teal 
<ypd<peiv K\vovcra teal dappelv, vTrep orov av 
Sewfjiat. ypd^jras <yw TT/OO? avrrjv 7rt,<TTO\tfv, C 
fjiaXkov 8e i/cT7)piav opicovs e^ovaav roiovrov^- 
Ovrco Traiffl ^prjaaio fcXripovb/JLOis' ouro) ra teal 
ra 6eb<$ croi &OLIJ, Treyu-vre yae OL/caSe rrjv Ta^t- 
GTY\V, KLvo VTTi,&6/Ar)v co? ov/c atr^aXe? e/9 
ra /3acrtXem 7T/oo9 avrotcpaTOpos yvvaiK 
/jbara eiaTre/jiTreiv. Itcerevcra Brj rou9 #eou9 
B^\a)(raL pot, el xprj 7re/A7Tiv irapa rrjv 
TO ypa/jLjAareiov' ol Be e7rr)7rei\rjcrav, el 
ddvarov aia^LdTOv. a>9 Be d\rj0f) ravra ypd<f)a), D 
TOU9 Oeovs airavra^ [jidpTVpa^. ra fjiev 8r; 
Bia rovro e7reo"%ov etcrTre/z^ai. e e/ce/- 
Be jJiOi r>}9 vvicros Xo-yfay/09 elafaOev, ov /cal 
l'<7&>9 a^iov d/covcrai. NOi^, efptjv, eyco rot9 
dvrirdrrecrdai Biavoovuai, Kal vrrep efjiavrov 
f3ov\evea0ai Kpelrrov vevbfJLLtca rwv rrdvra elBo- 
rwv. Kairoi (f>povr]a-is dvOpuirrLvr) rrpos TO rrapov 
dcpopwcra fjbbvov djaTT^ra)^ av rv%oi Kal /^oyis rov 276 
7T/909 o\iyov avafj,aprr)rov. Biojrep ovBels ov6^ vrrep 
rwv els rpiaKocrrov^ eVo9 ftovXeverai ovre vrrep ra)v 
ijBr) <ye<yov6ra)V' TO p,ev <ydp rrepirrov, TO Be dBvva- 

1 ttfitcv Hertlein suggests, fWSe^e!/ MSS. 

2 TpiaKoarltv Hertlein suggests, rpia.Koaioar'bv MSS. 



my journey to the Emperor. That the goddess 
accordingly did not betray her suppliant or abandon 
him she proved by the event. For everywhere she 
was my guide, and 011 all sides she set a watch near 
me, bringing guardian angels from Helios and Selene. 
What happened was somewhat as follows. When 
I came to Milan I resided in one of the suburbs. 
Thither Euscbia sent me on several occasions mes- 
sages of good-will, and urged me to write to her 
without hesitation about anything that I desired. 
Accordingly I wrote her a letter, or rather a petition 
containing vows like these : " May you have children 
to succeed you ; may God grant you this and that, if 
only you send me home as quickly as possible ! " But 
I suspected that it was not safe to send to the palace 
letters addressed to the Emperor's wife. Therefore 
I besoughtjthe gods to inform me at night whether 
I ought To~sen3~Ehe letter to the Empress. And 
they warned me that if I sent it I should meet 
the most ignominious death. I call all the gods to 
witness that what I write here is true. For this 
reason, therefore, I forbore to send the letter. But 
from that night there kept occurring to me an 
argument which it is perhaps worth your while also 
to hear. " Now," I said to myself, " I am plan- 
ning to oppose the gods, and I have imagined that I 
can devise wiser schemes for myself than those who 
know all things. And yet human wisdom, which 
looks only to the present moment, may be thankful 
if, with all its efforts, it succeed in avoiding mistakes 
even for a short space. That is why no man takes 
thought for things that are to happen thirty years 
hence, or for things that are already past, for the one 



el<nv -rjBrj /cal a-rrepfJLara. fypovrjcns Be 77 rrapd 
TO9 deois eTrl TO /JL^KKTTOV, /jid\\ov Be eTrl TTCLV 
/3\67rov(Ta /jirjvvei re op0ws /cal Trpdrrec TO Xa5o^- 
alrioi yap elcnv avrol /caOaTrep rwv ovrwv, OVTW 
Be /cal rwv eao/jLevwv. OVKOVV el/cos avrovs vtrep B 
TWV TrapovTWv eTTLcrraaOai. reco? JJLCV ovv eSofcei, 
fjioi Kara TOVTO avverwrepa TT}? e^TrpoaOev 77 
Sevrepa yvob/j,?]. OTKOTTWV Be et9 TO Bi/caiov evdews 
etyrjv EtTa <rv /JLCV dyava/cTeis, ei n TWV <rwv KTrj- 

aTTOCTTepoir) ere Tr}9 eavrov ^pr^aew^ rj KOI 

KaKovfJievov, fcav ITTTTOS TI/^ icav C 
K.CLV ftoiBiov, civO pw7ros Be elvai /3ov\6- 

ovSe rwv dye\aiwv ovSe rwv Gvpfyerwbwv, 
d\\a rwv eTrieitcwv KOA, fJLerpiwv diro are pels creav- 
rov TOU? ^eou? /cal ovrc eirirpeTreis e'^>' o, ri av 
edeKwai %pr)cra(T0ai o~ot ; opa /J,TJ TT^O? rw \iav 
d(f)p6v(i)<> Kal rwv SiKaiwv rwv TT^O? TOU? 0eovs 
oKiywpws Trpdrrys. rj 8e dvSpeia TTOV /cal T/?; ye\ot- 
ov. eVot/io? yovv el /cal OwTrevaai /cal /coXa/cevaaL 
Beet rov davdrov, e^ov drravra fcaraf3a\LV /cal ToZ? D 
Oeols emrpe^rai. Trpdrreiv a>9 /3ov\ovrai, $ie\6/j,evov 
TT/OO? auTOu? rrjv eViyU-eXetav rrjv eavrov, /caOdirep 
/cal 6 ^WKpdrris rjglov, /cal rd /j,ev eVt aol TTpdr- 
retv a>9 av evBe^rjrai,, TO 8e o\ov eV etceivois 
TToielo-Oai, /ce/crfja-Qai oe ^Bev fjirjBe dpTrd^av, rd 



is superfluous, the other impossible, but only for what 
lies near at hand and has already some beginnings 
and germs. But the wisdom of the gods sees very 
far, or rather, sees the whole, and therefore it directs 
aright and brings to pass what is best. For they are 
the causes of all that now is, and so likewise of 
all that is to be. Wherefore it is reasonable that they 
should have knowledge about the present." So far, 
then, it seemed to me that on this reasoning my 
second determination was wiser than my first. And 
viewing the matter in the light of justice, I imme- 
diately reflected : " Would you not be provoked if 
one of your own beasts were to deprive you of its 
services, 1 or were even to run away when you called 
it, a horse, or sheep, or calf, as the case might be ? 
And will you, who pretended to be a man, and not 
even a man of the common herd or from the dregs 
of the people, but one belonging to the superior and 
reasonable class, deprive the gods of your service, and 
not trust yourself to them to dispose of you as they 
please ? Beware lest you not only fall into great 
folly, but also neglect your proper duties towards the 
gods. Where is your courage, and of what sort 
is it ? A sorry thing it seems. At any rate, you are 
ready to cringe and flatter from fear of jleath, and 
yet it is in your power to lay all that aside and 
leave it to the gods to work their will, dividing 
with them the care of yourself, as Socrates, for 
instance, chose to do : and you might, while 
doing such things as best you can, commit the 
whole to their charge ; seek to possess nothing, 
seize nothing, but accept simply what is vouchsafed 

1 An echo of Plato, Phaedo 62 o ; cf. Fragment of a Letter 
297 A. 



BiBo/jieva Be Trap* ai)Twv afyeKws l Be^ecrdat. rav- 
TTJV eyw vofjilaas OVK turtya'X.f] JJLOVOV, a\\a rrpe- 277 
Trovaav dvBpl fieTplw yvwfjLr/v, eTrel /cal ra TWV 
6ewv eerf/jLaive TavTy TO yap 7ri/3ov\a<; ev\a- 
^ovfjievov T? /jie\\ovcras et? alcr%pbv KOI TT povirrov 
e/jL/3a\iv eavrov KivSvvov Beivus tyaivero /AOL 
wbes' el%ai KOI vTrijKovcra. KOI TO f^ev 
pot, ra^ew? KOI TO xXavibiov 7Tpie/3\ij0r) 
TOV /caicrapos" rj Be eVl TOVTM Sov\ia Kal TO 
eicacrTrjv ri/jiepav vrrep aur?}? TT}-? 
/JLevov 6eo? f HpaXet9 oaov Kal olov K\eWpa B 
Ovpwv, Ovpwpoi, TWV oltceTwv al %et/)e? epevvw- 
uri rt? /JLOL rrapa TWV <^i\wv 
Oepaireia %evr)' ^to/Vt? 
/j,avTov TTTapa$, rraiSdpia jj,ev 
Svo Be fjLei&vas, et? TIJV av\r/v olfceioTepov fj,e 
OepaTrevaovTas elo-ayayeiv, wv et? JJLOI, JJLOVOS Kal 
TO, 7T/909 Oeovs avveiBws /cal &)? eVeSe^ero \dOpa 
a-v/jLTrpaTTW erreTTia-TevTo Be TWV ftip\iwv /JLOV C 

TT)V <f>V\dK1jV, WV yUOl/09 TWV C/Jiol 7TO\\WV GTaipWV 

Kal $>C\wv maTwv, et? iaTpos, 09 Kal, OTL <^t\o9 wv 
, avvaTreBij/^rja-ev. OVTW Be eBeBieiv eyw 
Kal tyocfroBews el^ov 7T/9O9 aura, WCTTG Kal 
s elvievai TWV <$>i\wv TTO\\OV<S Trap 1 

fJi Kal yLtaX' CLKWV KW\VOV, IBetV fJLV a\)TOV<$ 

eTridvfjiwv, OKVWV Be eicelvois re Kal efiavTw yeve- 
aOai av/jL(j)opwv atrto9. aXXa raOra fJiev e^wOev 
e<TTi, TaBe Be ev aurot9 ro?9 Trpdy/jLaai. D 

1 a<t>e\s Cobet, aa-</) Hertlein, MSS. 


to you by them." And this course I thought was not 
only safe but becoming to a reasonable man, since the 
response of the gods had suggested it. For to rush 
headlong into unseemly and foreseen danger while 
trying to avoid future plots seemed to me a topsy-turvy 
procedure. Accordingly I consented to yield. And 
immediately I was invested with the title and robe 
of Caesar. 1 The slavery that ensued and the fear 
for my very life that hung over me every day, 
Heracles, how great it was, and how terrible ! My 
doors locked, warders to guard them, the hands of 
my servants searched lest one of them should convey 
to me the most trifling letter from my friends, 
strange servants to wait on me ! Only with difficulty 
was I able to bring with me to court four of my own 
domestics for my personal service, two of them mere 
boys and two older men, of whom only one knew of 
my attitude to the gods, and, as far as he was able, 
secretly joined me in their worship. I had entrusted 
with the care of my books, since he was the only one 
with me of many loyal comrades and friends, a 
certain physician 2 who had been allowed to leave 
home with me because it was not known that he was 
jny friend. And this state of things caused me such 
alarm and I was so apprehensive about it, that 
though many of my friends really wished to visit 
me, I very reluctantly refused them admittance; for 
though I was most anxious to see them, I shrank 
from bringing disaster upon them and myself at the 
same time. But this is somewhat foreign to my 
narrative. The following relates to the actual course 
of events. 

1 Cf. Ammianus Marcellinus 15. 

2 Oreibasius ; cf. Letter 17. 



Tpiaicoa-iovs e^rf/covTa /JLOL Bovs 
TO TWV K\TWV eOvos dvaTTpa/j,fjLevov 
fjLeaovvTos 77877 TOV %eifj,wvos, OVK dp^ovTa ^d\\ov 
TWV e/ceiae dTpaTOTreBwv 77 To?9 e/ceicre a-TpaTrjyois 
VTra/covovTa. 1 eyeyparrTO yap avTols /cal eveTe- 
Ta\To BiappijBrjv ov rovs 7ro\e/jLiovs /jid\\ov 77 e/^e 
7rapa<f)V\dTTeiVy o>9 dv /mr) vewTepov TL Trpd^aijAi,. 
TOVTWV Be ov e(j)rjv Tporrov yevo/j,evwv, rrepl Tas 

TOLS Qepivds eTTiTpeTrei, JJLOL fiaBi^eiv els TCL 278 

TO a^/jia fcal TTJV el/cova Trepioia'ovTt, 
Trjv eavTOV' /cal yap TOL /cal TOVTO eiprjTO /cal 
eyeypaTTTO, cm TOIS T*d\\oi,s ov ftaaiXea BiBw&iv, 
aX\.a TOV Trjv eavTOV rrpbs e/ceivovs el/cova /co- 


Ov /ca/cws Be, ws dtcrj/coaTe, TOV rrpwTOv crTpa- 
TfjyrjdevTOs eviavTOV /cal rrpa^OevTOS arrov- 
Baiov, Trpbs TO, ^ei/jidBia irakiv eTrave\6wv els TOV B 

ecrTrjv /civBvvov. oi>Te yap d6poL^eiv 
yu-ot (TTpaTOTreBov eTepos yap rjv 6 TOVTOV 
avTos T vv o\iyois dTro/ce/cXeicr/jLevos, 
Trapd TWV TrXrjcriov Tco\ewv aiTijffels eTTi/cov- 
piav, wv el%ov TO Tr\elcrTOv e/ceivois Bovs, 
dTre\ei<f)0r)v JJLOVOS- e/ceiva /jiev ovv OVTWS 

0)9 Be /cal 6 TWV crTpaTOTreBwv dp-^wv ev 
^ia yev6/j.evos avTw TrapypeOrj KOI drr^\\dyij 
ip\rjs, ov (T(j)6Bpa erriTijBeios Bo^as, eywye C 

ij/ciaTa arrovBaios /cal Beivbs crTpaTrjyos, 
rrpaov e/^avTOv 7rapao"%wv /cal /^eTpiov. ov 

1 viraKovovra Hertlein suggests, viraKovffovTa MSS. 

2 avrbs MSS., Cobet, [avrbs] Hertlein. 


Constant! us gave me three hundred and sixty 
soldiers, and in the middle of the winter l despatched 
"me into Gaul, which was then in a state of great 
disorder ; and I was _sent not as commander of the 
garrisons there but rather as a subordinate of the 
generals there stationed. For letters had been sent 
them and (?xpress~orders given that they were_to 
watch me as vigilantly as they did the enemy, for 
fear I ^ Ymld attempt to cause a revolt. And 
when all ihis had happened in the manner I have 
described, about the summer solstice he., al]ojKd 
me to join the army and to carry about with me 
his dress and image. And indeed he had both said 
and written that he was not giving the Gauls a 
king but one who should convey to them his 

Now when, as you have heard, the first campaign 
was ended that year and great advantage gained, 
I returned to winter quarters/ 2 and there I was 
exposed to the utmost danger. For I was not even 
allowed to assemble the troops ; this power was 
entrusted to another, while I was quartered apart 
with only a few soldiers, and then, since the neighbour- 
ing towns begged for my assistance, I assigned to 
them the greater part of the force that I had, and 
so I myself was left isolated. This then was the 
condition of affairs at that time. And when the 
commander-in-chief 8 of the forces fell under the 
suspicions of Constantius and was deprived by him 
of his command and superseded, I in my turn was 
thought to be by no means capable or talented 
as a general, merely because I had shown myself 
mild and moderate. For I thought I ought not 
*355A.D. 2 At Vienna. 3 Marcellus. 



jap M/j,rjv $iv ^vyo/jba^elv ovSe 

el fJUTj TTOV Tl TMV \iaV 7TlKlV$VVCi)V (Opa>V T) &OV 

TrapopwfJievov rj KOI rrjv dp^rjv JJLTJ &eov 
yiyvofjievov. avraf Se teal SevTepov ov 

i TIVWV Xprja-a/Aevwv, epavrov mtjO^v D 
rfj (7i(i)7rp, real TOV \OITTOV rrjv 
Kol rrjv eltcova' TOVTWV yap 
TO TrjviKavra Sievoovjurfv ajroTre^dvOat, 

'E^ &v o Ka^cTTttzmo? vo/ 
eTTibwaeiv, ov/c et? TO<TOVTOV Be /-lera/SoX,?)? 
ra TWV KeXrw^ TrpdyfMtTa, S/Swcrt JJLOL 
arpaTOTreSwv rrjv rjye^Jiovlav rjpos dp^y. KOI 
(rrparevo) p.ev d/c/JidovTo<s TOV CTLTOV, TTO\\WV 
Trdvv Tepfjiavwv Trepl ra? TreTropfJrjfAevas eV KeX- 279 
TroXet? ttSew? KO,TOI.KOVVTU>V. TO /jiev ovv 
TWV TroXewv TrevTe TTOV fcal TevcrapaKovTa 
i^rj TCL SiypTrao-fjieva Bi^a TCOV jrvpycov KOI 
TWV eKaaaovwv (frpovpicov. 7/9 ' eve/jiOVTo 7779 eVt 
TaSe TOV 'Ptjvov Trdarjs ol fSdpftapoi TO fiiyeOos 
OTTOO-OV a7ro TWV TTrjywv avTwv dp-^ofjLevo^ d-^pi TOV 
'l/ceavov Trept'XafMftdvei' TpiaKoaia 8e aTrely^ov 
7779 r}oi/09 TOV 'Prfvov dTa^ia ol 777)09 r;yu-a9 oltcovv- 

T69 (T%aTOl, Tpl7T\d(TlOV 8e r}V Tl TOVTOV 7T\ar09 

TO /caTa\i(j)0v eprjfjiov VTTO Tr)<$ \eri\acria<$, evOa B 
ovSe vejjieiv egfjv rot9 Ke\rot9 TO, ftoo-KifaaTa, /cal 
7roXet9 Tive? epr)fjLOL TWV evoiKovvTwv, at9 OVTTW 
TrapwKOW ol ftdpfiapoi. ev TOVTOIS ovorav /cara- 
\af3wv eyo) TTJV YaKaTiav TTO\I,V re 

1 ohiyov Hertlein suggests, 6\iycp MSS. 


to fight against my yoke or interfere with the general 
in command except when in some very dangerous 
undertaking I saw either that something was being 
overlooked,, or that something was being attempted 
that ought never to have been attempted at all. 
But after certain persons had treated me with 
disrespect on one or two occasions, I decided that for 
the future 1 ought to show my own self-respect by 
keeping silence, and henceforth I contented myself 
with parading the imperial robe and the image. For 
I thought that to these at any rate I had been given 
a right. 

After that, Constantius, thinking that there would 
be some improvement, but not that so great a 
transformation would take place in the affairs of 
Gaul, handed over to me in the beginning of spring l 
the command of all the forces. And when the 
grain was ripe I took the field ; for a great number 
of Germans had settled themselves with inpunity 
near the towns they had sacked in Gaul. Now the 
number of the towns whose walls had been dismantled 
was about forty-five, without counting citadels and 
smaller forts. And the barbarians then controlled 
on our side of the Rhine the whole country that 
extends from its sources to the Ocean. Moreover 
those who were settled nearest to us were as much 
as three hundred stades from the banks of the Rhine, 
and a district three times as wide as that had been 
left a desert by their raids ; so that the Gauls could 
not even pasture their cattle there. Then too there 
were certain cities deserted by their inhabitants, 
near which the barbarians were not yet encamped. 
This then was the condition of Gaul when I took 

1 357 A.D. 



*A.ypi7T7rivav eVl rw 'Ptjvw, Trpo /JLIJVWV ea\a)Kvldv 
TTOV Be/ca, teal ret^o? 'Apyevropa 7r\rj(riov 
VTTajpeiais avrov rov Bocreyou, KOI e/ 
OVK a/eXew?. tcrct)? KOL et? tyu-a? a(f)i,K6TO rj C 
TOiavrrj yu-X^ eV^a TWi/ ^ewz^ SOZ/TCOJ; yuot roi^ 
ftacrikea TWV 7roXe/uW al^aXwrov, OVK (f)06vrjaa 
rov KaTop@(o/jLaTos Y^MvaTavriw. Kai-roi el /j,rf 
eiv ef)v, aTroff^drreiv rov 7ro\/jLLov 
rjv, KOI jAevroL Sia rrdort]^ avrov aywv T?}? 
KeXr/^o? rat? iroXeaiv 67ri&6lKVveiv /cal wairep 
evrpv<f)dv rov XvoBopapiov rat? avfjifopais. rov- D 
T&)t ovSev (pr)6r]v Selv irpdrreiv, aXXa Trpo? TOI^ 
ULwvcrrdvriov avrov evQecos a7T7re//.'v^a, rore diro 
rwv Kovd&wv KOI ^avpofuircov eTraviovra. awe/By 
roivvv, ejjiov /juev dywvLaa/jLevov, e/cetvqv oe oSev- 
aavros JJLOVOV Kai (f>i\ict)<i evrv^ovros rot9 Trapoi- 
/covai rov v \arpov edveaiv, ov% ^//-a?, aXX' eicelvov 

To ^r; fjierd rovro &vrpos eviavros Kal rpiros, 
Kai irdvres fMev d7T\rj\avro r>}? Ta\aria<{ ol 
ftdpftapoi, TrXetcrrai Be dve\ij(f)dr)o~av rwv TrciKewv, 
LS Be djro TT}? 1&perravioo<$ vavs dvrj- 
ega/coo-icov vrjwv dvrjya'yov aro\ov, wv - 
ra? rerpaKOGias ev ovSe 0X0^9 /jLrjal oeKa vavTrrj- 
yr)o~d/uivo<i rrdaa^ i(rrf<ya<yov et? rov 'Prjvov, epyov 
ov fjiiKpov Sid TOI)? eTriKei/jievovs Kal irapoiKOvvras 
7r\r)criov (3ap(3dpov$. o yovv 
a>ero rovro dovvarov, ware dpyvpov 



it over. I recovered the city of Agrippina l on the 
"Rhine which had been taken about ten months earlier, 
and also the neighbouring fort of Argentoratum,' 2 
near the foot-hills of the Vosges mountains, arid 
there I engaged the enemy not ingloriously. It may 
be that the fame of that battle has reached even your 
ears. There though the gods gave into my hands 
as prisoner of war the king 3 of the enemy, I did not 
begrudge Constantius the glory of that success. 
And yet though I was not allowed to triumph for it, 
I had it in my power to slay my enemy, and moreover 
I could have led him through the whole of Gaul and 
exhibited him to the cities, and thus have luxuriated as 
it were in the misfortunes of Chnodomar. I thought 
it my duty to do none of these things, but sent 
him at once to Constantius who was returning from 
the country of the Quadi and the Sarmatians. So it 
came about that, though 1 had done all the fighting 
and he had only travelled in those parts and held 
friendly intercourse with the tribes who dwell on the 
borders of the Danube, it was not I but he who 

Then followed the second and third years of that 
campaign, and by that time all the barbarians had 
been driven out of Gaul, most of the towns had been 
recovered, arid a whole fleet of many ships had 
arrived from Britain. I had collected a fleet of 
six hundred ships, four hundred of which I had had 
built in less than ten months, and I brought them all 
into the Rhine, no slight achievement, on account of 
the neighbouring barbarians who kept attacking me. 
At least it seemed so impossible to Florentius that 
he had promised to pay the barbarians a fee of two 

^ Cologne. - Strasburg. 3 Chnodomar. 



vTrea^ero jJuaOov diroriaeLV rot? ftap- 
i>Trep rrjs TrapoBov, /cal 6 ^wvaravrio^ 
vTrep TOVTOV jjiaOwv eKoivaxraTO jap avru> Trepl 
TT)? Bocrew eVeo-refXe TT/OO? JJLC TO avrb Trpdrreiv l B 
KeXevcra?, el /JL?) TravTcnracnv alaxpov yu-ot (fraveirj. 
7TW9 Se OVK r)v ala^pov, OTTOV KtovaTavriw TOIOV- 
TOV etydvr], \iav elwOori OepaTreveiv rou? ftap- 
e860rj fxr/p avrois ov$ev aXX* C'TT' avrovs 

fjivvovTWV JJLOL KOI TrapeaTrwv 
Qewv, V7r&%d/jtr]v (Aev ^olav rov %a\,icov e9vov<s, 

8e e^Xacra, TroXXa? /SoO? /cat <yvvaia 
TraiSapiwv cruXXayScoi'. ovra) Be Trdvras 
/cal Trapecr/cevacra KaraTrrij^aL rrjv e^v 
e(j)oSov, ware Trapa^pfj/jba \aftelv o/jirfpovs teal rfj C 
criTOTTO/jLTTiq irapaa^elv acr^aX?} KO^L^rfv. 

Ma/c/oo^ ecrrt Trdvra dTrapiO/JielaOaL teal rd tcaO* 
eicaarov ypa<j)eiv, ocra ev eviavrols eirpa^a rer- 
rapcrf rd tce^>d\ata Se rpirov eTrepaicoOrjv tcalaap 
eVt rov'Pfjvov' $i(T/jivpiovs aTrrfT^cra irapd rwv ftap- 
fidpwv VTrep rbv'Pfjvov oVra? at^/^aXcoroL'?* etc Svolv 
dywvoiv Kal yLtta? TroXiopicias %tXtou? e%e\wv ew- 
ov TIJV dxprjaTOv r)\iKiav, dvSpas Be rjftwv- 
eire^a ru> KayvvravTiM TtVrapa? a/3t^/tou? D 
KpaTicrTWV TreJ^wv, T/36i? aXXou? TWV eXarro- 
vwv, iTTTreayv rdy^ara Bvo rd eVrt/xorara* 
dve\aftov vvv fiev &r) TMV 0ewv e9e\ovrwv 
rore 'Be dvei^ifyeiv eXarrou? 6\iyw TWV 
tcovTa. fjidp-rvpas tca\w rov Ata teal 
7ro\iov%ov<? re KOI ofioyviovs VTrep 

et? avrov teal Trtcrrea)?, on rotoDro? 

etAe irpos fie ri> aurb irparrfiv Horkel, firf(TTfi\ft> aurb 
rparreiv Hertlein, MSS. 



thousand pounds weight of silver in return for a 
passage. Constantius when he learned this for 
Florentius had informed him about the proposed 
payment wrote to me to carry out the agreement, 
unless I thought it absolutely disgraceful. But how 
could it fail to be disgraceful when it seemed so even 
to Constantius, who was only too much in the habit 
of trying to conciliate the barbarians? However, no 
payment was made to them. Instead I marched 
against them, and since the gods protected me and 
were present to aid, I received the submission of part 
of the Salian tribe, and drove out the Chamavi and 
took many cattle and women and children. And I 
so terrified them all, and made them tremble at my 
approach that I immediately received hostages from 
them and secured a safe passage for my food 

It would take too long to enumerate everything 
and to write down every detail of the task that 
I accomplished within four years. But to sumitall 
up : Three times, while I was still Caesar, I crossed 
the Rhine ; twenty thousand persons who were held as 
captives on the further side of the Rhine I demanded 
and received back ; in two battles and one siege 
I took captive ten thousand prisoners!, and those not 
of unserviceable age but men in the prime of life ; I 
sent to Constantius four levies of excellent infantry, 
three more of infantry not so good, and two very 
distinguished squadrons of cavalry. I have now with 
the help of the gods recovered all the towns, and by 
that time I had already recovered almost forty. I 
call Zeus and all the gods who protect cities and our 
race to bear witness as to my behaviour towards 


VOL. H. T 


yeyova irepl aiiTOV, olov av el\6fjiijv eyob vlov irepl 
e/j. jeveadai. reTi/uL^/co, pev ovv avrbv o>9 ovSels 281! 
Kcuo-dpwv ovoeva TWV e/jLTTpoadev avTorcparopwv. 
ovoev yovv els TTJV rrj^epov vjrep eiceivwv ejKa\el 
/AOL, teal ravra TrapprjataaafJievu) TT/JO? avrov, a\\a 
alrias 0/07^9 ava7r\drrei. AovTnriKLVOv, 
KOI T/36i? a\\ov<> av0pct)7rov<> /carecr^e?' 01)9 
el KOL Kreivas r)^v 67ri{3ov\ev(ravTas 

T?}9 o/j,ovoia$ eW/ca. TOVTOVS Se ovSev 
attels a>9 Tapa~)(w^ei^ (f>vcrei KOI 7roXe/i.o- B 
TTOIOVS Karear^ov, i~o\\a irdvv Scnravwv et9 avrovs 
etc TMV SrjfJLOcriWv, a^eXojJLevo^ 5' l ovSev TWV VTrap- 
opare, ?rco9 &iref;ivai TOVTOIS 6 
vofJioOerel. 6 yap ^aXeir aivoov vTrep 
TrpocnjKovrwv /jiySev ap 1 OVK oveiBi^ei JJLOL KOI 
Kareye\a r^9 fJLaipias, on TOV fovea 
a7racrr/9 ct>9 67709 
Kal crvyyeveias TOV 
TOVTO eOepdireucra; a-KOTrelre Se OTTCOS Kal yei'6- C 
av-TOKpdrwp ert OepairevTifcws avrw Trpoar)- 

wv eVea-reiXa. 
Kal ra Trpb TOVTOV be OTTOIOS TIS yeyova irepl 
avrbv evrevOev eiaeaOe. alo-06/j,evos, on TWV 
d/JiapravofjLevwv KXrjpovo/juja'a) /JLCV avros rrjp 
doogiav Kal TOV /civovvov, e^epyaaOrjaeTai Se 
eTepois TO, TrXelcTTa, TrpwTov i^ev ixerevov, el TavTa D 

1 8' after a<eA(fyiej>0s Hertlein suggests. 
2 74 


Constantius and my loyalty to him, and that I 
behaved to him as I would have chosen that my 
own son should behave to me. 1 I have paid him 
more honour than any Caesar has paid to any 
Emperor in the past. Indeed, to this very day 
he has no accusation to bring against me on that 
score, though I have been entirely frank in my 
dealings with him, but he invents absurd pretexts 
for his resentment. 'He says, "You have detained 
Lupicinus and three other men." And supposing I 
had even put them to death after they had openly 
plotted against me, he ought for the sake of keep- 
ing peace to have renounced his resentment at their 
fate. But I did those men not the least injury, and 
I detained them because they are by nature quarrel- 
some and mischief-makers. And though I am spend- 
ing large sums of the public money on them, I have 
robbed them of none of their property. Observe 
how Constantius really lays down the law that I 
ought to proceed to extremities with such men ! 
For_by his anger on behalf of men who are not 
related to him at all, does lie not rebuke and ridi- 
cule me for my folly in having served so faithfully 
the murderer of my father, my brothers, my cousins ; 
I lie executioner as it were of his and my whole 
family and kindred ? Consider too with what defer- 
ence I have continued to treat him even since I 
became Emperor, as is shown in my letters. 

And how I behaved to him before that you shall 
now learn. Since I was well aware that whenever 
mistakes were made I alone should incur the dis- 
grace and danger, though most of the work was 
carried on by others, I first of all implored him, if 

1 Cf. lacerates, To Demonicus 14 

T 2 


Trprreiv avrw aivoiTO Ka Trvrcos ty-te 
yopeveiv Kaicrapa BeBoyfjievov eir), dvBpas dyaOovs 
Kal (nrovBaiovs Bovvai poi roi>9 vTrovpyovvras' o 
Be Trporepov eBa)K TOI? fjio^d^pordrov^. co? Be 6 
fjLev el? o Trovrjporaros teal fidXa acryu-e^o? 1 VTT^KOV- 
crev, ovSels Se rj^Lov TWV aXXwv, avSpa SiSwcriv CLKWV 
efJLol KOI /jid\a dyaOov ^dKovcmov, 09 Sia Trjv 
dperrjv evOews avrw yeyovev VTTOTTTOS. OVK dp- 
KecrBels eyw ra> TOLOVTW, /3\e7ro)i> 8e TT^OO? TO 
Sidfopov TOV rpOTTOV KOI Karavorfda^ ra> /JLCV ayav 
avrov TriarevovTa, TCO Be ovB* oXa>? TTpocre^ovTa, 28 
T^? Be^ids CIVTOV Kal rwv yovdrwv d^rdfjievo^' 
Tovrcov, etyrjv, ovBeis ecrri JJLOL a"vvr}0ijs ovBe 
yeyovev efJbirpoaOev eTricrrd/jLevos Be avrov? e/c 
, aov K\vo-avros, eraipovs ep,avrov Kal 

VO/JLi^d), TO4? TTClXat yVO)pifJLOl$ 7r' tCT7;9 

ov fjirjv Bi/caiov r) TOVTOL^ 7riT6Tpdcf)0ai rd 
77 rd rovrwv TUMV crvyKivBvvV(rai. rt ovv 

V 09 M(77rep VO/JLOVS, TIVWV P> 

Ka oaa Trprreiv 
Bi)\ov ydp, on TOV p,ev TrecOo/jievov eTraivea-eis, TOV 
Be direidovvTa /coiXdaeiv, ei Kai o, ri ua\iara 

r/ Ocra /j,ev ovv eTre^euprjo'ev 6 TlevrdBios avri/ca 
rcaivoTO/j,eiv, ovBev %pr) \eyew avreTrparrov Be 
eya) 7T/009 Trdvra, Kal yiverai JJLOL Bvo-/*evr)S eKeWev. 
etr' dX\.ov \aftwv Kal irapao-Kevdcras Bevrepov Kal 
rpirov, TiavXov, ravBevriov, TOL/9 ovo^ao-TOv^ eir 

1 &fffj.(vos Hertlein suggests, aa/xeVwy MSS. 
- ft\firwv . . . Karav6riaas Horkel, 
Hertlein, MSS. 



he had made up his mind to that course and was 
altogether determined to proclaim me Caesar, to give 
me good and able men to assist me He however at 
first gave me the vilest wretches. And when one, the 
most worthless of them, had very gladly accepted 
and no one of the others consented, he gave _me 
with a bad grace an officer who was indeed excellent, 
Salliist, who on account of his virtue has at once 
fallen under his suspicion. And since I was not 
satisfied with such an arrangement and saw how his 
manner to them varied, for I observed that he trusted 
one of them too much and paid no attention at all to 
the other, I clasped his right hand and his knees and 
said : " I have no acquaintance with any of these 
men nor have had in the past. But I know them by 
report, and since you bid me I regard them as my 
comrades and friends and pay them as much respect 
as I would to old acquaintances. Nevertheless it is 
not just that my affairs should be entrusted to them 
or that their fortunes should be hazarded with mine. 
What then is my petition ? Give me some sort of 
written rules as to what I must avoid and what you 
entrust to me to perform. For it is clear that you 
will approve of him who obeys you and punish him 
who is disobedient, though indeed I am very sure 
that no one will disobey you." 

Now I need not mention the innovations that 
Pentadius at once tried to introduce. But I kept 
opposing him in everything and for that reason he 
became my enemy. Then Constantius chose another 
and asecoii(3~an3r a third and fashioned them for his 
purpose, I mean Paul and Gaudentius, those notor- 
ious sycophants ; he hired them to attack me and 



eue fjuaOwcrduevos avKofydvras, ^aXovrrnov p-tv 
&)? efjiol fyiXov aTToa-rrjvaL TrapacTKevd^ei, AOVKI- 
\iavbv Be Bodrjvat BidBo%ov avri/ca. teal /JUKpov 
vcrrepov KOI <&\copevrio<; r}V e^Opos e/JLol Bia TO,? 
7r\oveia$, cu? rjvavriovjjirjv. ireldovaiv ovroi rov 
KwvGTdvTiov d(f)e\O'dai ^te rwv (rrparoTreScov 
cnrdvTWV, to-w? re teal VTTO TT)? ^XoruTTta? rwv 
KaTopQcojjLdTwv Kvi^ofJievov, KOI <ypd(f>ei ^pd^fiara D 
7roXA% /J,ev ciTifjiias et? e'yLte Tr^rfprj, KeXrot? Be 
dvaGTCiGiv aTreiXovvra' /JLitcpov jdp Bew dvai TO 


aTrayayeiv TT}? FaXaTta? e:eXeucre^, 7rt,rd^a^ rovro 
TO epyov AovTTTTiKiva) re KOI YLVTWV'KI), e/jiol Be co? 
av TTyoo? /j.r)Bev evavr iw6 *eirjv auTOt? eVeo-TeiXe^. 

'Ei^TaO^a juevTOL riva TPOTTOV ra TWV Oewv 
6L7rot/jL av ep<ya Trpo? u/xa?; Sievoov/jirjv' pdpTVpes 2!^ 
Se avroi' iracrav d r jroppi"^ra<; TrjV fiacriKiKrjv iro\v- 
T\eiav Ka\ TrapacTKevrjv ^Gvya^ziv, Trpdrretv 
B ovbev oXft)?. dvepevov Be <l>\a)pevTiov Trapa- 
yeve(T0ai, KOI rov AovTrTriKivov i]V yap 6 fiev irepl 
rr)V T&lewav, o Be ev Tat? >perrainai<$. ev rovrw 
Oopvftos 7roXu9 TJV rrepl rcdvras TOU? IBLwras Kal B 
TOV? arpariwras, Kal ypd<f)ei Tt9 dvwvvaov ypaa- 
fiarelov 1 et? rrjv darvyeurovd /JLOL rco\iv jrpbs TOU? 
ITeTOfXa^Ta? rovroval Kal KeXTov?- ovo^d^erai 
Be ovrco ra rdyaara' ev co TroXXa aev eyeypajrro 
Kar Kivov, TroXXot Be virep T^? FaXX/a)? TT/OO- 
Socrta? oBvp/JLOL' Kal pevrot, Kal rrjv earjv ari-fuav 
o TO ypaaaareLOV dvyypd^ra^ aTrcoBvpero. rovro 
KOfJuaOev KLV7jo-e Trdvras, 01 ra Kayvaravriov 
fjiakicrra e<bpovovv, emOeaOai JJLOI Kara rb Kap' C 
t'ioi' Horkel adds, SeAroi/ Nabcr. 


then took measures to remove Sallustj because he 
was my friend, and to appoint Lucilianus immediately, 
as his successor. And a little later Florentius also 
Became my enemy on account of his avarice which I 
used to oppose. These~men persuaded Constantius, 
who was perhaps already somewhat irritated by 
jealousy of my successes, to remove me altogether 
from command of the troops. And he wrote letters 
full of insults directed against me and threatening 
ruin to the Gauls. For he gave orders for the with- 
drawal from Gaul of7 I might almost say, the whoTe 
of the most efficient troops without exception, arid 
assigned this commission to Lupicinus and Gintonius, 
while to me he wrote that I must oppose them in 

And now in what terms shall I describe to you the 
work of the gods ? It was my intention, as they will 
bear me witness, to divest myself of all imperial 
splendour and state and remain in peace, taking no 
part whatever in affairs. But I waited for Florentius 
and Lupicinus to arrive ; for the former was at 
Vienne, the latter in Britain. Meanwhile there was 
great excitement among the civilians and the troops, 
and someone wrote an anonymous letter to the town 
near where I was, 1 addressed to the Petulantes and 
the Celts those were the names of the legions -full 
of invectives against Constantius and of lamenta- 
tions about his betrayal of the Gauls. Moreover the 
author of the letter lamented bitterly the disgrace 
inflicted on myself. This letter when it arrived 
provoked all those who were most definitely on the 
side of Constantius to urge me in the strongest terms 
to send away the troops at once, before similar letters 

1 Julian was at Paris. 



Tepcorarov, OTTO)? rjBr) TOVS <TTpaTict)Tas 
^raifjii, TTplv Kal et? TOi>9 aXXou? apiO/jLovs 
pL(j)iji>ai. Kal jap ovBe aXXo? rt? Trapfjv TMV 
evvws e-^etv e/jioi, NeftpiBios Be, Iley- 
Ae/cezmo9, 6 Trap' avrov Treaty 6 'et? eV 
avrb TOVTO T&.wvcnavTiov. \eyovTo$ Be /u-ou 
Trepi/Jbeveiv en AovTTTriKivov KOI tyXaypevriov 
Yjicovaev, a\X' \eyov Trdvres rovvavriov ori Sel 
iroielv, el pr) /3ov\o/u,ai, rat? TrpoXaftovaais VTTO- 

1/rtai? WO-7T6/3 aTToBeiglV Kal T6K/iltfpWV TOVTO 1) 

TrpocrOelvai. eZra TrpocreQeaav a>9 NOi^ yite^ eKTrefjL- 
fyOevTwv avTWV aov eaTi TO epyov, a^nKo/jievwv Be 
TOVTWV ov crol TOVTO, aA,V eKelvois \oyielTat 
KwvaTavTios, av Be ev atria yevrfa-y. ypdtyai Brf l 
yite errei&av avTU), /jia\\ov Be eftidaavTo- rreiOeTai 
/mev yap exelvos, <j>Trep e%e<TTi KOI JJL^ 7ret,(70ij- 
vai, (Sid^eaOai Be ot? av e^rj, TOV TreiOeuv ovBev 
OVKOVV ovBe ol (3iaa6evTe<s rwv 
elaiv, d\\a TWV avayKaa-OevTUtv. 
evravOa, rrolav 6Bov avTovs "XP^J 284 
ftaBt,%i,i>, BtTTrjs 01/0-779. eyo) fj,ev rj^Lovv erepav 
Tparrrjvat,, ol Be avOis dvajKa^ovatv e/ceivrjv levai, 
fir) TOVTO avTO yevopevov waTrep d^opfjbrjv Tiva 
ews rot? VT par HOT aw Trapda-^r) Kal Tapanis 
aiTiov yevrjTat, elra a-Taaid^etv aTraj; dpgd- 
Tcavra dOpows Tapd^Mcnv. eBoKei TO 
ov TravTarracnv d\o i yov eivai TWV dvOpWTrwv. 

'HX^e rd rdy/jiaTa, vmjvT'rjcra Kara TO 
(jfievov avTois, e^eaOai TT)<$ 6Bov TT povT pe^ra" [liav 

1 5^ Hertlein would add. 


could be scattered broadcast among the rest of the 
legions. And indeed there was no one there belong- 
ing to the party supposed to be friendly to me, but 
only \ebridius, Pentadius, and Decentius, the latter! 
of whom had been despatched for this very purpose! 
by Constantius. And when I replied that we ought 1 
to wait still longer for Lupicinus and Florentius, no 
one listened to me, but they all declared that we 
ought to do the very opposite, unless I wished to add 
this further proof and evidence for the suspicions 
that were already entertained about me. And they 
added this argument : " If you send away the troops 
now it will be regarded as your measure, but when 
the others come Constantius will give them not you 
the credit and you will be held to blame." ^And so 
they persuaded or rather compelled me to write 
to mm For he alone may be said to be persuaded 
who has the power to refuse, but those who can use 
force have no need to persuade as well ; then again 
where force is used there is no persuasion, but & man 
is the victim of necessity. Thereupon we discussed 
by which road, since there were two, the troops 
had better march. I preferred that they should take 
one of these, but they immediately compelled them 
to take the other, for fear that the other route if 
chosen should give rise to mutiny among the troops 
and cause some disturbance, and that then, when 
they had once begun to mutiny, they might throw 
all into confusion. Indeed such apprehension on 
their part seemed not altogether without grounds. 

The legions arrived, and I, as was customary, went 
to meet them and exhorted them to continue their 
march. For one day they halted, and till that time 



rj/juepav eire/jieivev, a%pi$ ^9 ovBev ybeiv eyw rwv 
(3e/3ov\6v/jLevc0v avrols' Lard) Zeu9/'H7uo9, "Apr;?, 
'Adrjva KOI irdvres deoi, &>9 ovBe 6771/9 dfyi/cero 
fjiov rt9 roiavrrj vTrovoia d^pt SetXT/9 avrf)<;' otyias 
8e r/^r; 7Tpl r)\iov Svafias e/jLrjvvOr) /JLOI, KOL avriica 
ra (Barri\eia TrepiefarjTrro, teal eftowv irdvres, en 

fiov ri %pr) iroielv KOI OVTTCO afio&pa 

eTV^ov yap GTL T>}9 jafMeTrjs ^cocrr79 C 
IJUQI dvaTTavabjjLevos ISia ?r/309 TO TrXijo'iov vjrepwov 
dve\0(t)v. elra etceWev dveireTrraTo yap 6 

rbv Ai'a. yevofj,vr)<t Se ert 

rbv Oeov Sovvai repa^. avrap o 7' 
iLV Setfe /cal rfvwyei TreiaOrjvai KOI ^ Trpocrev- 
avTiovcrOai TOV arparoTre&ov rfj Trpodv^ia. 
yevo/juevwv o/i&)9 e'/iol /cal TOVTCOV TWV ari^lwv, ov/c D 
elf a eTOi/jiws, dXtC dvTea^ov et9 ocrov rjSvvd/.i'rjv, 
ical ovre rtjv Trpo&prjcriv ovre rbv <rre(f)avov Trpocr- 
lefjitjv. eVel Se ovre et9 wv l TroXXwf ^vvd^v 
Kparelv ol re rovro /3ov\6/jLevoi yeveaOai Oeol rovs 
/utev Trapw^vvov, e/jiol 8e eOe\yov rrjv yvwfjirjv, &pa 
rrov rpirr) a"%e8bv ov/c ol&a ovrivos fjuou arpariwrov 
Sovros ftavidtCffV Trepiedefirjv teal rfXOov et9 ra 
j3a<ri\eia, evboOev air avrrjs, 0)9 Ivaaiv ol 0eoi, 
crrevwv rt}<? Kap8ia$. /cairoi xp*)v S^TrovOev m- -85 
arevovra rw fyrjvavn dew TO repas Qappeiv d\\ 

1 &v Cobet, TWV Hertlein, MS8. 


I knew nothing whatever of what they had 
determined ; I call to witness Zeus, Helios, Ares, 
Athene, and all the other gods that no such suspicion 
even entered my mind until that very evening. It 
was already late, when about sunset the news was 
brought to me, and suddenly the palace was sur- 
rounded and they all began to shout aloud, while I 
was still considering what I ought to do and feeling 
by no means confident. My wife was still alive and 
it happened, that in order to rest alone, I had gone 
to the upper room near hers. Then from there 
through an opening in the wall I prayed to Zeus. 
And when the shouting grew still louder and all 
was in a tumult in the palace I entreated the 
god to give me a sign ; and thereupon he showed 
me a sign ' and bade me yield and not oppose myself 
to the will of the army. Nevertheless even after 
"these tokens had been vouchsafed to me I did not 
yield without reluctance, but resisted as long as I 
could, and would not accept either the salutation 2 
or the diadem. But since I could not singlehanded 
control so many, and moreover the gods, who willed 
that this should happen, spurred on the" soldiers and 
gradually softened my resolution, somewhere about 
the third hour some soldier or other gave me the 
collar and I put it on my head and returned to the 
palace, as the gods know groaning in my heart. 
And yet surely it was my duty to feel confidence 
and to trust in the god after he had shown me 
the sign ; but I was terribly ashamed and ready to 

1 Odyssey 3. 173 

i)Tto/> 5e 0eej> <^)7)j/ai repay, auTap '6 *y' 7)/uiV 

5et|e Kal yvdayfi. 
' 2 i.e. the title of Augustus. 



Seivws teal /caTeBvo/jirjv, et 

TeXof9 vTratcovcrat 

IIoXX?79 ovv ovaris jrepl rd ftacri\ia 
TOVTOV evOvs ol KtovcrTavriov (j)i\oi rbv tcaipov 
dpTrdcrai Sia^o^^eVre? eTTifiov^ijv /JLOI pdirrovaiv 
avri/ca KOI ^LeveijJiav rot? aTpanwrais 
bvoiv OaTCpov 7rpo<r&OKWVTe$, r) SiacrTrj 

/col TT 'CLV7 'a7T 'CLG 'iv eTTiOrjaeadai 1 jjioi (fravepws, B 
? ra)V eTTiTerajiJLevwv rfj TrpooBm r/}? 
\dQpq Trparrofjievov avro efiol jj&v 
Trpwrov efJLrjvvaev, &>? Se ewpa yu,e fJLijSev Trpoae- 
%owra, Trapafypovrja'as wcnrep ol deoXijTrrot 
cria ftoav r/paro Kara TTJV dyopdv 
(TTpaTiwrai /cal %evot, KOI TroKlrai, p; TrpoSwre 
TOP avroKpdropa. elra eyu-TTtTrret &V/JLOS et? TO 1)9 
, KOI irdvres et9 ra /3acri\ia pera TWV 
eOeov. tcaraXajBovres Be fjue ^wvra /cal C 

wcrjrep ol roi'9 ej* dv\7rLaTwv o(f)0evTa<? 
(f)i\ovs a\Xo9 aX\o06v Trepieftafckov teal irepie- 

7T\KOV Kal 67rl TWV W/JLWV 6(f)pOV, Kai TjV 7TO)9 TO 

TTpdj/jia 6eas a%iov, ei'dovcriaa-fjiU) yap ew/cei. a>9 

8e /ze aTravra'xoOev 7repiea"%ov, e^yrovv a 

TOU9 Kw^cTTa^T/ou <j5)t\ou9 em 

rfywvicrdfjLrjv dywva crcaaai /3ofXoyLte^o9 avrovs, D 

laaaiv ol 6eol TrdvTes. 

'AXXa, Brj rd fxerd rovro 7TW9 7rpo9 rov 
KayvardvTiov SieTrpa^dfMrjv; OVTTO) teal 
ev Tat9 7T/OO9 avTov e7rio~ToXat9 Ty 

1 eiriO-fjffeffdai Cobet, firideffdai Hertlein, MSS. 


sink into the earth at the thought of not seeming 
to obey Constantius faithfully to the last. 

Now since there was the greatest consternation 
in the palace, the friends of Constantius thought 
they would seize the occasion to contrive a plot 
against me without delay, and they distributed 
money to "the soldiers., expecting one of two things., 
either that they would cause dissension between me 
and the troops,, or no doubt that the latter would 
attack me openly. But when a certain officer 
belonging to those who commanded my wife's escort 
perceived that this was being secretly contrived,, he 
first reported it to me and then, when he saw that I 
paid no attention to him,, he became frantic,, and like 
one possessed he began to cry aloud before the 
people in the market-place, " Fellow soldiers, 
strangers, and citizens, do not abandon the Emperor ! ' ' 
Then the soldiers were inspired by a frenzy of rage 
and they all rushed to the palace under arms. And 
when they found me alive, in their delight, like men 
who meet friends whom they had not hoped to see 
again, they pressed round me on this side and on 
that, and embraced me and carried me on their 
shoulders. And it was a sight worth seeing, for they 
were like men seized with a divine frenzy. Then 
after they had surrounded me on all sides they 
demanded that I give up to them for punishment the 
friends of Constantius. What fierce opposition I had 
to fight down in my desire to save those persons is 
known to all the gods. 

But further, how did I behave to Constantius after 
this ? Even to this day I have not yet used in my 
letters to him the title which was bestowed on me 



fjioi Trapd TWI> 0ewv eTrwvv/.iia /ce^p^/jLai, /caiaapa 
Be e/jiavrov yeypa(f)a, ical TreTrei/ca rovs (TTpariwras 
IJLOL fiijBevos eTriOv^aeiv, elirep 'I]/MV 
eiev dBews ol/ceiv ra? FaXXta?, roi? 
Trejrpay/jievois a waived as. airavra rd Trap 1 efiol 286 
rdy/jLara TT/JO? avrbv eVeyu-'v^ei' 67rio~roXa?, ifce- 
revovra Trepl TT}? TT/JO? O\\TJ\OV? r^uv o^ovo'ia^. 
o Be dvrl TOVTWV e7re/3a\ev r^uv rovs j3ap/3dpov$, 
%0pbv Be dviyyopeva-e /JLG Trap' eiceivoLs, /cal 
T\aev, OTTCO? TO Ta\\iwv eOvos iropOr)- 
, ypd(po)v re ev rot? ev TraX/a 7rapa(f)V\dTTtv 
TOU? K rwv Ta\\io)v 7rapeK\evero, /cal irepl B j 
TOW? Ta\\iKOvs opov? ev rat? TrXiyaiov Trokecriv 
els rpiaKoo-ias /AVpid&as /jie&L/Avcov Trvpov tcar- 
eipyaa/jievov ev rf) BpiyavTia, roaovrov erepov 
Trepl ras Korrta? "AXTret? a>9 eV e/^e arpareva'Mv 
efceXevae TrapaaKevaaOrjvaL. /cal rara ov \6yoi, 
aa(f)r) 8e epya. KOI yap a? yeypa(f>ev eTriaro\a<{ 
VTTO rwv ftapfBdpwv KO/Jiia'OeiO'as eSe^d/jUjv, /cal 
ra9 rpo(f)ds ra? Trapeo-Kevaa-^evas /careXaftov 
/cal ra? eVto-roXa? lavpov. Trpos rovrois eri G 
vvv /AOL 009 /caiaapi x ypd<f)i, /cal ov&e avvOtj- 
crecrOai TrwTrore Trpos /ze VTrecrrrj, aAA' ^Tri/crrjTov 
Tiva TWV Ta\\LO)v 2 eTriaKOTrov ejrefjL'^rev co? Triard 
pot, Trepl rfjs dafyaXeias rrjs e/jiavrov irape^ovra, 
Kal TOVTO OpvKel Si 6\a)v avrov TWV TriaTo\wv, 
a)? OVK d^aip^ao/JLevos rov ijv, VTrep Be rrjs 
ovBev /jLvrj/jiOvevei. eya) Be rovs /uev op/covs 

1 us Kalffapi Hertlein suggests, Kaiffapi MSS. 

2 Athanasius says that Epictetus was bishop of Centum- 
cellae ; hence Petavius suggests K.f^rov/j.Kf\\uv for rw 



by the gods, but I have always signed myself Caesar, 
and I have persuaded the soldiers to demand nothing 
more if only he would allow us to dwell peaceably in 
Gaul and would ratify what has been already done. 
All the legions with me sent letters to him praying 
that there might be harmony between us. But 
instead of this lie let loose against us the barbarians,, 
and among them proclaimed me his foe and paid 
them bribes so that the people of the Gauls might be 
laid waste ; moreover he wrote to the forces in Italy 
and bade them be on their guard against any who 
should come from Gaul ; and on the frontiers of 
Gaul in the cities near by he ordered to be got ready 
three million bushels of wheat which had been 
ground at Brigantia, 1 and the same amount near the 
Cottian Alps, with the intention of marching to 
oppose me. These are not mere words but deeds 
that speak plain. In fact the letters that he wrote 
I obtained from the barbarians who brought them to 
me ; and I seized the provisions that had been made 
ready, and the letters of Taurus. Besides, even now 
in his letters he addresses me as "Caesar" and 
declares that he will never make terms with me : but 
he sent one Epictetus, a bishop of Gaul, 2 to offer a 
guarantee for my personal safety ; and throughout 
his letters he keeps repeating that he will not take 
my life, but about my honour he says not a word. 
As for his oaths, for my part I think they should, as 
the proverb says, be written in ashes, 3 so little do 
they inspire belief. But my honour I will not give 

1 Bregent/, on Lake Constance. 

2 Epictetus was bishop of Centumcellae (Civita Vecclua) ; 
see critical note. 

3 cf. " Write in dust " or " write in water." 



avrov TO T??9 Trapoifjiias oluai Setv els rtypav 
ypdcfreiv, ovrws elffl Tricrroi' rrjs ri/jifjs Be ov rov D 

KOKOV Kai TTpeTTOVrOS fJLOVOV, d\\d Kal rrfS rO)V 

(f)i\wv eve/co, awr^pia^ dvrexofMaf teal OVTTW 
(fyijfu rrjv iravra^ov 7^9 ^v^va^o^vriv Tritcpiav. 
Tavra eTreiae p,e, ravra e(f)dvrj /JLOI &i/ccua, 


aKovovGiv aveOefJLrjv 6eol<$. elra Ovad/jLevo? Trepl 
TT}? e^oSov KOL yevofjievcov tca\)v TWV lep&v KCLT 
avrrjv ercelvrjv rrjv ^epav, eV fj rot? arparicora^ 
irepl rrjs eVt rdSe Tropelas e^eXkov 8ia~\<yecr0ai, 2^ 
VTrep re T^? efJLavfov a-wrrjpta^ real TTO\V TT\OV 
vTrep r^9 TWV KOIVWV evTrpajia? Kal r^9 airdvrwv 
av6 p(*>TT(dv eXevdepias avrov re rov KeXrw^ 
Wvovs, o 81$ tf&r) rots 7ro\6yLtiOt9 egeScorcev, ov&e 
TWV Trpoyovi/c&v fyeiGdpevos rdcfrcov, 6 roj;9 aXXo- 
rpuovs Trdvv OepaTrevwv, wrjOfjv &iv Wvr\ re 
iv rd SwaTayTcna Kal xprjfJLd 

e dpyvpeiwv Kal y^pvcreicov, 
t /lev dyaTrtfcreiev er* vvv yovv rrjv Trpbs 
o/jibvoiav, etcro) TMV vvv e^o/Jievwv fjieveiv, el 8e B 
iv SiavoolTO Kal p,rj$ev avro rrjs irpOTepa^ 
'xaX.dcreiev, o, TL dv fi rot9 6eols (j)i\ov 
rj Trpdrreuv, a>9 ala^tov dvavSpia tyv)(f}s 
Kal Siavoias df^adia rj 7r\r)6et, Svvd/jiecos dcrOeve- 
crrepov avrov $avr\vai. vvv pev yap el TW 
Kparijcreiev, OVK eKeivov TO epyov, d\\d 
7roXv^et/3ta9 &TLV el Be ev rals 
Trepi/jLevovrd JJLC Kal TO %fjv dyaTrwvra Kal 
SiaK\t,vovra rov KIV&VVOV aTravra^odev TrepiKo^a^ C 


up, partly out of regard for what is seemly and 
fitting, but also to secure the safety of my friends. 
And 1 have not yet described the cruelty that lie is 
practising over the whole earth. 

These then were the events that persuaded me ; 
this was the conduct I thought just. And first I 
imparted it to the gods who sec and hear all things. 
Then when I had offered sacrifices for my depar- 
ture, the omens were favourable on that very day 
on which I was about to announce to the troops that 
they were to march to this place ; and since it was 
not only on behalf of my own safety but far more for 
the sake of the general welfare and the freedom of 
all men and in particular of the people of Gaul, for 
twice already he had betrayed them to the enemy 
and had not even spared the tombs of their ancestors, 
he who is so anxious to conciliate strangers ! then, I 
say, I thought that I ought to add to my forces 
certain very powerful tribes and to obtain supplies of 
money, which I had a perfect right to coin, both 
gold and silver. Moreover if even now r he would 
welcome a reconciliation with me I would keep to 
what I at present possess ; but if he should decide 
to go to w r ar and will in no wise relent from his 
earlier purpose, then I ought to do and to suffer what- 
ever is the will of the gods ; seeing that it would be 
more disgraceful to show myself his inferior through 
failure of courage or lack of intelligence than in 
mere numbers. For if he -now defeats me by force 
of numbers that will not be his doing, but will be due 
to the larger army that he has at his command. If 
on the other hand he had surprised me loitering in 
Gaul and clinging to bare life and, while I tried to 
avoid the danger, had attacked me on all sides, in 




, KVK\W JJLZV VTTO TWV fiapftdpwv, Kara 
Be VTTO TWV avTOv aTpaTOTreBwv, TO 
Tradelv T6 olfjiai TO, ea"^ara Trpo&fjv Kal ert r; 

rot? 76 a 

TavTa Biavorjdeis, avSpes *A0r}vaioi, TO?? re 
T0t9 e/zoi? iri\.6ov teal rrpb^ 
TWV rrdvTwv 'EXXtjvwv TroXtra? <ypd(f)a). 
Oeol Be ol TrdvTWV KVpuoi (rv/jL/jLa^iav rjfjilv rr;z/ D 
, warTrep vrrea'Trja'av, e/9 reXo? Solev /cat 
rat? *A0ijvaL<> v<p* rjfAcov re et? oaov 
ev TraOelv Kal TOIOVTOVS o"X,elv e$ del 
Tot9 avTOicpaTopas, OL fjidX-iaTO, Kal 
aura? alBea-ovTai l Kal 

Cobet, (Iffovrat Hertlein, MSS. 

2 9 


the rear and on the flanks by means of the barbarians, 
and in front by his own legions, I should 1 believe 
have had to face complete ruin, and moreover the 
disgrace of such conduct is greater than any punish- 
ment at least in the sight of the wise. 1 

These then are the views, men of Athens, which I 
have communicated to my fellow soldiers and which 
I am now writing to the whole body of the citizens 
throughout all Greece. May the gods who decide 
all things vouchsafe me to the end the assistance 
which they have promised, and may they grant to 
Athens all possible favours at my hands ! May she 
always have such Emperors as will honour her and 
love her above and beyond all other cities ! 

1 Demosthenes, Olynthiac 1. 27. 

u 2 



JULIAN was Supreme Pontiff, and as such felt re- 
sponsible for the teachings and conduct of the 
priesthood. He saw that in order to offset the in- 
fluence of the Christian priests which he thought 
was partly due to their moral teaching, partly to 
their charity towards the poor, the pagans must 
follow their example. Hitherto the preaching of 
morals had been left to the philosophers. Julian's 
admonitions as to the treatment of the poor and of 
those in prison, and the rules that he lays down for 
the private life of a priest are evidently borrowed 
from the Christians. 

This Fragment occurs in the VotsuOMU MS., in- 
serted in the Letter to Tkemistius, 1 and was identified 
and published separately by Petavius. It was pro- 
bably written when Julian was at Antioch on the 
way to Persia. 

1 p. 256 C, between rJ ST; X^yo^vov and Kal 



rjv et? rov /3aa-i\ea eTTi 
nvas, avTiKa /jid\a Ko\d%ovviv 
Se TOU9 ov Trpoa-iovras rot? #eot9 ecm TO 

Baifjiovwv reray/^evov <j)i)\ov, vfi wv oi B 
t TrapoHTTpov/jLevoi TWV dOewv dvaTrelOowrai 
Oavardv, &>9 dvaTTTrja'o^voL Trpos TOP ovpavov, 
OTOV dTTOpprj^wGi Trjv "^v^rjv /Staio)?. etVt Se ot 
Kal ra? eprj/jiias dvrl TWV TraiKewv Siwtcovo-iv, 


Trovrjpois, u0' wv et? 

dyovrai rrjv fiKravOpwrriav. ijSr) Be /cal Becr/jid KOI 
K\OLOVS egrjvpov ol TroXXol TOVTWV oura) Travra- 
'XpOev CLVTOVS o KCLKOS avveKavvei Baifjiayv, M 
Se$(t)Kaaiv eKovres eavroix;, d r JTOO"TdvTe^ rwv 

teal (Twr^pwv 0wv. aXX' vjrep /JLCV rovrcav C 
Tocravra eLTrelv oOev 8' e/3v et? TOUTO 



ONLY 1 that they chastise, then and 

there, any whom they see rebelling against their 
king. And the tribe of evil demons is appointed to 
punish those who do not worship the gods, and 
stung to madness by them many atheists are induced 
to court death in the belief that they will fly up 
to heaven when they have brought their lives to a 
violent end. Some men there are also who, though 
man is naturally a social and civilised being, seek out 
desert places instead of cities, since they have been 
given over to evil demons and are led by them into 
this hatred of their kind. And many of them have 
even devised fetters and stocks to wear ; to such a 
degree does the evil demon to whom they have of 
their own accord given themselves abet them in all 
ways, after they have rebelled against the everlasting 
and saving gods. But on this subject what I have 
said is enough, and I will go back to the point at 
which I digressed. 

1 The beginning is lost : Julian has apparently been de- 
scribing the functions of good demons, and now passes on to 
the demons whose task is to punish evil-doers ; cf. Oration 
2. 90 B. 



ovv TT}? fjiev Kara TOU? TTO\I- 
Tt/cou? VO/JLOVS evBrj\ov OTi ^\rf(Tei, TO? 
TWV irb\ewv, TTpeTTOL B' dv /cal v/jilv t? 
TO /AT) Trapafiatveiv te/oou? 6Wa? TWV Oewv roi/? 
VO/JLOVS. 7rel Be TOV lepanicbv ftiov elvai %prj rov 289 


etyovrai Be, &)? et/co?, ol ySeXrtou?' eyw 
yap ev^o/jbai /cal Trdvra?, l\ari(to Se TOU? 
(frvcret, /cal (nrovSaiovs' eTrvyvcixrovTai jap 
6Wa? eaurot? TOU? Xo^ou?. 
'Ao-/CT;Tea roivvv jrpo TTCLVTWV r) <f>i\avOp(i)7ria' 
ravrr) yap CTreraL 7ro\\a fiev /cal a\Xa TMV 
dyaOwv, egatperov Be Brj /cal jjLeyHTTOV r) Trapa TWV B 
Oewv evfj,veia. KaOdirep yap ol Tot? eavrwv 
crvvBianOe/jLevot jrepl r ^>tXta? /cal 
/cal e/oo)Ta? dyaTrwvrai 7r\eov 


ov TO Oelov dyaTrdv TOU? <pi\avdpa)7rov$ TWV 
dvBpwv. TI Be <f>L\av0pw7Tia 7ro\\rj /cal TravTola- 
icau TO Trecfreia'lJLevws Ko\d^eiv TOU? dvOpwirovs eirl G 

Tft) (3e\TlOVl TWV KO\a%OfJLGVWV, W(T7Tp OL BlBd- 

GKO\OI Ta TraiBia, /cal TO Ta? ^peta? avTwv 
eTravopOovV) w&Trep ol Oeol Ta? ^yLteTe/oa?. opaTe 
oaa TUMV BeBw/ca<Tiv e/c Tr}? 717? dyadd, Tpo(f>ds 
TravToia? /cal ovroo-a? ou5e O/AOU TTCLCTI, Tot? 
t Be M^fffiev yvjjuvoi, Tat? Te 
ea/ceTracrav /cal Tot? e TT}? 
/cal Tot? e/c BevBpwv. /cal ov/c ijp/cecrev aTrXw? 
avToo"xeBiws, /caOaTrep 6 Ma>uo-?/? ec^T/ TOU? 


Though just conduct in accordance with the laws 
of the state will evidently be the concern of the 
governors of cities, you in your turn will properly 
take care to exhort men not to transgress the laws of 
the gods, since those are sacred. Moreover, inasmuch 
as the life of a priest ought to be more holy than the 
political life, you must guide and instruct men to 
adopt it. And the better sort will naturally follow 
your guidance. Nay I pray that all men may, but 
at any rate I hope that those who are naturally good 
and upright will do so ; for they will recognise that 
your teachings are peculiarly adapted to them. 

You must above all exercise philanthropy, for 
from it result many other blessings, and moreover 
that choicest and greatest blessing of all, the good 
will of the gods. For just as those who are in 
agreement with their masters about their friendships 
and ambitions and loves are more kindly treated 
than their fellow slaves, so we must suppose that 
God, who naturally loves human beings, has more 
kindness for those men who love their fellows. Now 
philanthropy has many divisions and is of many kinds. 
For instance it is shown when men are punished in 
moderation with a view to the betterment of those 
punished, as schoolmasters punish children ; and 
again in ministering to men's needs, even as the 
gods minister to our own. You see all the blessings 
of the earth that they have granted to us, food 
of all sorts, and in an abundance that they have not 
granted to all other creatures put together. And 
since we were born naked they covered us with the 
hair of animals, and with things that grow in the 
ground and on trees. Nor were they content to do 
this simply or off-hand, as Moses bade men take 



\afielv Bep/juarivovs, aXX' opdre oaa eyevero 
'Eipydvrjs 'A$?7m9 ra Bwpa. rrolov olvw 
; rrolov e\aiw; rr\r)v el riaiv r^tels 
Kal rovrwv fieraBiBo/jLev, ol rot? avQpa)7roi<; ov 
ri Be rwv OdKarTLwv (Tirw, ri Be 
rot9 ev rf) da\dTTy xpfjrai; y^pvcrov 
OVTTW \eyo) Kal ^a\Kov Kal aiBrjpov, ot? Traaiv ol 
Oeol ^aTrXourof? ^/m? eTroirjcrav, ov% Iva oveiBos 
Trepiopwjjiev TrepivoaTovvras rou? TreV^ra?, 
re orav Kal eTrieiKeis Tives Tvywcn rov 290 
, ol<? Trarpwos /Mev K\fjpos ov yeyovev, VTTO 
Be /JL<ya\o^vx,ias rjKKna eTnOvfJLOvvTes XP r )f JLara)v 
Trevovrai. TOUTOU? opwvres ol 7ro\\ol TOW? Oeovs 
6veiBiovcriv. aiTioi Be Oeol /j,ev OVK etal T% 
TOVTWV irevlas, rj Be rj/Awv TWV KKTij/jLeva)v 
aTr\tj<rrid Kal rot? dvOpwirois v-jrep TWV Oe&v OVK 
a\ri6ov<$ V7ro\r)tyews atria yiverai, Kal Trpoo'en 
rot? Oeols oveiBovs dBiKov. ii yap aTranov/j^v, B ' 
wa %pv(rbv wairep rot? 'PoBiois o Oeos vo~rj rot? 
7revr](Tiv; aXXa el Kal rovro yevoiro, ra^eco? T^yitet? 
V7ro^a\6/jivoi TOW ot/cera? Kal TrpoOevres Trav- 
ra%ov TCL dyyela Trdvras d7re\da-ofj,ev, wa fjiovoi 
TO. KOiva TWV Oewv apirda'WfjLev Bwpa. davfidaeie 
B' av rt? etVoTft)?, el rovro fjiev d^ioifj,ev l ovre 
7T<f)VKo$ yiveadai Kal aXucrireXe? rrdvrr), ra 

1 a^io'i/j.fv Hertlein suggests, a^iov/n^v MSS. 


coats of skins, 1 but you see how numerous are the 
gifts of Athene the Craftswoman. What other 
animals use wine, or olive oil ? Except indeed in 
cases where we let them share in these tilings, even 
though we do not share them with our fellowmen. 
What creature of the sea uses corn, what land animal 
uses things that grow in the sea? And I have not yet 
mentioned gold and bronze and iron, though in all 
these the gods have made us very rich ; yet not to 
the end that we may bring reproach on them by 
disregarding the poor who go about in our midst, 
especially when they happen to be of good character 
men for instance who have inherited no paternal 
estate, and are poor because in the greatness of their 
souls they have no desire for money. Now the 
crowd when they see such men blame the gods. 
However it is not the gods who are to blame for their 
poverty, but rather the insatiate greed of us men of 
property becomes the cause of this false conception of 
the gods among men, and besides of unjust blame of 
the gods. Of what use, I ask, is it for us to pray that 
God will rain gold on the poor as he did on the 
people of Rhodes ? 2 For even though this should 
come to pass, we should forthwith set our slaves 
underneath to catch it, and put out vessels everywhere, 
arid drive off all comers so that w r e alone might seize 
upon the gifts of the gods meant for all in common. 
And anyone would naturally think it strange if we 
should ask for this, which is not in the nature of 
things, and is in every way unprofitable, while we do 

1 Genesis 3. 21. 

2 Pindar, Olympian Odt 7. 49 ; this became a Sophistic 
commonplace. Cf. Menander (Spengel) 3. 362 ; Aristides 

1. 807; Libanius 31. 6, Foerster ; Philosti^atus, Imagines 

2. 270. 



Bvvard Be yur) Trpdrrof^ev. ris jap etc rov fjieraBi- C 
Bovat rot? TreXa? eyevero Trevrjs; 670) rot, 7ro\\dfcw 
rot? Beojjievois Trpoefjievos eKTrfo-dfjiriv avrd Trapd 
0ewv l TToXXaTrXao^a Kaijrep wv <pav\o$ 
Ticmjs, real ovSeTrore /J>OL /xere/ueXT/cre 
/cal ra fj,ev vvv ov/c av eiTroi/jir /cal yap av eirj 
a\o<yov, el TOL>? iSiwras dgicoo-ai/jii 
7rapafid\\<T0ai xoprjyiaw aXX' ore D 
eri eTv<y%avov L^KDT^, <Tvvoi$a e/jbavry TOVTO 
(nroftav TroXXa/ci?. ttTrecrco^ /j,oi re'Xeto? o /c\rjpo<? 
TT}? TriQrjs, e%6/J,vo<; vti a\\wv fiiaicos CK ^pa^ewv 
wv el'Xpv ava\i<TKOvri rot? Seo/jievois KCU //-era- 


K.oiva)vr)Teov ovv TWV ^prj^dro)i> a/rraaiv dv6pw- 
TTOf?, aXXa rot? pev eTTLLKe<nv eKevOep^repov, 
rot? Be dirbpois Kal irevrja-iv oaov eirapKeeai rfj 
%peia. (fxiirjv S' av, el /cal TrapdSo^ov elirelv, ore 
2 eV^r}ro9 teal Tpotyfjsbcriov av eirj 
TO> yap dvOpwrrlvw Kal ov rw T/JOTTO) 291 
. SiOTrep otyu-at Kal TOL*? ev Bea-/jL(orrjpia) 
reov TT}? roiavr^ eViyueXet'a?. 
ovbev yap KO)\VCTL rrjv SiKrjv 77 rotavrrj (j)t\av- 
OpwrrLa. ^aXevro^ yap av eirf, 7ro\\a)v airo- 

KK\l<T/JLVa)V 7Tt Kpi(TL, Kal TWV fJiV Q<fr\r)<TOVTWV, 

TWV Be d6(p(t)v (nrofyavOri&oiJievwv, pr) Bid TOU? 
aV&triovS (HKTOV riva ve/Jieiv Kal rot? Trovrjpois, 
aXXa TWV Trovrjpwv eveKa Kal Trepl TOU? ovBev B 
rfBiKiiKOTas a^Xew? Kal diravOpwTT 

1 irapa fleaiv Hertlein suggests, trap avrwv MSS. 

2 iTovripo'is Hertlein suggests, Tro\/x^ois MSS. 



not do what is in our power. Who, I ask, ever became 
poor by giving to his neighbours ? Indeed I myself, 
who have often given lavishly to those in need, have 
recovered my gifts again many times over at the 
hands of the gods, though I am a poor man of 
business ; nor have I ever repented of that lavish 
giving. And of the present time I will say nothing, 
for it would be altogether irrational of me to com- 
pare the expenditure of private persons with that of 
an Emperor ; but when I was myself still a private 
person I know that this happened to me many times. 
My grandmother's estate for instance was kept for me 
untouched, though others had taken possession of it 
by violence, because from the little that I had I spent 
money on those in need and gave them a share. 

We ought then to share our money with all men, 
but more generously with the good, and with the 
helpless and poor so as to suffice for their need. 
And I will assert, even though it be paradoxical to 
say so, that it would be a pious act to share our 
clothes and food even with the wicked. For it is to 
the humanity in a man that we give, and not to his 
moral character. Hence I think that even those 
who are shut up in prison have a right to the same 
sort of care ; since this kind of philanthropy will not 
hinder justice. For when many have been shut up 
in prison to await trial, of whom some will be found 
guilty, while others will prove to be innocent, it 
would be harsh indeed if out of regard for the guilt- 
less we should not bestow some pity on the guilty 
also, or again, if on account of the guilty we should 
behave ruthlessly and inhumanly to those also who 
have done no wrong. This too, when I consider it, 



eicelvo Be ewoovvrL /JLOL rravrdrrao'iv ciBi/cov /cara- 
fyaiverai' "B,eviov bvofjid^o^ev Aia, /cal yiyvbfJieOa 
TWV ^fcvdwv /ca/cogevatrepoi. TTW? ovv 6 {3ov\6- 

r(p Keviw Ovcrai AH (froira Trpbs rbv 
a TToraTTOV cruveiBoros, 7ri\a06/jLVo<> TOV 

jap to9 eaiv 
re eivoL re' 3o<74? 8' o\<r) re (),r re; 

IIw? Be 6 rbv 'Qraipeiov Oeparrevw Ata, bpwv C 

TreXa? evfteels ^prjfjidrwv, elra /tt;8' ocrov 
S/>tt%/*}s fjLera&iSovs, olerai rbv Ata /caXw? Oepa- 
rreveiv; orav et? ravra arri&w, rravre\ws d%avr)<t 
ra? yLtef eTTtoz/fyu-ta? rwi/ ^ew^ ayua reo 
rw eg dpx?is &&rrep el/cova? >yparrra<$ opwv, 
Be vfi rjfjiwv ovBev roiovrov eTrirrjBevojAevov. 
\ejovrai reap rj/jilv deol teal Zeu? G//-O- D 

Be wcrrrep rrpbs d\\orpiov<? TOL*? 
avOpwrros <yap dvOpcoTTU) real CKCDV /cal 
a/ca)v Tra? eari o-vyyevijs, elre, Kaddrrep \eyerai 
irapd rivwv, eg evos re /cal yu-ta? yevovajAev rrdvres, 
eW brrwaovv a\\w<$, d6pbws VTroo-rija-dvroov ?;yLta? 
6ewv ayu-a rw KoafjLW ra5 eg a/o^r}?, ov% eva KOI 
, d\\a TroXXou? d^a /cal TroXXa?. ol yap eva 292 
teal f^Lav BvvrjOevres oloi re rjcrav a/jia /cal TroAAoi"? 
/cal TroXXa? vrroarfjcyaL. 1 KCU yap ov rpbrrov rov 
re eva /cal rrjv /jiiav, rbv avrbv rpbrrov TOU? 
TroXXou? re /cal ra? ?roXXa?. et? re TO Bidfopov 

1 viroarrjffai Reiske would add. 


seems to me altogether wrong ; I mean that we call 
Zeus by the title ".God of Strangers," while we show 
ourselves more inhospitable tostrangers than are 
the very Scythians. How, I ask, can one who wishes 
to sacrifice to Zeus, the God of Strangers, even 
approach his temple ? With what conscience can he 
do so, when he has forgotten the saying " From Zeus 
come all beggars and strangers ; and a gift is precious 
though small " ? l 

Again, the man who worships Zeus the God of 
Comrades, and who, though he sees his iieigKEburs 
in neecTof money, does not give them even so much 
as a drachma, how, I say, can he think that he is 
worshipping Zeus aright? When I observe this I 
am wholly amazed, since I see that these titles of the 
gods are from the beginning of the world their ex- 
press images, yet in our practice we pay no attention 
to anything of the sort. The gods are called by us 
"gods of kindred," and Zeus the "_God of Kindred/' 
but we treat our kinsmen as though they were 
strangers. I say "kinsmen" because every man, 
whether he will or no, is akin to every other man, 
whether it be true, as some say, that we are all de- 
scended from one man and one woman, or whether it 
came about in some other way, and the gods created 
us all together, at the first when the world began, not 
one man and one woman only, but many men and 
many women at once. For they who had the power to 
create one man and one woman, were able to create 
many men and women at once ; since the manner of 
creating one man and one woman is the same as that 
of creating many men and many women. And 2 

1 Odyssey 6. 207. 

2 The connection of the thought is not clear, and Petavius 
thinks that something has been lost. 




TWV e@wv l /cal TMV vofj-wv, ov 
dXXa /cal OTrep ecrrl /j,eloi> KOI TifjawTepov /cai 
Kvpia)Tpov, 6i9 rrji> TWV Oe&v (f)^/jLr]v, rj Trapaoeoorai 
Sid TWV dp^alwv IIJMV Oeovpywv, ei>9, ore Zeu? B 
GKoo-pei, ra Trdvra, crrayovcov ai^aTO^ iepov ire- 
<TOV<TMV, ej; wv TTOV TO Twv avQ PCOTTCOV (3\aa"rr}(Tie 
761/09. /cal O#TO>? ovv crvyyeveis <ytv6fjL0a Trdvres, 
el [lev e'f ew9 KOI picis, CK Svolv dv0p(tyiroiv 6We9 
ol TroXXol KOI TTciXkai, el Be, Kaddirep ol 9eoi 
fyaGi /cal %pr) TTLareveiv eTrifjiaprvpovvrcdv TWV 
epywv, e/c TMV Oewv Trdvres yeyovores. on 8e 
7roXXou9 d/jia dv0pa)7rovs yevecrOai, jjiaprvpei rd C 
ep<ya, prjQrjverai fJLev d\\a%ov C d/cpifieias, 
evravOa Be dptceaei rocrovrov eiTrelv, 009 e^ evbs 
/lev /cal (Aids ovaiv ovre TOL9 VO/JLOV? el/cbs eVl 
roaovTOv 7rapa\\dat ovre aA,Xo>9 rrjv yijv u</>' ^09 
e/jL7r\'r)O'0f)vai, -ndcrav, ov8e el re/cva 2 dpa TroXXa 
KaOdirep al aves eriKTOv avTols at 
iravra^ov Be d0poo)s fyvTevadwrw 
ovrrep Tporrov 6 et9, OVTCD oe ical ol rrkeiovs Trpo- 
vOpwrroi TO49 yevedp^ai^ 0eol<? d7ro/c\rjp(i)- 
OL /cal Trpoijyayov avTOVs, diro TOV SrjfjLi- D 
ovpyov ra9 i|ru^a9 Trapaka/JifidvovTes et; alwvos. 

Kd/celvo S' afyov evvoelv, ocroi rrapd TMV e/ji7rpo- 
crdev dvd\wvTai \6<yoi rrepl TOV (frvcrei KOIVWVLKOV 
elvat %&ov TOV avOpwrrov. r]jjiel^ ovv ol Tavra 
eiTrbvTes /cal SiaTa^avTes dfcoivwvrjTWS rrpos roi'9 

1 edcav Hertlein suggests, ayaduv Petavius, i)9wv MSS. 

2 TfKva Hertlein would add. 

3 q>vTfv<ra.vT(av rZv Hertlein suggests, vf.vff6.vTwv MSS. 



one must have regard to the differences in our 
habits and laws, or still more to that which is higher 
and more precious and more authoritative, I mean 
the sacred tradition of the gods which has been 
handed down to us by the theurgists of earlier days, 
namely that when Zeus was setting all things in 
order there fell from him drops of sacred blood, and 
from them, as they say, arose the race of men. It 
follows therefore that we are all kinsmen, whether, 
many men and women as we are, we come from two 
human beings, or whether, as the gods tell us, and 
as we ought to believe, since facts bear witness 
thereto, we are all descended from the gods. And 
that facts bear witness that many men came into the 
world at once, I shall maintain elsewhere, and 
precisely, but for the moment it will be enough to 
say this much, that if we were descended from one 
man and one woman, it is not likely that our law r s 
would show[ such great divergence ; nor in any case 
is it likely that the whole earth was filled with 
people by one man ; nay, not even if the women used 
to bear many children at a time to their husbands, 
like swine. But when the gods all together had 
given birth to men, just as one man came forth, so 
in like manner came forth many men who had been 
allotted to the gods who rule over births ; and they 
brought them forth, receiving their souls from the 
Demiurge from eternity. 1 

It is proper also to bear in mind how many dis- 
courses have been devoted by men in the past to 
show that man is by nature a social animal. And 
shall we, after asserting this and enjoining it, bear 

1 Julian here prefers the Platonic account of the creation 
in the Timaeuv to the Biblical narrative. 

x 2 


irX.tjaiov e^ofjiev; etc oV; TWV TOIOVTCOV r)6a)V re KOI 
eTTLTrjSevfjidTcov e/caaro^ ?}//,eoz> op/jnti/jievo^ evKafteias 
T/79 et9 TOVS Oeovs, xprjaTOTijTOs rr}? et? dvQpcoTrovs, 293 
ayveias rr}9 Trepl TO aw/Aa, TO, TT]? evaefteia? epya 
, 7ripa)/j,i>os Be aei TI irepl rwv 
$>iavoeia6ai KOI fjierd nvos tnrofS 
t? ra lepa TMV Oewv KOI ra dydX/Aara Tfytt?}? Kal 
, crefto^evos wcnrep av el irapovra^ ewpa 
Oeovs. dyd\fjuna yap Kal /Sw^ou? KOI TTU/JO? 
da-ftecrrov (J)v\a/cr)V /cal iravra avrXw? ra roiavra 
(Tv/j,/3o\a ol Trarepe? eOevro TT)? Trapovalas TWV 
9ewv, ov% iva eicelva Oeovs vo^iffw^ev, aXX' tva B 
o^ avrwv rou? deovs BepaTrevawfjiev. eTreiSrj yap 

avroi' TrpMra fjuev eSeigav r^filv dydX/^ara TO 
8evTpov aTro TOV Trpwrov Twv 0wv yevos irepl 
Trdvra TOV ovpavov KVK\O> Trepityepo/jievov. Bvva- C 
Se ov& TOVTOIS aTroSt^ocr^at r?}9 Oepcnrelas 
aTf poo-Sea ydp eaTi (frvaei' eTepov ~ 
7779 e^tjvpeOtj 767/09 dya\/uLaT(ov, e/9 o ra9 
KT\OVVT$ eavTols ev/Aeveis rou9 
0eoi)<$ KaTacTTijcro/jiev. wcnrep yap ol TMV ftaori- 
\ecov OepaTrevovTes eLKovas, ovBev Seo/jievcov, 0/^-6)9 
e<f>e\KovTai, Trjv evvoiav e/9 eavTovs, OVTO) Kal ol 
Oewv OepaTrevovTes TCL dydk/maTa, ^eo^vwv ovoev D 
TWV 0ea)v, oyLta>9 TreiOovaiv avTOV? e7ra/jivvet,v crfacri, 

1 ffw^ariKus Petavius, Hertlein approves, <r/umKas MSS. 

2 Tpov Hertlein suggests, Seurepov Reiske, Tpiroi> MSS. 



ourselves unsociably to our neighbours ? Then let 
everyone make the basis of his conduct moral 
virtues, and actions like these, namely reverence 
towards the gods, benevolence towards men, per- 
sonal chastity ; and thus let him abound in pious 
acts, I mean by endeavouring always, to. have pious 
thoughts about the gods, and by regarding the 
temples and images of the gods with due honour 
and veneration, and by worshipping the gods as 
though he saw them actually present. For our 
fathers established images and altars, and the main- 
tenance of undying fire, and, generally speaking, 
everything of the sort, as symbols of the presence 
of the gods, not that we may regard such things as 
gods, but that we may worship the gods through 
them. For since being in the body it was in bodily 
wise that we must needs perform our service to the 
gods also, though they are themselves without bodies ; 
they therefore revealed to us in the earliest images 
the class of gods next in rank to the first, even 
those that revolve in a circle about the whole 
heavens. But since not even to these can due 
worship be offered in bodily wise for they are by 
nature not in need of anything 1 another class of 
images was invented on the earth, and by performing 
our worship to them we shall make the gods propitious 
to ourselves. For just as those who make offerings 
to the statues of the emperors, who are in need of 
nothing, nevertheless induce goodwill towards them- 
selves thereby, so too those who make offerings to the 
images of the gods, though the gods need nothing, 
do nevertheless thereby persuade them to help and 

1 of. St. Paul, Acts 17. 25, "neither is he worshipped with 
men's hands, as though he needed anything." 



/cal /crfBeaOar Bely/jia yap ecrriv w? a 
o&iorrjros rj Trepl rd Bvvard rrpoOvfJiLa, KOI 6 
ravrrjv TT\r)pwv evBr)\ov on fjiei6v(i)<; /ceivrjv 
iv, 6 Be rwv Bvvarwv oXiywpwv, elra 
v/jieyos rwv dBvvdrwv bpeyeffOai 877X0? 
GCTTLV OUK K6iva fiGra^iWKwv, ci\\a ravra irapo- 294 
p&v ovBe yap, i fj,r}$evos 6 $eo? Belrai, Sid rovro 
ovSev avTti) TrpoaoLareov ovBe yap rr}? Bid \oywv 
Selrai. ri ovv; ev\oyov avrov diro- 
/cal ravTr)?; ovbafAax;. ov/c dpa ot8e B 
TT}? Std TWV epywv et? avrov yiyvofievris rt//%, ^9 
evo/jLoderrja'av ov/c eviavTol rpet? ovBe TpLcr^iKioi, 
vra? 8e 6 7rpo\a/3a)V alu>v ev Trdat rot? Tr}<? 7^5 

ovv et? rd TMV Oewv dydXfiara jj,ij C 
rot vofAi^ayfjLev avrd \idovs elvai /jufie %v\a, p,r)8e 
^livroi TOW? 06ovs avTOvs elvat ravra. /cal yap 
ov$e ra? {3acn\i/cds el/covas v\a /cal \LOov /cal 
\eyouev, ov firjv ovoe aurou? TOI/? /3a- 
J3a& i\ewv . oVrt? ovv e<m 
6pa rrjv TOV ySacrtXea)? efc- 
icova, /cal ocTTi? ecrrt (j)i\,6rrai^ T^Sero? opa rrjv TOV D 
7rat8o9, teal o<7Ti9 (pi\O7rdra)p ryv rov irarpos. 
ovtcovv /cal 6VT49 (j)i\60eos rjSews eh rd rwv Oewv 
dyd\fJiara /cal r9 eltcovas diroftXeTrei, aeftope- 
vo<> djjia /cal (frpirrayv e d(f>avov$ opwvras etV av- 
rov TOU9 Oeovs. ct Tt9 ovv ol'erai Beiv avrd fjiifie 
Bid TO Oewv drra^ ei/covas 


to care for them. For zeal to do all that is in one's 
power is, in truth, a proof of piety, and it is evident 
that he who abounds in such zeal thereby displays 
a higher degree of piety ; whereas he who neg- 
lects .what is possible, and then pretends to aim at 
what is impossible, evidently does not strive after 
the impossible, since he overlooks the possible. For 
even though God stands in need of nothing, it does 
not follow that on that account nothing ought to be 
offered to him. He does not need the reverence 
that is paid in words. What then ? Is it rational 
to deprive him of this also ? By no means. It fol- 
lows then that one ought not to deprive him either 
of the honour that is paid to him through deeds, an 
honour which not three years or three thousand 
years have ordained, but all past time among all the 
nations of the earth. 

Therefore, when we look at the images of the 
gods, let us not indeed think they are stones or 
wood, but neither let us think they are the gods 
themselves ; and indeed we do not say that the 
statues of the emperors are mere wood and stone 
and bronze, but still less do we say they are the 
emperors themselves. He therefore who loves the 
emperor delights to see the emperor's statue, and he 
who loves his son delights to see his son's statue, 
and he who loves his father delights to see his 
father's statue. It follows that he who loves the gods 
delights to gaze on the images of the gods, and 
their likenesses, and he feels reverence and shudders 
with awe of the gods who look at him from the 
unseen world. Therefore if any man thinks that 
because they have once been called likenesses of the 
gods, they are incapable of being destroyed, he is, it 


a<f>pa)v elvai /JLOI 

avTa fjLrjBe VTTO dvdpwTrwv yevevOai. TO 295 
Be VTT* dvBpos aocj)ov teal dyadov yevo/jievov VTTO dv- 
Opunrov Trovrjpov Kol a^adov^ (j)0aprjvai Bvvarai,. 
ra Se VTTO TWV 6ewv %wvra ajd\fjiara /caracrKeva- 
crOevTa r?}? a^avou? avrwv ovo-ias, ol Trepl TOV 
ovpavov Ki>K\tt) (f>6p6/jLVOi, deoi, fjievei rbv ael 
%povov aiBia. /jirj&els ovv airKTreirw Oeois opwv 
/ecu a/covcov, co? evvftpiGav Tives et? ra 
teal TOU9 vaovs. ap* OVK dvOpwTrovs 
aTre/CTeivav 7ro\\oi, KaOdirep HiWKpdrrj /cal Aiwva B 
teal TOV fjt,<yav 'Et/jLTreSoTi/jiov; wv ev olfr OTL fjiak- 
\ov e/JL\rja' rot? 6eol<$. aXX' 6pa,T, OTI /cal TOVTWV 
$>6apTov etSoTe? TO <7co/^a crui/e^copr/a-az/ elai Ty 
(f)vaet /cal vTro^wpria-ai, Bi/crjv Se d7rr)Trj(rav 


e<f> rjfjbwv 7rl TrdvTcov TWV ipocrv\a)v. 
? ovv diraTaTw \6yoi<$ /j,r)8e TapaTTCTro 
Trepl TT}? Trpovoias r)/jt,a$. ol yap r^fMv ovei$>i^ovT<$ C 
ra TOiavTa, TWV 'lovSaiwv ol 7rpo<f)rjTai, TL Trepl 
TOV vea) (f)r)a-ovo- 1 TOV Trap' avTols TptTOV dvaTpa- 
, eyeipo/juevov Be ovSe vvv; eyw Be elirov OVK 
tfceivols, o? ye rocrourof? vaTepov %po- 
dvaaTrjo-ao-Qai SievoijOrjv avTOV et? TL/JL^V TOV 
TOS GTT avTw deov' vvvl Be e^prjad/jujv 
Bel$;ai, ySoi'Xo/zez/o?, OTI TWV dvOpwjrivwv D 
ovBev aOaTOV elvai BvvaTat real ol ra TOiavTa 



seems to me, altogether foolish ; for surely in that 
case they were incapable of being made by men's 
hands. But what has been made by a wise and good 
man can be destroyed by a bad and ignorant man. 
But those beings which were fashioned by the gods as 
the living images of their invisible nature, I mean 
the gods who revolve in a circle in the heavens, 
abide imperishable for all time. Therefore let no 
man disbelieve in gods because he sees and hears 
that certain persons have profaned their images and 
temples. Have they not in many cases put good 
men to death, like Socrates and Dio and the great 
Empedotimus ? l And yet I am very sure that the 
gods cared more for these men than for the temples. 
But observe that since they knew that the bodies even 
of these men were destructible, they allowed them to 
yield to nature and to submit, but later on they 
exacted punishment from their slayers ; and this has 
happened in the sight of all, in our own day also, in 
the case of all who have profaned the temples. 

Therefore let no man deceive us with his sayings 
or trouble our faith in a divine providence. For as for 
those who make such profanation a reproach against 
us, I mean the prophets of the Jews, what have they 
to say about their own temple, which was overthrown 
three times and even now is not being raised up 
again ? This I mention not as a reproach against 
them, for I myself, after so great a lapse of time, 
intended to restore it, in honour of the ,god whose 
name has been associated with it. But in the 
present case I have used this instance because I wish 
to prove that nothing made by man can be inde- 

1 Of Syracuse, whose claim to be immortal was accepted 
by the Sicilians. 



ypdtyovres eXtfpovv rrpo^rai, ypaoiois 
o/jLiKovvre^. ov$ev 8e ol/jiai tcwKveu rov 
Oeov elvai /jieyav, ov /JLTJV (rrrovaiwv 
ov$e e^Tjyrjrwv rv^elv. airiov Be, ori rrjv eavrwv 
ov 7rapea"%ov aTTOKadrjpai rot? e 

ov&e avoi^ai fjie^v/cora \iav ra 

ov&e avafcadfjpai rrjv eTriKei/jLevrjv avrois d%\vv, 296 
' olov (/)w<; yLteya Si' o/u^A,?;? ol avOpwiroi /3\e- 
ov KaOapws ov$e eiXtKpivws, avTO Be 
eicelvo vevofJUKOTes ov^l <co? /ca0apov, d\\a irvp 
KOI TMV Trepl avTO TTUVTCOV oVre? dOearoi flowcri 
/jieya' ^plrrere, $o(3ei<r06, Trvp, (frX 
[j,d%aipa, pofifyaia, vroXXot? ovo^acn /niav e 
/JLCVOL rr)v jB\a-nri,Krjv rov irvpbs Svvapiv. d\)C 
inrep /JLi> TOVTCOV ISia fte\Tiov Trapaarijaai, TTOOTM B 
<f>av\OTpoi, TWV Trap 1 -tifiiv OVTOL yeyovaai 
ol TWV vTrep rov Oeov \6ywv StSao-^aXot. 

TlpO(7iJKei Se ov rd TWV Oewv /JLOVOV dyd 
TTpocricvveli', d\\d teal roi;? raovs tcai rd 
KOI TOI"? /Sw^tou?" ev\oyov 8e KCLL TOI>? 
rifjidv a)? \enovpyovs Oe&v KCU vTrrjpera^ real 
oiaKovovvras rjfuv rd rrpos TOU? @eov$, avvem- 
o"%vovra<; rfj etc dewv et'? 77/^-0.9 rwv dyaOwv So&ei' C 
TrpoOvovcTL ydp rcdvrwv KOI vrrepev^ovrai. &i- 
KCLLOV ovv drro$L%>ovai rrdtriv avrols OVK e\arrov, 
el /zr? KOI rr\eov, r) rot? rco\iriKol<; dp^ovat ra? 
el $e Tt? oterat rovro err* Ten;? yjpfyai 
avrois KOI rol$ rrQ\i,rt,Kol<$ dp-ovaiv, errel 


structible, and that those prophets who wrote such 
statements were uttering nonsense, due to their 
gossipping with silly old women. In my opinion 
there is no reason why their god should not be 
a mighty god, even though he does not happen to 
have wise prophets or interpreters. But the real 
reason why they are not wise is that they have not 
submitted their souls to be cleansed by the regular 
course of study, nor have they allowed those studies 
to open, their tightly closed eyes, and to clear away 
the mist that hangs over them. But since these 
men see as it were a great light through a fog, not 
plainly or clearly, and since they think that what 
they see is not a pure light but a fire, and they fail 
to discern all that surrounds it, they cry with a loud 
voice : " Tremble, be afraid, fire, flame, death, a 
dagger, a broad-sword !" thus describing under many 
names the harmful might of fire. But on this sub- 
ject it will be better to demonstrate separately how 
much inferior to our own poets are these teachers of 
tales about the gods. 

It is our duty to adore not only the images of the 
gods, but also their temples and sacred precincts and 
altars. And it is reasonable to honour the priests 
also as officials and servants of the gods ; and because 
they minister to us what concerns the gods, and they 
lend strength to the gods' gift of good things to us ; 
for they sacrifice and pray on behalf of all men. It 
it therefore right that we should pay them all not 
less, if not indeed more, than the honours that we 
pay to the magistrates of the state. And if any one 
thinks that we ought to assign equal honours to them 
and to the of the state, since the latter 




(>v\aK$ oVre? TWV vofiwv, aXXa rd ye rfjs evvoias 
Trapd iro\v ^prj ve/meiv TOVTOIS. ol pev yap D 
A^aiol fcaiTrep 7roXeyiuoz> OVTCL rov tepea Trpocr- 
erarTOv al&elvOai rq> fta,(Ti\el' T/yu-et? Be ov&e 
rot/? <pi\ovs al&ovfjieda roi>9 ev^o^evov^ virep 

'AXX' eTreiTrep 6 Xo^o? a? rrjv TrdXai 7ro6ovfj,e- 
vrjv dp%r)v e'X^Xu^ei/, afyov elvai pot So/cet Sie\- 
Oeiv e'^>efr}?, oTroto? rt9 &v o iepev? auro? re 
SiKalws TL/jLTjOrja-erai KOI rou? 9eov<s rifjiaa-Oai 
Troiijcrei. 1 TO yap rj/jierepov ov %/3^ (TKOTTCLV ov$e 
e^erd^eiv, aXXa ew? av t'eyoev? TJ? o 
avrov XP*1 Ka ^ OepaTreveiv^ el Se e 

TTJV iepwavvriv ft)? dvdfyov diro^av- 
Oevra Trepiopdv ea)? Be Trpodvei teal Kardp^erai fcal 
roi? Oeols, &>? TO Ti/jLidyTarov TWV Oewv 
7r/?O(T/3Xe7rTO9 e(TT\v rj/jiLV yu-era alBovs Kal 
ei)Xa/5e/a9. CLTVTTOV yap, el rou? /ae^ \L9ovs, e'f c5z/ oi 
l TreTroirjvTai, Bid TO KdB lepwaddi rot? Oeois 
OTL /jioptytjv e^ovcri Kal a-^/jia Trpe- 
TTOV, et? ^z/ etVt KaTea-Kevaa/jLevoL \eiTovpyiav, B 
dvBpa Be KaOwaiayfJievov rot? Oeols ov/c ol^aofJieOa 
%pfjvai, Tiudv. ior&)9 VTToXrjtyeTai TI<$' aXXa 
dBi/covvTa Kal e^afiapTavovTa TroXXa rwi' 737709 

3 l6 

1 ai iroirjati Hertlein suggests, lacuna MSS. 

2 a.-ya.7ru>/j.(i> Hertlein suggests, aya.Trriffofj.ev MSS. 


also are in some sort dedicated to the service of the 
gods, as being guardians of the laws, nevertheless we 
ought at any rate to give the priests a far greater 
share of our good will. The Achaeans, for instance, 
enjoined on their king 1 to reverence the priest, 
though he was one of the enemy, whereas we do not 
even reverence the priests who are our friends, and 
who pray and sacrifice on our behalf. 

But since my discourse has come back again to 
the beginning as I have so long wished, I think it 
is worth while for me to describe next in order 
what sort of man a priest ought to be, in order that 
he may justly be honoured himself and may cause 
the gods to be honoured. For as for us, we ought 
not to investigate or enquire as to his conduct, 
but so long as a man is called a priest we ought to 
honour and cherish him, but if he prove to be 
wicked we ought to allow his priestly office to be 
taken away from him, since he has shown himself 
unworthy of it. But so long as he sacrifices for us 
and makes offerings and stands in the presence of 
the gods, we must regard him with respect and 
reverence as the most highly honoured chattel 2 of 
the gods. For it would be absurd for us to pay 
respect to the very stones of which the altars are 
made, on account of their being dedicated to the 
gods, because they have a certain shape and form 
suited to the ritual for which they have been 
fashioned, and then not to think that we ought to 
honour a man who has been dedicated to the gods. 
Perhaps someone will object " But suppose he does 
wrong and often fails to offer to the gods their sacred 

1 Agamemnon ; Iliad 1. 23. 

2 cf. Plato, Phaedo 62 c ; Letter to the Athenians 276 B. 



TGI/? 8eov$ offitov; eya) ?; (prj/jn ^prjvat TOP 

roiourov e];e\6y%6iv, 'iva //.^ rrovrjpos wv 

rov<$ Oeovs, e&>? S' av e^eXey^rj 1 rt?, //- 

ovBe jap ev\o<yov eVtXaySoyue^ou? TavT^ TJ}? C 

ou Tovra)V JJLOVOV, d\\a KOI TCOV eTTtr?;- 
rr)V nfjirjv TrpoaafyaipeicrOai,. ecrrw 
TOLVVV axTTrep ap%cov, ovra) & KOL iepev? ird^ 

, 7Ti8r) ical aTro^acr/? eVrt Qeov rov 

e? dprjrfjpas draaOaX-irjcn vboio 

plover a-Tro^coXia, KCU yepdea-criv 


l 7rd\iv ev aXXot? o Beo<$ (f)rjcri, 298 

ITa^ra? pev Oepdirovras epovs o\orjs /ca/co- 

Kal $TI<TIV vTrep TOVTWV $iicr)v CTTiOrjcreiv 
TIoXXw^ 8e elprjjjievMV TOIOVTWV Trapa rov 

OL MV V(TTl /JLaOoVTClS O7T6)? XPV TlfAaV Kal 

Oepajrevetv TOL/? te/je'a?, elprjaeTai fioi Sia 7r\ei- 
ovwv ev aXXot?' a?ro%p7; Be vvv, OTI yJr] a-^eBid^a) 
/j,r)$ev, 67ri$eiai TIJV re etc rov Oeov Trpopprjaiv B 
tcai TO eTTLray/jia rwv avrou \6ya)v Itcavov 
el T^? ovv dgioTTKrrov vireiX^ev 
SiSda/caXov rwv TOIOVTGIV, al&e<T0els rov 

| ? , Hertlein suggests, t&\eyxy MSS. 


rites ? " Then indeed I answer that we ought to 
convict a man of that sort, so that lie may not by 
his wickedness offend the gods ; but that we ought 
not to dishonour him until he has been convicted. 
Nor indeed is it reasonable that when we have set 
our hands to this business, we should take away their 
honour not only from these offenders but also from 
those who are worthy to be honoured. Then let 
every priest, like every magistrate, be treated with 
respect, since there is also an oracle to that effect 
from the Didymaean god : l " As for men who with 
reckless minds work wickedness against the priests 
of the deathless gods and plot against their privi- 
leges with plans that fear not the gods, never shall 
such men travel life's path to the end, men who 
have sinned against the blessed gods whose honour 
and holy service those priests have in charge." 2 
And again in another oracle the god says : " All 

my servants from harmful mischief ;" 3 and he 

says that on their behalf he will inflict punishment 
on the aggressors. 

Now though there are many utterances of the god 
to the same effect, by means of which we may learn 
to honour and cherish priests as we ought, I shall 
speak on this subject elsewhere at greater length. 
But for the present it is enough to point out that 1 
am not inventing anything offhand, since I think 
that the declaration made by the god and the 
injunction expressed in his own words are sufficient. 
Therefore let any man who considers that as a 
teacher of such matters I am worthy to be believed 

1 Apollo. 

2 An oracle from an unknown source : these verses occur- 
again in Epistle 62. 451 A. 3 Sc. I will protect. 



Oeov eKCiva) ireiOeaOw teal TOi>9 lepeas 
8ea)v rifjidTO) Bia(f)ep6vT(t)<>' OTTOLOV Be avTov elvat 
%pr), TreipdcrofjiaL vvv elirelv, ov% eveica croir TOVTO 
/jiev jap CL pr] TO vvv rfTTiO'rd/jLrjv, d/j,a JJLCV rov 
fcaOrjyefjiovos, apa Be TMV fieyio-Twv Oewv ^aprv- 
povvrwv, OTL TTJV \enovpjiav TavTTjv Bia0rf(Ty C 
tfaX&)<?, oaa ye et? TrpoaLpecrLv r)tcei TTJV o-rfv, ovB* 
civ erok^a-d aoi peTaBovvai TOCTOVTOV Trpdy- 
yLtaro?' aXX' OTTCO? e^ t ^? evrevOev BiBda/ceiv rovs 
aXXoL'9, OVK ev rat? 7ro\eai povov, d\Xa /cat ev 
rot? dypois evXoywrepov Kal evr' e^oucrta?, &>9 OVK 
OIK006V avra voet? Kal Trpdrre^ /AOZ/O?, e^et? Be 
Kal e'yue o-vfi"^"r)cf)ov ffeavrw, BoKovvrd ye elvai 
Bia TOL>? Oeovs dp^uepea i^eyLdTov, d^tov pev ov- 
Ba/j,ws TrpdyfjiaTOS TOCTOVTOV, povKbpevov Be elvai 
Kal Trpoaev^oi^evov del rot? 0ol<$> v yap laOi, D 
fjieydkas r}/jiiv ol Oeol //-era rrjv TeXevTrjv e 
e7rayye\\ovTai. Treia-reov Be aurot? 
d^evBeiv yap elwOacriv oi>% virep eKeivwv fiovov, 
d\\d Kal TWV ev r&> ftia) ryBe. ol Be Bid 
irepiovaiav Bvvd/jLews oloi re oVre? Kal r^9 ev TW 
(BLu) TOVTO) Trepiyevecrdai rapa%r)<; Kal TO draKrov 
avTov Kal TO d\\oKorov eiravopdovv ap OVK ev 
/J,d\\ov, OTTOV Birjprjrai rd //-a^OyCte^a, %wpi- 
iev T7}9 ddavdrov ^f%r}9, yf)S Be yevo- 
jjievov rov veKpov crco//,aTO9, iKavol Trapaa"%eiv 
e&ovrai ravO^ oaaTrep 7rr)yyei\avTO T0t9 dv- 
OpwTTOis; a&oT9 ovv, OTL fjieyd\a^ e^eiv eBocrav 


show due respect to the god and obey him, and 
honour the priests of the gods above all other men. 
And now I will try to describe what sort of man a 
priest himself ought to be, though not for your 
especial benefit. For if I did not already know 
from the evidence both of the high priest and of 
the most mighty gods that you administer this 
priestly office aright at least all matters that come 
under your management I should not have ventured 
to confide to you a matter so important. But I do so 
in order that you may be able from what I say to 
instruct the other priests, not only in the cities but 
in the country districts also, more convincingly and 
with complete freedom ; since not of your own self 
do you alone devise these precepts and practise 
them, but you have me also to give you support, 
who by the grace of the gods am known as sovereign 
pontiff, though I am indeed by no means worthy 
of so high an office ; though I desire, and more- 
over constantly pray to the gods that I may be 
worthy. For the gods, you must know, hold out 
great hopes for us after death ; and we must 
believe them absolutely. For they are always 
truthful, not only about the future life, but about 
the affairs of this life also. And since in the super- 
abundance of their power they are able both to 
overcome the confusion that exists in this life and 
to regulate its disorders and irregularities, will they 
not all the more in that other life where conflicting 
things are reconciled, after the immortal soul has 
been separated from the body and the lifeless body 
has turned to earth, be able to bestow all those 
things for which they have held out hopes to man- 
kind ? Therefore since we know that the gods 




ol Oeol rot? lepeva-i T? dfjLOiftds, eyyvov? avrovs 
ev Tcaai T??? dia<> TWV Oeayv KaTacrKevdawfjiev^ wv B 
Trpo? ra TrXijOrj %pr) \e<yeiv Seiy/jua TOV eavrwv 

OVTCO yap 7;yua? Trpeirei rot? 6eols \eirovpyeiv &>? 
TrapeaTrjKoaiv avrois KOI opwa-L /j,ev r/yita?, oi>% 
opw^evoL^ Se v<$* rj/AWv Kal TO Tracr^? avy^ o/jL^a 
Kpelrrov a-^pi TWV tnroKpvTrTOfjievwv iifMV \oyi- C 
(TfJLMv SiaTeraKocriv. OTL Be OVK eyu-o? o ^0709 
OUTO? e<TTiv, d\\a TOV Oeov, Sia 7roX\.wv /JLCV 

Svo Si ei^o? TrapaaTijaai, TTW? 
ol 6eol TrdvTa, TTW? Se eiri rot? 

^>oLj3eitj rerarat Tavvaia-KOTros d 
Kat re Sia crTepewv %/36t Ooov o/jb^a nreTpdwv, D 
Kat Sta fcvaver)<; aXo9 ep^erai, oi)8e e 
IlX^^i'? dcrTepoeo'cra Tra\iv&ivr)TO<; lovaa 
Qvpavbv et? d/cd/AavTa . (TO^T)? KaTa 

QvS* ocra vepTeptcov uTreSefaro 
Taprapo? a^Xuoevro? 1 ^TTO 6(f)ov at8o? et'cr&r 300 
Se /3porot? ydvvfiai TOGOV, ocrcrov 

e \LOov Kal Trerpa? 

e 7T\OV rj TWV dvO ptoTTWV ol/CLOT6pOl' 

t (TwyyeveffTepov TT/>O? row? Oeovs, TOCTOVTM 

et/co? ecrrt 

os Hertlein suggests ; oxAv^eo-o-av MSS. 


have granted to their priests a great recompense, let 
us make them responsible in all things for men's 
esteem of the gods, displaying their own lives as 
an example of what they ought to preach to the 

The first thing we ought to preach is reverence 
towards the gods. For it is fitting that we should 
perform our service to the gods as though they 
were themselves present with us and beheld us, and 
though not seen by us could direct their gaze, which 
is more powerful than any light, even as far as 
our hidden thoughts. And this saying is not my 
own l but the god's, and has been declared in many 
utterances, but for me surely it is sufficient, by 
bringing forth one such utterance, to illustrate two 
things in one, namely how the gods see all things 
and how they rejoice in god-fearing men : " On all 
sides %xtend the far-seeing rays of Phoebus. His 
swift gaze- pierces even through sturdy rocks, and 
travels through the dark blue sea, nor is he unaware 
of the starry multitude that passes in returning 
circuit through the unwearied heavens for ever by 
the statutes of necessity ; nor of all the tribes of 
the dead in the underworld whom Tartarus has ad- 
mitted within the misty dwelling of Hades, beneath 
the western darkness. And I delight in god-fearing 
men as much even as in Olympus." 2 

Now in so far as all soul, but in a much higher 
degree the soul of man, is akin to and related to the 
gods, so much the more is it likely that the gaze of 
the gods should penetrate through his soul easily and 

1 Euripides, fr. 488 Nauck ; of. 197 C, 358 D, 387 B, 391 
this phrase became a proverb ; cf. Lucian, Hermotimus 789. 

2 An oracle from an unknown source. 



TWV Oewv TO SfJLfta. Oea l Be rfyv ^>i\av- B 
OpwrrLav TOU Oeov ydvvadai fydaKovros rfj rwv 
evarefiwv dvbpwv Siavoia oaov 'OXuyLtTro) rw tca6a- 
pcordra). TTW? 2 rj/jilv OUTO? ot%t /cal dvd^ei ra? 
tyvxas rjjJLWv a7ro rov 6(f)ov /cal rou Taprdpov 
yu-er' evcreftelas avrw Trpoaiovrwv; olSe [juev yap KO\ 
rou? ev ray Taprdpa KaraKK\6La yLte^ou?- ovSe yap 
eicelva TT}? TWV Oecov e/cros Tr'nrTei Swdfjuecos' 
e7rayyeX\Tai, Se rot? evaefSecri rov "O\V/JLTTOV dvri C 
rov Taprdpov. SioTrep %/or) ^akiara r&v T/)? 

3eta9 pycov dvre%ecr0aL rrpoa-iovras fjiev rot? 

per ev\a/3eias, alcr^pbv firfSev /jirjre \yovra<; 

aKovovras. dyveveiv be ^pr) rovs iepeas OVK 
fJiovov d/caddprcov ovSe dae\ywv rrpd^ewv, 
d\\d real prj/ndrcdv real d/cpoa/jLarcov TOIOVTQ)V. 
ej~e\ara roLvvv eo~rlv TJ/MV irdvra ra erra^Orj 
crKWfjL/jLara, rraaa Se acreXy^9 6/^tXta. /cal O7rw9 
elSevai 6^779 o /3ovXo/zat (frpd^eiv, ieputfjievos ns 

y Ap%i\o%ov dvayivaxT/cerci) pyre 'Irnrwvaicra D 
a\\ov TWO, rwv rd roiavra yp 

KOI rr)<s 7ra\aids /cco/jiwBias oaa 
eas' aptivov y^kv ydp' /cal rrd 
Trperrot, 8' av r]^tv r; (f)i\O(7O(pLa /jLovr), /cal rovrwv 
ol 6eov<$ rjye/jiovas Trpoa-rrjcid^evoL rfjs eavrwv 
7rai8eta9, wcrrcep^ TlvOayopas /cal Tl\drcov /cal 
' A p terror 6X779 oi re d/j,(j)l Xpvcnrrrrov /cal Ztfvcova. 
rrpoaeicreov yu-ez^ ydp ovre rrdcnv ovre rot9 rrdvrwv 
Scypacnv, aXXa e/celvois pbvov KOI eiceivwv, ocra 301 

1 e 'a Brambs, MSS., 0ey Reiske, Cobet, Hertlein. 

2 TTWS Hertlein suggests, Trdvrcas MSS. 

3 Hertlein suggests, #?rep MSS. 


effectively. And observe the love of the god for 
mankind when he says that he delights in the dis- 
position of god-fearing men as much as in Olympus 
most pure and bright. How then shall he not lead 
up our souls from the darkness and from Tartarus, if 
we approach him with pious awe ? And indeed he 
has knowledge even of those who have been im- 
prisoned in Tartarus for not even that region falls 
outside the power of the gods, and to the god- 
fearing he promises Olympus instead of Tartarus. 
Wherefore we ought by all means to hold fast 
to deeds of piety, approaching the gods with 
reverence,, and neither saying nor listening to 
anything base. And the priests ought to keep 
themselves pure not only from impure or shameful 
acts,, but also from uttering words and hearing 
speeches of that character. Accordingly we must 
banish all offensive jests and all licentious inter- 
course. And that you may understand what I 
mean by this, let no one who has been consecrated 
a priest read either Archilochus or Hipponax 1 or 
anyone else who writes such poems as theirs. And 
in Old Comedy let him avoid everything of that 
type for it is better so and indeed on all accounts 
philosophy alone will be appropriate for us priests ; 
and of philosophers only those who chose the gods 
as guides of their mental discipline,, liks Pythagoras 
and Plato and Aristotle, and the school of Chrysippus 
and Zeno. For we ought not to give heed to them 
all nor to the doctrines of all, but only to those 
philosophers and those of their doctrines that make 

1 Hipponax of Ephcsus, a scurrilous poet who wrote in 
choliambics (the skazon) and flourished about the middle of 
the sixth century B.C. ; of. Horace, Epodes 6. l"2. 



eucre/3eta9 earl Troirjri/ca Kal SiSdcncei Trepl Oewv 
irpMT-ov [lev a>? elcrlv, elra &>9 trpovoova-t, TWV rybe, 
Kal 9 epyd^ovrau pev oSe ev Katcbv ovre dvBpu>- 
TTOVS ovre aXX^Xof? <j)QovovvT<> KOL fta&Kaivovres 
/cal TroXe/zowTe?, OTrola ypdfyovTes ol JAW Trap' 
Troirjral Karefypovrjdrja'av, ol Se TWV 'lovSaiwv 

arera/jieva)^ o-vyKara(TKvd^oi>r6<i VTTO B 
rwv d0\ici)v rot/row rwv Trpoa-vei/jbavTcov eaurovs 
rot? FaXtXatoi9 Oav/md^ovrai. 

IT^eVot S' av rjjjilv iaTOpiais evrvy^dveiv, oirocrat, 
(Tweypd^rjcrav 7rl 7re7rot?7/xe^ot9 ro?9 epyow ocra 
Se ecmv ev iaTOplas eibei irapa rot9 

a TrXao-yuara irapair^reov, 
/cal Trdvra a7rXa>9 ra roiavra. KaOdirep 
yap ovBe 6809 vracra rot9 ieptopevois ap/jiorreL, 

t, Se Xp?) Kal ravra?, 01/70)9 ovBe dvd- C 
irav lepw^evw irpeTrei. eyyiverai ydp 
vxfj SidOecrLS VTTO TWV \6ywv, Kal /car' 
eyeipei r9 eTriQv/jLias, elra e%ai$vys 
Seivrjv <fi\6ya, irpos TJV olfjiai %pr) Troppw- 
0ev Traparerd^dai. 

M^re 'EtTTiKovpeios eldirco \6yo<$ fjbrjre Tlvppco- 
Vio<?' rfBij /AW ydp /caXw9 Troiovvres ol Oeol Kal 
dvrjprjKaa-iv, ware eiTL\ei7reiv Kal rd r rr\elo~Ta D 

TWV /3t/3\,/6t)Z/. OyLtft)9 OVO*eV K(i)\VL TV7TOV 

e7ri[jLVY)Q-6r)vai /j,ev Kal TOVTCOV, oTroiwv %/)?; fj, 
roL'9 lepeas ajre^ecrdai \oywv, el Se \6ywv, 
Trporepov evvoiwu. ovBe ydp ol^ai ravrov eartv 


men god-fearing, and teach concerning the gods, first 
that they exist, secondly that they concern them- 
selves with the things of this world, and further that 
they do no injury at all either to mankind or to one 
another, out of jealousy or envy or enmity. I mean 
the sort of thing our poets in the first place have 
brought themselves into disrepute by writing, and 
in the second place such tales as the prophets of 
the Jews take pains to invent, and are admired for 
so doing by those miserable men who have attached 
themselves to the Galilaeans. 

But for us it will be appropriate to read such 
narratives as have been composed about deeds that 
have actually been done ; but we must avoid all 
fictions in the form of narrative such as were cir- 
culated among men in the past, for instance tales 
whose theme is love, and generally speaking every- 
thing of that sort. For just as not every road is 
suitable for consecrated priests, but the roads they 
travel ought to be duly assigned, so not every sort 
of reading is suitable for a priest. For words breed 
a certain sort of disposition in the soul, and little by 
little it arouses desires, and then on a sudden kindles 
a terrible blaze, against which one ought, in my 
opinion, to arm oneself well in advance. 

Let us not admit discourses by Epicurus or 
Pyrrho ; but indeed the gods have already in 
their wisdom destroyed their works, so that most 
of their books have ceased to be. Nevertheless 
there is no reason why I should not, by way of 
example, mention these works too, to show what 
sort of discourses priests must especially avoid ; and 
if such discourses, then much more must they avoid 
such thoughts. For an error of speech is, in my 



d/j,dprrjfAa yXwrrrjs /cal Biavoias, dXX' e/ceivrjv 

>? KOI T 

e/cevrj &vve;afjiapravov<rr)s. eKjj,avviv %pr) rou? 
v/jivovs ra)v Oewv elcrl Be ovrot, TroXXol /jiev Kal 
/ca\ol rrerroirjiJLevoL TraXato?? /cal veow ov fArjv 
ttXX' e/ceivovs Treipareov eiria'Taardai TOI)? ev rot? 
iepois aBo/jievovs. ol 7rXeto"Tot yap UTT' avrwv 
TWV 6ewv iKTvdevT(i)v $60r)(rav, 6\iyoi, Be rives 302 
eTToiijOrjaav /cal Trapa dvOpwTrcov, VTTO irvevfjiaTOS 
evOeov /cal '^rv^rj^ dftdrov Tols /ca/cois eTrl rf) rwv 

Tavrd 76 afyov eTrtrrjBeveiv /cal 
TroXXa/ct? rot? Oeols IBia /cal B^/jioa-i 
fjiev T/3t? TT}? r)/j,epa<;, el Be fjbrf, Trdvra)? opdpov ye 1 
KOI Bei\r)S' ovBe yap ev\oyov aOvrov ayeiv rjfjuepav 
rf VVKTO. rov iepwfjbevov dp%rj Be opdpos /j,ev rj/jiepas, B 
oifria Be VVKTOS. evXoyov Be d^o'repwv rot? Oeols 
dirdp^eaOai rwv BiacTrrj/jidTcov, orav e^wOev TTJS 
lepaTi/cr)? ovres rvy^dvco/jiev \eirovpyias' w? ra 
76 ev rot? tepois, ocra Trdrpios Biayopevei vbfjios, 
(j)V\drreiv TrpeTrei, /cal ovre 7r\eov ovre e\arToi> 
n Troirjreov avrwv diBia ydp eari, rd TWV Oewv 
Mare fcal ^a? %pr) piiielaQai rrjv ovaiav avrwv, 
r (v avrovs l\a<TKCt)/jLeda Bid TOVTO 7r\eov. C 

Et fJ>ev ovv rj/juev avro-^rv^al povai, TO o-w/i-a Be 
7r/)09 /ArjBev rj/jLLV Stcei^Xet, /caXw? av el^ev eva TLVCL 
rot? iepv<riv dfyopi^eiv $lov eirel Be ov% lepevatv 
ttTrXeo?, aXXa /cal T& 2 iepel Trpoarf/cei fjiovov, o Brj 
/card rov /caipbv r^? \eirovpyia$ 

1 76 Hertlein suggests, re MSS. 

2 T< Wright, obs Hertlein, MS8. The meaning is not clear 
and Petavius suspects corruption. 



opinion, by no means the same as an error of the 
mind, but we ought to give heed to the mind first of 
all, since the tongue sins in company with it. We 
ought to learn by heart the hymns in honour of the 
gods and many and beautiful they are, composed 
by men of old and of our own time though indeed 
we ought to try to know also those which are being 
sung in the temples. For the greater number were 
bestowed on us by the gods themselves, in answer 
to prayer, though some few also were written by 
men, and were composed in honour of the gods by 
the aid of divine inspiration and a soul inaccessible 
to things evil. 

All this, at least, we ought to study to do, and 
we ought also to pray often to the gods, both in 
private and in public, if possible three times a day, 
but if not so often, certainly at dawn and in the 
evening. For it is not meet that a consecrated 
priest should pass a day or a night without sacrifice ; 
and dawn is the beginning of the day as twilight is 
of the night. And it is proper to begin both periods 
with sacrifice to the gods, even when we happen 
not to be assigned to perform the service. For it 
is our duty to maintain all the ritual of the temples 
that the law of our fathers prescribes, and we ought 
to perform neither more nor less than that ritual ; 
for eternal are the gods, so that we too ought to 
imitate their essential nature in order that thereby 
we may make them propitious. 

Now if we were pure soul alone, and our bodies 
did not hinder us in any respect, it would be well 
to prescribe one sort of life for priests. But since 
what he should practise when 011 duty concerns the 
individual priest alone, not priests absolutely, what 



TL 8e TO) * iepareveiv 
prjTeov, orav e/cro? 17 TT}? ev rot9 te/oot? \eirov pyias; 
olfAai Be %pf)vai TOV lepea TrdvTcav ayvevaravra D 
vv/cra KCL\ rj/jiepav, * elra a\\r)v eV avrfj VVKTO, 
ol? Siayopevovcrtv ol Oea-^ol Kadap- 

Ol/TftJ? elVo) (froiTWVTO, TOV LCpOV fJLVl,V OCTtt? 

at/ rjjuLepas 6 i^oyLto? /ceXevy. rpLa/covra fjiev 'yap al 
Trap' f)iuv elaiv ev 'Pcoyu,??, Tra/a' aXXot9 Se aXXa)?. 
ev\oyov ovv ^ olfiai fjueveiv cnrdcras ravras ra? 
vjfjLepas ev rot? iepol<$ tyiXoaofyovvTa, /cal yu^re 
et? oiKiav pabl&iv /jujre et? dyopdv, d\\a ytt^Se 303 

ev rot? te/904? o/mz^ e7rifjLe\elaOai - 
TO ^eto^ OepaTreias avrbv ecfropwvra 
iravra /cal ^iardrrovTa, TrK^pwaavra Se ra? 
rj/jiepas eira erepw Trapa^wpelv rfjs \CI,TOV pyias. 
eTrl Se rbv avdptoirivov TpeTro/^evti) /3iov e^ecrrw 
/cal /3ao[%i,v et? ol/ciav <f)L\ov /cal et? ea-Tiacriv 
aTravTav Trapa/cXyOevTa, ^r] iravTwv, aXXa ra>y B 
/3\Ti(TTa)V' ev TOVTW Be /cal ei? dyopdv 7rape\0elv 
ov/c CLTOTTOV b\i<ydra<;, rjye^ova re TrpoaeiTrelv /cal 
ap%ovTa, /cal rot? ei)Xo70)9 Seo/jLevois ocra 

TLpeirei Se oljjiai, rot? iepeva-iv evbov pev s ore 

aTYi, TWV iepwv Se efw TTJ avin^OeL &i>X a 
1 rip Hertlein suggests, ws MSS. 



should we concede to a man who has received the 
office of priest,, on occasions when he is not actually 
engaged in service in the temples ? I think that 
a priest ought to keep himself pure from all con- 
tamination, for a night and a day, and then after 
purifying himself for another night following on 
the first, with such rites of purification as the 
sacred laws prescribe, he should under these con- 
ditions enter the temple and remain there for as 
many days as the law commands. (Thirty is the 
number with us at Rome, but in other places the 
number varies.) It is proper then, I think, that he 
should remain throughout all these days in the 
sacred precincts, devoting himself to philosophy, 
and that he should not enter a house or a market- 
place, or see even a magistrate, except in the 
precincts, but should concern himself with his 
service to the god, overseeing and arranging every- 
thing in person ; and then, when he has completed 
the term of days, he should retire from his office in 
favour of another. And when he turns again to the 
ordinary life of mankind, he may be allowed to visit 
a friend's house, and, when invited, to attend a 
feast, but not on the invitation of all but only of 
persons of the highest character. And at this time 
there would be nothing out of the way in his going 
occasionally to the market-place and conversing 
with the governor or the chief magistrate of his 
tribe, and giving aid, as far as lies in his pow r er, to 
those who have a good reason for needing it. 

And it is in my opinion fitting for priests to wear 
the most magnificent dress when they are within the 
temple performing the services, but when they are 
outside the sacred precincts to wear ordinary dress, 


ovBe yap ev\oyov rot? SeSo/^e^ot? 
y Oewv et? /cevoBo^iav /cara^prjcrdai /cal rvcfrov 
fj,draiov. oOev dcfre/CTeov fjfuv effOfjros TroXuTeXe- C 

ev dyopa /cal KO^TTOV rj KCU Trdcrr)^ 
a\a%oveLas. oi yovv Oeol TTJV TOcravTrjv 
fji^iapdov a-wfypocrvvrjv, 7Tt8r) rov 
e/ceivov /care^LKaa-av <f>0opav elBa)<$ 
re auro9 crvveaTpareveTO /cal rjv afav/crov aurw 
Sia TOVTO TO Treirpw/jLevov, a r jrk^>r\vav avrov aX\,ov 
e'f aXXou /cal /JLerea-r^a-av et? \r}%w Oelav. nrav- 
yovv TCOV eTriaTpaTeva-dvTwv rat? r;^at? 
TWV daTTiScov Trplv Karepydaacrdai cny- D 

jpa^ovrcov /cal eyeipovrwv TCL Tpojraia 
/cara T^? Gvpfyopas 1 TWV Ka&fjLeicov, 6 TWV Qewv 
acrrj^a fjuev eirea-Tpdrevev e%wv oVXa, 
Be /cal a-w^pocrvv^v &><? /cal 2 VTTO TWV 
ef^aprvpetTo. SioTrep oi^ai %pr) /cal 
TOU9 tepea? rj/j,as ra irepl ra? eaOfjras 
r iva Tvyxdva)/jLv ev/jievwv TWV Oewv w? ov 
je et9 auTou? eZa/JLaprdvo/jLev &rj/juov/jivo(, T9 

Ofjras /cal Brj/AoaievovTes /cal 7rap%ovTes 304 
7repi{3\e7Tiv rot? dvdpdoTroi? axnrep TL 
el jap TOVTO 4 crv^aiveL, vroXXot 
]fuv ov icaOapoi, teal Sia TOVTO 
TO, TWV 6e&v <ru/A/3oXa. TO Be /cal 

1 Kara T?}S (rv^opas Hertlein suggests, /cal ras ffvp.<bopas 


2 d)s /cal Hertlein would add. 

3 Vas <ru><t>pove~iv Cohct suggests, lacuna Hertlein, MSS. 

4 ei yap TOVTO Hertlein suggests, efrrep e/c TOVTOU 



without any extravagance. For it is not rational 
that we should misuse, in empty conceit and vain 
ostentation, what has been given to us for the honour 
of the gods. And for this reason we ought in the 
market place to abstain from too costly dress and 
from outward show, and in a word from every sort of 
pretentiousness. For consider how the gods, because 
they admired the perfect moderation of Amphiaraus, 1 
after they had decreed the destruction of that famous 
army and he, though he knew that it would be so, 
went with the expedition and therefore did not 
escape his fated end, the gods I say transformed 
him completely from what he had been, and removed 
him to the sphere of the gods. For all the others 
who were in the expedition against Thebes engraved 
a device on their shields before they had conquered 
the enemy, and erected trophies to celebrate the 
downfall of the Cadmeans ; but he, the associate of 
the gods, when he went to war had arms with 110 
device ; but gentleness he had, and moderation, as 
even the enemy bore witness. Hence I think that 
we priests ought to show moderation in our dress, in 
order that we may win the goodwill of the gods, 
since it is no slight offence that we commit against 
them when we wear in public the sacred dress and 
make it public property, and in a word give^all men 
an opportunity to stare at it as though it were some- 
thing marvellous. For whenever this happens, many 
who are not purified come near us, and by this means 
the symbols of the gods are polluted. Moreover 

1 Of. Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes ; Euripides, Phoe- 
nisftae 1118 

ft /jLoivrts 'Afjupidpaos 



Trocrr;? ear irapavofjias KOI /cara- 
t<? rot*? 6eov<$; elprjcrerai /Jiev ovv rjfjblv 
teal Trepl TOVTWV ev a\\oi<> 1 BS dicpiftelas' vvvi Be 
ft>? TVITW 7T/30? ere <ypd(f)a) Trepl avrwv. 

Tot? aa-\yecrt TOVTOIS Oedrpoi^ TWV lepecov B 
/x?;Set9 ^Ba/jiov 7rapa/3d\\eTO) /jt,r)$e els rrjv OIK iav 
elaayera) ryv eavrov- Trperrei yap ovBa/Aws. KOI 
el fiev olov re rjv e^eXdaai TravraTraaiv avra 
rwv Oedrpoav, wcrre avTa 7rd\iv aTToBovvai 
Aiovvcra) /caOapa yevo/Aeva, iravraj^ av eT 
avro TrpoOvfjiw^ KaraaKevdcrai,. vvvi Be olo/jievos C 
TOVTO ouT Bvvarbv ovre aXXw?, el, Kol Bvvarbv 
ir), (rv^epov av avrb yevevOai, ravrrj<j fjiev 
Travrdrraa-i TT}? (^fXoTiyLtta?' af^w Be 
W? iepeas vTro^wpfja-at KOI dTrocrrrjvai, ru> B^/xw 
TT)? ev rot? OeaTpois acreXyaa?. fjirjBels ovv iepevs 
a? Oearpov elairw, jji^Be e^era) 2 <f)i\ov 0v/jLe\i/cbv 
/LLrjBe dpfjLaT7j\drr)v, fjiTjBe op^rjcrrrj^ fj,rjBe fMfJbo^ 
avrov rfi 6vpa Trpodirw rot? lepols dywaiv 
eTTLTpeTTO) fjuovov TO) /3ov\o/j,ev(t) 7rapa/3d\\eiv, D 
wv ajniyopevrai fjiere^etv OVK dycovias /JLOVOV, 
d\\a real Oeas rat? <yvvai%iv . vTrep Be TO>V 
ri Bel KOI \eyeiv, ocra rai? Tr6\ecriv 
Oedrpcov a-vvTe\eiTai,, a>? dfafcreov 
TOVTWV earlv ofy lepev<Ti JJLOVOV, d\\a KOI 
TraKTiv lepecov; 

^Hv 'fJLev ovv to"ft)5 Trpb rovTOJV elprfcrdai /ca\6v, 
oOev Kal O7rt09 %pr) TOU9 te/Qea? dTroBei/cvveiv ovBev 
Be aroTTOv et? TOUTO yu-ot TOU? Xo^yof? \fjai. eya) 305 

1 tv &\\ois Cobet would add ; cf. 298 A. 

2 exe'rw Petavius suggests, lacuna Hertlein, MSS. 



what lawlessness it is, what arrogance towards the 
gods for us ourselves when we are not living the 
priestly life to wear the priestly dress ! However, of 
this too I shall speak more particularly in another 
place ; and -what I am writing to you at the moment 
is only a mere outline of the subject. 

No priest must anywhere be present at the 
licentious theatrical shows of the present day, nor 
introduce one into his own house ; for that is alto- 
gether unfitting. Indeed if it were possible to banish 
such shows absolutely from the theatres so as to re- 
store to Dionysus those theatres pure as of old, I should 
certainly have endeavoured with all my heart to 
bring this about ; but as it is, since I thought that 
this is impossible, and that even if it should prove to 
be possible it would not on other accounts be ex- 
pedient, I forebore entirely from this ambition. But 
I do demand that priests should withdraw themselves 
from the licentiousness of the theatres and leave 
them to the crowd. Therefore let no priest enter a 
theatre or have an actor or a chariot-driver for his 
friend ; and let no dancer or mime even approach his 
door. And as for the sacred games, I permit anyone 
who will to attend those only in which women are 
forbidden not only to compete but even to be spec- 
tators. With regard to the hunting shows with dogs 
which are performed in the cities inside the theatres, 
need I say that not only priests but even the sons of 
priests must keep away from them ? 

Now it would perhaps have been well to say 
earlier from what class of men and by what method 
priests must be appointed ; but it is quite appro- 
priate that my remarks should end with this. I say 



ev rat? vroXecrt 3e\Tia-Tov$ fcal 

lav T6 TrevrjTes wcnv edv re rrXovaior 

7T/909 TOVTO ^778' r)Tio~ovv dfyavovs KOI 
6 7,/o Sta Trpaorrjra XeX^^cb? ou Sta 
r^ rov d^iO)fjLaro<; dcfidveiav 3t/caio? etrrf KCO- 
\veadai. KCLV 7rewr)<> ovv y TIS SrjfjLorrjs G^WV 
ev eavru> &vb ravra, TO re (j)i\66eov KOL TO 
<$>i\,dv6pwTrov, lepevs dTro&eifcvvcrOa). Sely/j,a Be B 
TOV (f>i\o0eov fjiev, el TOV? ol/ceiovs aTravTas et? 
Trjv irepl TOVS Oeovs ev&efteiav eldaydyoi, TOV 

Be, el KOL e o\i<ya)V 
l rot? Beo/jLevoL? Kal fJLTaBiBa)(Ti, 
eLpwv ocrou? av olo? re 97. 

TLpocreKTeov yap yLtaXtcrra TW fjbepei TOVTW, teal 
]V laTpeiav evTevdev Troi^Teov. erreiBr) yap ol/j,ai 
TOU? Tre^ra? a yLteXeta & ] at, rrapopw/jievovs 
vrrb TWV lepewv, ol Sucra-e/Set? Ta\L\aloi KaTavorj- C 
e7re6evTO TavTrj TT) <fci\av6 pwTriq, /cal TO 
TWV epywv Bt,a TOV evBofu/jiovvTOS 1 TWV 
aTcov e/cpaTvvav. wo-Trep yap 2 ol TO, 
TraiBia Bia TOV Tr\aKovvTO<$ e^aTraTWVTes TO> /cal 
St? Kal rpt? Trpoecrdai, TreiOovvw aico\ov6clv 
, eW, orav drroo'T'ija'ccta'i rroppco TWV ol/ceitov, 
et? vavv drreBovTo, /cal yeyovev e/9 
avra^ra TOV ef 779 @lov iriKpov TO Bogav 7r/>o9 oXuyov 

os Hertlein suggests, /caXAio-row SOKOVVTOS 
Reiske, SOKOVVTOS MSS. 2 yap Hertlein would add. 



that the most upright men in every city, by prefer- 
ence those who show most love for the gods, and 
next those who show most love for their fellow 
men, must be appointed, whether they be poor or 
rich. And in this matter let there be no distinction 
whatever whether they are unknown or well known. 
For the man who by reason of his gentleness has not 
won notice ought not to be barred by reason of his 
want of fame. Even though he be poor and a man 
of the people, if he possess within himself these two 
things, love for God and love for his fellow men, let 
him be appointed priest. And a proof of his love 
for God is his inducing his own people to show 
reverence to the gods ; a proof of his love for his 
fellows is his sharing cheerfully, even from a small 
store, with those in need, and his giving willingly 
thereof, and trying to do good to as many men as 
he is able. 

We must pay especial attention to this point, and 
by this means effect a cure. For when it came 
about that the poor were neglected and overlooked 
by the priests, then I think the impious Galilaeans 
observed this fact and devoted themselves to 
philanthropy. And they have gained ascendancy 
in the worst of their deeds through the credit 
they win for such practices. For just as those who 
entice children with a cake, and by throwing it to 
them two or three times induce them to follow 
them, and then, when they are far away from their 
friends cast them on board a ship and sell them 
as slaves, and that which for the moment seemed 
sweet, proves to be bitter for all the rest of their 
lives by the same method, I say, the Galilaeans 



ry\VKv, TOP avTov KOI avrol rpoirov ap^dfJievoi, Sia D 
T?}? Xe70yue^9 Trap 1 CLVTOLS dyaTrrjs teal vTroSo^/}? 
teal Siatcovias rpaTre^wv eart jap &orirep TO epyov, 
ovrco Be /cal Tovvo^a Trap avrols TTO\V 
evijyayov 6? rrjv 



also begin with their so-called love-feast, or hospi- 
tality, or service of tables, for they have many 
ways of carrying it out and hence call it by many 
names, and the result is that they have led very 
many into atheism. . . . - 1 

1 The conclusion is lost, and may have been suppressed by 
Christian copyists. 

z 2 



THE Caesars, otherwise entitled in the MSS. 
Symposium or Kroiiia (Latin Saturnalia) was written 
at Constantinople in 361 and was probably ad- 
dressed to Sallust, to whom Julian had sent his lost 
work the Kronia. 1 The interlocutor in the pro- 
oemium 2 is almost certainly Sallust. 

" Caesar " was in Julian's time a Roman Emperor's 
most splendid title, and was regularly used by the 
barbarians when they referred to the Emperor. 
The idea and the working out of the satire is 
Lucianic and there are echoes here and there of 
Lucian's Dialogues of the Dead, but Julian is 
neither so witty nor so frivolous as Lucian. In 
speaking of the gods he allows himself a licence <*- 
which is appropriate to the festival, but would 
otherwise seem inconsistent wifK the admonitions 
addressed to priests in the Fragment of a Letter. 
His conception of the State and of the ideal ruler 
is Greek rather than Roman. 

1 cf. Oration 4. 157 c. 2 306 A. 




criv 6 #eo? Tral&iv ecm jap 
ye\oiov Be ovBev ovBe repjrvbv olBa eyco, TO /j,r) 
/caTayeXacTTa ^pdaai (frpovTuBos eoc/cev elvat, afyov, 
a) (f)L\6rr]<;. 

Elra T/5 OVTCO ira'xys e'er KOI ap^aios, w 
Kalaap, WCTT /cal TTatfeiv TrefypovTia-peva; eyw 
Tr]V TraiSiav aveaiv re elvcu -^ru%^? KOI 

ye CTV TOVTO vTroX.afJi'lBdvwv, e/juol Be B 
ov ravry eoi/cev cnravrav TO xpfjpa. Tre^v/ca yap 
ovSayu-w? eTriTriiO<$ OVTC (TKWTTTeiv OVTG Trapwo'eiv 
ovTe ye\oideiv. eVet Be %pr) TO> vo/Ji 
TOV deov, /SouXet <7oi ev TraiBias pepei fjivOov 
e\0(o vroXXa laws e^ovra a/cor}? a^ia; 

Aeyot? av KOL /j,d\a dafjL&vw, CTTCL teal auro? C 
OVK oLTlfjid^a) rou? fJLv6ov<$ ovBe TravTairaviv 
efe\avvm TOU? opOws e^o^ra?, aKo\ovOd aoi 
T Kol <j)l\a) TW era), fjuaXXov Be T> 
TlXdrrnvt, Biavoov/j,evos, eVet /cal avTO> 
ev fjLvOots ecnrovBaa'Tai,. 



" IT is the season of the Kronia, 1 during which the' 
god allows us to make merry. But, my dear friend, 
as I have no talent for amusing or entertaining I 
must methinks take pains not to talk mere non- 

" But, Caesar, can there be anyone so dull and 
stupid as to take pains over his jesting? I always 
thought that such pleasantries were a relaxation of 
the mind and a relief from pains and cares." 

" Yes, and no doubt your view is correct, but that 
is not how the matter strikes me. For by nature 1 
have no turn for raillery, or parody, or raising a 
laugh. But since I must obey the ordinance of the 
god of the festival, should you like me to relate to 
you by way of entertainment a myth in which there 
is perhaps much that is worth hearing ? " 

" I shall listen with great pleasure, for I too am not 
one to despise myths, and I am far from rejecting 
those that have the right tendency ; indeed I am of 
the same opinion as you and your admired, or rather 
the universally admired, Plato. He also often 
conveyed a serious lesson in his myths." 

1 Better known by its Latin name Saturnalia. Saturn is 
the Greek Kronos. 



Aeyet9 val yu-a Aia TavTa dXijOrj, 
Tfc9 Be Kal 7TOTa7T09 o JJLV&OS; 

Ov TWV 7ra\aiwv TI$, oTroiovs A&ro>7ro9 eTroitj- 307 
iv, aXX' 6tT 7r\d(raa \eyois 'E/?yu.ou* TreTrv- 
yap avTov eiceWev croi (frpdcra)' etVe /cat 
oi;Tft)9 e^ei etVe yu-tft9 Tt9 ecrTiv 
avTO, (bacri^ oet^et TO Trpayfjia. 

TovTt uev ovv 77877 /jbvOiKws a/Mi Kal 
e^eipyacTTai, aoi TO Trpooifjuov aXXa pot, TOV 

\6yov avTov, O7roto9 TTOTC ectTiv, 77^77 Biee\,0. 

6 'Pft)yLtvXo9 Ta Kyoowa TrdvTas eKa\ei B 
TOU9 Oeovs, Kal Brj Kal auTOi/9 2 TOU9 Kaia-apas. 

0eoi$ avco KaT* avTO, fyaaiv, ovpavov TO 

Oi/Xv/jiTTOvB 1 , 66 i (jjaal Oewv eSo9 a<7<aXe9 aleL 

\e<yTai yap yLte$' 'Hpa/cXea 7rape\6elv eKelcre 
ical o Kfptvo9, w 877 %y377 Ka\elv avTov ovbfJLaTi, 
TJJ Oeia TreiOofjievovs <^ 77/^77. Tot9 fiev ovv Oeols 
eKelae 7rapeo~Kevao~TO TO av^Trbcnov' VTT avTrjv Be C 
TT)^ <re\r)vr)v ejrl peTewpov TOV depo? eBeBoKTO 
Kaia-apas Benrveiv. avetye Be avTovs 77 Te 
awfidTcov ou</)OT779, airep eTvy^avov rj^ie- 
i, Kal 77 7repi<j)0pa Trjs o~e\r)vt]<s. K\lvai JJLCV 
ovv eKeiVTO TeTTapes, evTpeTrel^ TOt9 
eftevov fiev r)V 77 TOV Kpovov a 
7ro\\r)v ev T& peKavi Kal Oeiav avyrjv Kpv- 
McrTe ovBels olo9 Te 771^ avTij3Xe7re.iv* 

1 <f>affi Cobet, lacuna V., Hertlein, Iiri8eei MSS. 

2 avrovs Hertlein suspects to be an interpolation 



" By Zeus, that is true indeed ! " 
" But what is your myth and of what type ? " 
"Not one of those old-fashioned ones such as 
Aesop 1 wrote. But whether, you should call mine an 
invention of Hermes for it was from him I learned 
what I am going to tell you or whether it is really 
true or a mixture of truth and fiction, the upshot, 
as the saying is, will decide." 

" This is indeed a fine preface that you have 
composed, just the thing for a myth, not to say an 
oration ! But now pray tell me the tale itself, what- 
ever its type may be." 

At the festival of the Kronia Romulus gave a 
banquet, and invited not only all the gods, but the 
Emperors as well. For the gods couches had been 
prepared on high, at the very apex, so to speak, of 
the sky, 2 on " Olympus where they say is the seat of 
the gods, unshaken for ever." 3 For we are told 
that after Heracles, Quirinus also ascended thither, 
since we must give Romulus the name ofQuirinus 

in obedience to the divlrre will; 4 Fof~~tHe gods 

then the banquet had been made ready there. 
But just below the moon in the upper air he had 
decided to entertain the Emperors. The light- 
ness of the bodies with which they had been in- 
vested, and also the revolution of the moon sus- 
tained them. Four couches were there made ready 
for the superior gods. That of Kronos was made 
of gleaming ebony, which concealed in its black- 
ness a lustre so intense and divine that no one 

1 i. e. not a fable with a moral nor an animal fable. 

2 Cf. Plato, Phaedrus 247 B. 3 Odyssey 6. 42. 
4 Cf. Oration 4. 149 B, 154 D. 



Be ravro Trpbs Tr)v efievov eKelvr)v TCL D 
oV V7rep/3o\r)v r^? \a/A7rr]B6vos, oirep ol/ 
7T/3O? ij\iov, OTav avTov TW BLO~K(D T 

77 Be TOV Ato9 r\v apyvpov 
^pvcriov &e \v/corepa. rovro 
ij\eKTpov xpr) Kokelv are aXXo TL \eyeiv, ov 
a(j)6Spa el^e ^01 yva)pifj,a)$ 6 *Eipfjir)<> (frpdaai,. 
%pvcro0p6va) Be Trap* e/cdrepov eKaOe^eaOrjv l TI re 
/J'lJT'rjp KOI f] Ovydrrjp, "Hpa /mev irapa rov Ata, 308 
'Pea Be Trapa TOV Kpovov. TO Be T&V Oewv /ca 
ovBe e/eetvos eiref-gei T&> \6<ya>, p,el%ov elvat, 
avrb Kal v&> Oearov, d/cof) Be KOI prf/jiacnv ovre 
r npooicfOr]vai pdBiov ovre TrapaBe^drjvai Bvvarov. 
ov% ourco Tt9 earai KCU fyavelTai /jLeja\6(j)0)vo<f, 
wcrre TO /jieye0o$ e/celvo (frpdaai, TOV Ka\\ov<;, 
OTTO&OV eTr ITT peTrei rfj TWV Oewv o^ei. 

TlapecTKevaaro Be /cal TOt9 a\Xo69 ^eot9 eKacTTw B 
9povo<$ r) K\ivr) KCLTO, Trpeafieiav, tfpi^e Be ovBeis, 
aXX' oirep f/ OyU7;po9 opQ&s TTOI&V e(f>rj, Bofcew pot, 
Trapa rwv Movawv avrwv CLK^KO^, e^eiv e/cao-rov 
rwv dewv Opovov, e<j) ov TTCLVTW^ avTw #e/U9 
KaOrio-Oau (nepers Kal d/jLeraKiviJTW eVet /cal 
7T/J09 Trjv Trapovaiav TOV 7ra.T/oo9 e^aviaTa/jievoi 
TapaTTOvcriv ovBafAws T9 tcaOeBpas ovBe fJieTa- 
ftaivovffiv ovBe v^apir drover iv dX\,r)\a)V, yvcopi^ei C> 
Be eKaaTos TO Trpocrrjtcov avTw. irdvTcov ovv 


BOKWV TOV &t,ovv<rov fca\ov Kal veov teal 
Hertlein suggests, &ta$4r<ni V., eKafle^'TTjj/ 


could endure to gaze thereon. For in looking at 
that ebony, the eyes suffered as much, methinks, 
from its excess of radiance as from the sun when 
one gazes too intently at his disc. The couch of 
Zeus was more brilliant than silver, but paler than 
gold ; whether however one ought to call this 
" electron," l or to give it some other name, Hermes 
could not inform me precisely. On either side of 
these sat on golden thrones the mother and daughter, 
Hera beside Zeus and Rhea beside Kronos. As for the 
beauty of the gods, not even Hermes tried to describe 
it in his tale ; he said that it transcended descrip- 
tion, and must be comprehended by the eye_of^the 
mind ; for in words it was hard to portray^and 
impossible to convey to mortal ears. Never indeed 
will there be or appear an orator so gifted that he 
could describe such surpassing beauty as shines 
forth on the countenances of the gods. 

For the other gods had been prepared a throne or 
couch, for everyone according to seniority. Nor did 
any dispute arise as to this, but as Homer said, 2 and 
correctly, no doubt instructed by the Muses them- 
selves, every god has his seat on which it is 
irrevocably ordained that he shall sit, firmly and im- 
movably fixed ; and though they rise on the entrance of 
their father they never confound or change the order 
of their seats or infringe on one another's, since 
every one knows his appointed place. 

Now when the gods were seated in a circle, 
Silenus, amorous, methinks, of Dionysus ever fair and 

1 Cf. Martial 8. 51. 5 : " Vera minus flavo radiant electra 
metallo " ; it is often uncertain whether electron means amber, 
or a combination of 4 gold and \ silver. 

2 This is not in our Homer, but Julian may have in mind 
Iliad 11. 76. 



TW Trarpl TW Au 7rapa7r\r)o-iov r jr\ i Y]Q~iov avrov, 
Tpofavs T? ola Kal TraiBaycwyos, /caQrjarro, rd re D 
aXXa (f)i\,o7rai'y/j,ova Kal cfriXoyeXcov Kal X a P l ~ 
ToBorvjv 1 OVTCL Tov Oeov eiKfrpaivow Kal Brj Kal r& 
ra TroXXa Kal ye\oidei,v. 

Be Kal TO TWI/ Kaiadpwv (rvveKeKpoTrjTO 2 
la-yei, Tr/xwTO? 'lovXto? Kaiaap, VTTO 
<j)i\OTi/j,ia<? avrw y3ouX,oyu-ei/o? epicrai TW Att irepl 
r^? fj,ovap%ia<;, et? bv 6 ^i\rjvb<; ySXe^a?, "Qpa, 
ciTrev, &> ZeO, fii] ere o dvT)p OUTO9 V7TO ^)i\ap^La^ 
d(j)\ecr0ai Kal rrjv (3aai\elav Biavorjdfj. Kal jdp, 
a)? opa<?, earl /j,eya<i Kal tfaXoV efjuol <yovv, el Kal 

d\\o, ra <yovv irepl rrjv K<f>a\rfv ecm 309 

TraityOVTos eri roiavra TOV ^t\7)vov 
Kal TWV Oewv ov atyoSpa Trpoae'XpVTWv avry, 
'O^ra/Siavo? eTreicrep^erai 7ro\\a dfAeificDV, wcnrep 
ol %ayu-atXeo^Te?, ^w/zara Kal vvv fiev w^piwv, 
av0is &e epvOpbs yivopevos, elra /i,eA,a? Kal o<f>a>- 
8775 Kal <rvvve<f>r}S' dviero S' avdis et? 'A<f>poSirr)v B 
Kal Xa/jtra?, elvai re rj#eXe ra? /8oXa? TMV 
6/jLfj,dr(0v oTroto? ecrnv 6 fj,eyas f/ HX*o?' ovSeva 
<ydp ol TWV aTravTwvTGov 3 dvrifiXeTreiv rj^iov. Kal 
6 %ei\r)v6<>, T&afiai, e$v), TOV TravroBajrov TOVTOV 
6r)plov TI TTOT' apa Beivbv rji^a^ epydo'CTai; 
flavo~ai,, elTre, \rjpwv, 6 'ATroXXci)^* eyco yap 
avTov TOVTWL Zttjvcovi TTapaSovs avriKa vplv 
airofyavw xpvabv aK^parov. aXX' Wi, eiTrev, to C 
e7TLfjLe\tj6r]Tt TOV/JLOV Ope^/jLaro^. 6 Be 

SJrr?' Spanheim, cf . 148 D, xaprirfrip' Hertlein, MSS. 
avvfKfKp6TriTo Hertlein suggests, aweKpor^ro MSS. 


" airavTwitruv Spanheim, -rrdvTuv Hertlein, MSS. 



ever young, who sat close to Zeus his father, took 
his seat next to him on the pretext that he had 
brought him up and was his tutor. And since 
Dionysus loves jesting and laughter and is the giver 
of the Graces, Silenus diverted the god with a 
continual flow of sarcasms and jests, and in other 
ways besides. 

When the banquet had been arranged for the 
Emperors also, Julius Caesar entered first, and such 
was his passion for glory that he seemed ready to 
contend with Zeus himself for dominion. Where- 
upon Silenus observing him said, " Take care, Zeus, 
lest this man in his lust for power be minded to 
rob you of your empire. He is, as you see, tall and 
handsome, and if he resembles me in nothing else, 
round about his head he is very like me." 1 While 
Silenus, to whom the gods paid very little attention, 
was jesting thus, Octayian entered, changing colour 
continually, like a chameleon, turning now pale now 
red ; one moment his expression was gloomy, sombre, 
and overcast, the next he unbent and showed all the 
charms of Aphrodite and the Graces. Moreover in 
the glances of his eyes he was fain to resemble 
mighty Helios, for he preferred that none who 
approached should be able to meet his gaze. 2 " Good 
Heavens!" exclaimed Silenus, "what a changeable 
monster is this! What mischief will he do us?" 
" Cease trifling," said Apollo, "after I have handed 
him over to Zeno 3 here, I shall transform him for you 
straightway to gold without alloy. Come, Zeno," he 
cried, "take charge of my nursling." Zeno obeyed, 
and thereupon, by reciting over Octavian a few of his 

1 Silenus is usually represented as bald. 

- Suetonius, Augustus 16. 3 The Stoic philosopher. 



elra eiracras avrw /ju/cpa rwv 

TCDV, wa-Trep ol ra? ZayuoX^So? eTrwSa? 6pv\ovv- 
T69, aTrefyyvev avSpa epfypova /cal Gtofypova. 

T/otTo? eTreKreSpa/jLev avrols Tifteptos cre/jivb^ ra 
Trpoa-wrra Kal /SXoo-u/oo?, (raxfrpov re apa /cal 
7roXe//,i/co^ ySXeTTft)^. eTTtcrr/oa^e^TO? Be Trpos TTJV 
/caOeSpav M(j)07}<rav coretXat Kara TOV vwrov fjivpiai, 
Kavrrjpes TIVGS teal ^ecr/Liara /cal 7r\r)<yal %a\7ral D 
/cal /tcoXwTre? VTTO re aKO\aala<$ Kal GD/HO 
tywpai rives Kal Xet^i^e? olov ejKe/cav/mevai. 


'AXXoto? fjboi, %elve, <f>dvrj<; veov rj TO 

i7ra>v eBo^ev avrov fyaivzarQai cn 
ical o AtovuflTQ? 7T/9O? avTov, Tt 8f/Ta, el 
TraTTTrt&iov (nrovBd^eis ; Kal 09, 'EfeT 
yepwv ovrocri, 6 ^drvpos, etyr), Kal 
eic\a66fjbevov e/JLavrov ra? 'Q/jLrjpiKas 7rpo/3a\ea-0ai 
luiovaas. a\\d ere, elTrev, e\ei TMV WTWV 310 
\eyeTai yap avro? Kal ypa/ju/jiaricrr^v Tiva TOVTO 
l^^wv /JLCV ovv, i7TV, ei> TW 
ra? KaTrpea? alviTTo/Jievos' TOV a0\iov 
Tavra en irai^ovrwv avrwv, 
Orjpiov Trov^pov. elra ol Oeol 
av ra o/ji/jiara, Kara avrbv 
rj ALKTJ ra?? ITo^at?, al Be eppityav el<s B 



doctrines, 1 in the fashion of those who mutter the 
incantations of Zamolxis, 2 he made him wise and 

The third to hasten in was Tiberius, with counten- 
ance solemn and grim, and an expression at once 
sober and martial. But as he turned to sit down 
his back was seen to be covered with countless 
scars, burns, and sores, painful welts and bruises, 
while ulcers and abscesses were as though branded 
thereon, the result of his self-indulgent and cruel 
life. 3 Whereupon Silenus cried out, " Far different, 
friend, thou appearest now than before," * and 
seemed more serious than was his wont. " Pray, 
why so solemn, little father?" said Dionysus. "It 
was this old satyr," he replied, " he shocked me and 
made me forget myself and introduce Homer's 
Muse." "Take care," said Dionysus, "he will pull 
your ear, as he is said to have done to a certain 
grammarian." 5 " Plague take him," said Silenus, "in 
his little island " he was alluding to Capri " let 
him scratch the face of that wretched fisherman." 6 
While they were still joking together, there came 
in a fierce monster. 7 Thereupon all the gods turned 
away their eyes from the sight, and next moment 
Justice handed him over to the Avengers who 

1 Julian probably alludes to the influence on Augustus of 
Athenodorus the Stoic. 

2 A deity among the Thracians, who according to one tradi- 
tion had been a slave of Pythagoras ; cf . Herodotus 4. 94 ; 
Plato, Charmides 156 D ; Julian 8. 244 A. 

3 Cf. Plato, Gorgias 525 D,E; Republic 611 c ; Tacitus, 
Annals 6. 6 ; Lucian, Cataplus 27. 

4 Odyssey 16. 181 ; there is a play on the word ird.poi6fv 
which means also " in front." 

6 i.e. Seleucus ; cf. Suetonius, Tiberius 56, 70. 
6 Suetonius, Tiberius 60. 7 Caligula. 




'Ydprapov. ovftev ovv ecryev b ^ei\r]vb^ vrcep 
avrov cfrpdcrai. rov K.\avoiov oe erreicreXOovros, 
o ^ei\,rjvb<> apteral TOU? 'Apicrro<})dvov<> 'Irrrreas 
aoeiv, dvrl rov AT^HOU l KoXarceixav Bijdev TOP 
K\av8iov. elra 777309 rbv Kvplvov aTri^xav, 'A8t- 
, w K.vplv, rov CLTTOJOVOV ajwv et9 TO 
fjiTToa-wv oi%a rwv d7re\ev6epcov Naptciaaov 
l Hd\\avros. aXA,' Wi, elrre, rre^ov eV e/cei- 
, el ftov\i <5e, teal errl rrjv 7 after TJV Mecraa- 
\ivav. ear i, <ydp eiceivwv t%a rovrl T^? rpa- C 
7&)8ta? TO Sopv(f)6pi)/jia, fJUKpov Sew fydvai, Kal 
dtyv^ov. erreiaep'xerai \eyovri, ra> ^ei\7jvw 
Nepcav fjird TT}? KiOdpa? Kal T?}? &d(f)vr)<>. eira 
drroftXetyas eKelvos Trpo? rov 'ATToXXcoi^a, OUTO?, 
elrrev, ercl ere Trapaaxevd^erai,. Kal 6 /rfao^XeiW 
, 'AXX' 670)76 avrov, elrrev, drroare- 
6ri pe /j,r) rrdvra /jLi/jLeirai /jurfe ev ol? 

fie /jit,/jLirai yyverai /JLOV /Jii/Jirjrrjs iKaios. arco- 
crr(f>avci)0evra oe avrov o KcoKvrbs ev6ea>s 

t rovrw rroXXo\ Kal TravroSaTrol crvverpe%ov, 

o?, Tovrwv, elrre, rwv fjiovdp^wv TO 
rroOev e^rjvp^Kare, a) 0eoi; rv<f)6jjL0a yovv vrrb 
rov Karrvov- fyeloerai yap ovSe rwv dvaicrbpwv 
ravrl ra dypla. Kal b Zev? dm^wv TT/OO? rov 
doe\<f)bv avrov ^dpamv Kal rov Qvea-rcao-iavbv 311 
s, HefiTre, elrce, rov apiKpivTjV rovrov drrb 
AlyvTrrov Ta^ew?, tva rrjv <f>\6ya ravrrjv 
' rcov rralowv oe rov rrpeafivrepov 

1 AJI/J.OV Cobet, 8-f)/j.ov Hertlein, MSS., ATj/ioafleVoyj Span- 
heim. 2 rb (TUTIVOS Hertlein suggests, rbv 8ri/j.ov MSS. 



hurled him into Tartarus. So Silenus had no chance 
to say anything about him. But when Claudius 
came in Silenus began to sing some verses from the 
Knights of Aristophanes/ toadying Claudius, as it 
seemed, instead of Demos. Then he looked at Quirinus 
and said, "Quirinus, it is not kind of you to invite 
your descendant to a banquet without his freedmen 
Narcissus and Pallas. 2 Come," he went on, " send 
and fetch them, and please send too for his spouse 
Messalina, for without them this fellow is like a 
lay-figure in a tragedy, I might almost say lifeless." 3 
While Silenus was speaking Nero entered, lyre in 
hand and wearing a wreath of laurel. Whereupon 
Silenus turned to Apollo and said, " You see he 
models himself on you." "I will soon take off that 
wreath," replied Apollo, " for he does not imitate 
me in all things, and even when he does- he does it 
badly." Then his wreath was taken off and Cocytus 
instantly swept him away. 

After Nero many Emperors of all sorts came 
crowding in together, Vindex, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, 
so that Silenus exclaimed, " Where, ye gods, have ye 
found such a swarm of monarchs ? We are being 
suffocated with their smoke ; for brutes of this sort 
spare not even the temple of the gods." 4 Then Zeus 
turned to his brother Serapis, and pointing to Ves- 
pasian said, " Send this niggard from Egypt forthwith 
to extinguish the flames. As for his sons, bid the 

1 Knights 1111 foil. 

2 Their riches were proverbial, cf. Juvenal 1. 109 ; 14. 32. 

3 Tacitus, Annals 11. 12 ; Juvenal 10. 330 foil. 

4 An allusion partly to the smoke of civil war, partly to 
the burning of the temple of Jupiter Capitoline under 
Vitellius ; the temple was restored by Vespasian ; Tacitus, 
Annals 4. 81. 

A A 2 


fjbV TcaL^eiv /ce\V fieTcu TT}? 
TOV vecoTepov Be T& 


yepwv o<f)@rivai ica\6<>' Xa/u-vret jap O~TIV ore 
KOL ev TW yrfpa TO /caXXo?' evrv^elv Trpaoraro?, 
^pr]fjiaricrai St/caiOTaro?. ySedOrj TOVTOV 6 2ei- B 
\r}vbs KOI a7rea-iw7rr)<TV. elra 6 ' 
Se TOVTOV, eiTrev, ovoev r^ilv X^ei?; Nat 

At', 6(^)97, yLieyLK/>OyUm 76 L'yLtfcl' TT}? 

TW jap <f>oviK(p Orjpiw r/?l? TTCVTG 
eviavTovs eva yLtoXt? eSco/care TOVTW /3ao~t,\6vcrai,. 
'AXXa yu,?) fjie/jL<f)ov, etirev o Zeu?' elcrdga) yap C 
67rl rouTft) TroXXoi'? KajaOovs. eu^eco? ovi^ o 
Tpa'iavos etV?jp%eTo cfrepwv eVt rwz/ w/^wz/ ra 
TpOTraia, TO re FeTi/cor /eal TO HapOircov. iSwv 
Be avTOV 6 ^etX^i/o? 6^77, \av9dveiv re a/^a /cat 
dKOveadai /3ouXo/^ez^o?, r/ Hpa vuv TW SecnroTr) Att 
aKOTceiv, OTTW? 6 TavvfjujSv]? avTW (frpovpijcreTai. 

Mera TOVTOV eTre^cre/o^erat (BaOeiav e^cov Trjv 
VTrrjvrjv dvrjp cro/9a/)09 ra re aXXa al 5^ /cat D 
fjiovaifcrfv epja^o^evo^, et? re TW ovpavov d<f>opwv 
TroXXa/ci? /cat iro\VTrpaji^ovwv ra aTropprjTa. 
TOVTOV Se tScov o ^6^X77^09 e^)?;, Tt Se u//-ti/ ouro9 
o <ro<jfuo-Tt;9 Bo/cel; /JUMV 'KvTivoov Trj& Trepi- 
(TKOTrel; $pao-aT(D TIS avTW pr) Trapelvai TO 
fj,ipdfciov evOaol /cal iravaaTW TOV \vjpov Kal 
T}9 </)Xvapta9 avTov. eVl TOVTOIS dvrjp etVe/9%erat 31! 
o~(t)<f)pa)v, ov TO, 9 ' AffrpoBiTrjv, aXXa ra 9 
7ro\t,Teiav. I8o)v avTov 6 ^eikrfvos <prj, 

TO KV/UIVOV TrpecrvTris ouro9. 
reXOovcnqs 8 



eldest l sport with Aghrodite_Pandemos>and chain the 
younger 2 in the ^o^liS^nk^EIie^Mrian monster." 3 
Next entered an old man/ beautiful to behold ; for 
even old age can be radiantly beautiful. Very mild 
were his manners, most just his dealings. In Silenus 
he inspired such awe that he fell silent. " What ! " 
said Hermes, " have you nothing to say to us about 
this man ? " "Yes, by Zeus," he replied, " I blame 
you gods for your unfairness in allowing that blood- 
thirsty monster to rule for fifteen years, while you 
granted this man scarce one whole year." " Nay," 
said Zeus, " do not blame us. For I will bring in 
many virtuous princes to succeed him." Accordingly 
Trajan entered forthwith, carrying on his shoulders 
the trophies of his wars with the Getae and the 
Parthians. Silenus, when he saw him, said in a 
whisper which he meant to be heard, " Now is the 
time for Zeus our master to look out, if he wants to 
keep Ganymede for himself." 

Next entered an austere-looking man 5 with a 
long beard, an adept in all the arts, but especially 
music, one who was always gazing at the heavens 
and prying into hidden things. Silenus when he 
saw him said, " What think ye of this sophist ? 
Can he be looking here for Antinous ? One of you 
should tell him that the youth is not here, and make 
him cease from his madness and folly." Thereupon 
entered a man 6 of temperate character, I do not 
say in love affairs but in affairs of state. When 
Silenus caught sight of him he exclaimed, " Bah ! 
Such fussing about trifles ! This old man seems to 
me the sort of person who would split cumin seed." 7 

1 Titus. 2 Domitian. 3 Phalaris of Agrigentum. 

4 Nerva. 5 Hadrian. 6 Antoninus Pius. 

7 A proverb for niggardliness ; cf . Theocritus 10, 50. 



So?, ^trjpov /cal Aov/ciov, oeivws 6 "2,ei\,rjvo<; 
avveo~Td\rj. Trai^eiv jap ov/c el%ev ou8' CTTL- 
(TKU>7rTiv, fjLa\L(TTa rov Rfjpov, KCLITOL KOI TOVTOV 
TCL Trepl TOV vlov /cal TTJV yvvai/ca 7ro\V7rpay/jiova)v 

Trjv fiev on TT\OV rj 7rpO(rr)Kev B 
aXXw? re ovSe Koafjiiav ovcrav, rw 
be OTI rrjv dp^rjv crvva f rro\\vi^evrjv TrepielSev, 
e-%wv teal ravra airov^alov /ajSea-Trfv, o? TWV 


Trai&bs avrov fteknov av 7re/jL\^0r) rj auro? 
avrov. KdiTrep ovv ravra TroXuTrpay/jLOvayv rj&eiTO 
TO /ue^e^o? avrov TT}? aperr)?' TOV 76 i^i]v vlea 
ovSe TOV o-/c(i)(j)07Jvai vofiiaas aiov dtfifjKev C 
yap /cal OUTO? et? yijv ov &vvd/jvo<> 

l /cal TrapofiapTelv rot? rjpwcriv. 

<T(f)ayr}v oovpo/jievos. r] Aitcrj Be avTov /careXer;- 
(rao~a, 'AXX' ov yaipJ]<rovGiv, eiTrev, ol TOVTWV 
aiTLOi' /cal o~v Se, w TlepTiva^, rj&iKCis KOIVWVWV 
TT}? eTrifiovXrjs, oo~ov Girl roi? (TKe^aaiv, rjv 
o Ma/o/cou Trat? 7T^ov\vdrj. /aera TOVTOV 6 D 

dvrjp TTLKplas ye/jia>v /cal 2 /co\ao-Ti/c6s. 
TOVTOV oe, eiTrev o ^etX^o?, ov&ev Xeyw 
<f)O/3ov/jiai ydp avTov TO \iav aTrrjves real aTrapal- 
TTJTOV. ft?9 Se e/jie\\V avTW Kal TCL Trai&dpta 3 
crvveio~ievai, TropptoQev avTa &i6/ca)\vo-V 6 MtVw?. 
eTTiyvov? be cra^xw? TOV pev veaiTepov dcfrij/ce, TOV 

1 'iffraffQai Cobet, "TTTOO-^OI Hertlein, MSS. 

2 Kai before Ko\affriKos Hertlein suggests. 

3 TraiSapm Cobet, MSS., 7rcu5ap/5ta Hertlein, V., m. 



Next entered the pair of brothers., Verus 1 and 
Lucius. 2 Silenus scowled horribly because he could 
not jeer or scoff at them, especially not at Verus ; 
but he would not ignore his errors of judgment in 
the case of his son 3 and his wife/ in that he 
mourned the latter beyond what was becoming, 
especially considering that she was not even a vir- 
tuous woman ; and he failed to see that his son was 
ruining the empire as well as himself, and that 
though Verus had an excellent son-in-law who would 
have administered the state better, and besides 
would have managed the youth better than he could 
manage himself. But though he refused to ignore 
these errors he reverenced the exalted virtue of 
Verus. His son however he considered not worth 
even ridicule and so let him pass. Indeed he fell to 
earth of his own accord because he could not keep 
on his feet or accompany the heroes. 

Then Pertinax came in to the banquet still 
bewailing his violent end. But Justice took pity 
on him and said, " Nay, the authors of this deed 
shall not long exult. But Pertinax, you too were 
guilty, since at least so far as conjecture went you 
were privy to the plot that was aimed at the son of 
Marcus." Next came Severus, a man of excessively 
harsh temper and delighting to punish. "Of him," 
said Silenus, " I have nothing to say, for I am 
terrified by his forbidding and implacable looks." 
When his sons would have entered with him, Minos 
kept them at a distance. However, w r hen he had 
clearly discerned their characters, he let the 
younger 5 pass, but sent away the elder 6 to atone 

1 Verus was the family name of Marcus Aurelius. 

2 Lucius Verus. a Commodus. 4 Faustina. 
5 Qeta. 6 Caracalla. 



Be Trpea/BvTepov Ti^Lwoiav eTrefjufye ricrovra. Ma- 313 
Kplvos evTavda <J>vya$ /jiiaL<f)6vo$' elra TO CK T?)9 
'E/i,e<T779 Traibdpiov Troppco TTOV TWV lep&v a7rr)\av- 
VTO TrepLftoXwv. 6 <ye /jbrjv ^vpo<$ 
ev eV^arot? TTOV fcaOtja-TO T^V avrov 
TroTVia>fjLvo<$. Kal o 'ZeiXrjvos eTno-KWTrTwv avrov 
elirev^ *l ficope Kal fjieya vrfme, TT)\I,KOVTO<; cov 

OVK aVTO? ^/0%6? TO)V (TGaVTOV, TO, XPVi JLaTa ^ 

eSiSovs rfj jjLrjrpl KOI OVK eireicrOri^, oarw Kpelrrov B 
ava\L(TKeiV rjv avra rot? <tXot? rj Orjcravpi^eiv. 
' eywye, el'jrev r) AI/CT;, irdvra^ avrov<>, oaoi 
fyeyovaai TOVTWV, KoXaaOqcro/jLevovs 
. Kal ovrws aveidr) TO /jLeipa-Kiov. 7rl 
TOVTW irapri\6ev e'law FaXX^o? /JLCTCL TOV Tra- 
T/30?, o JJLGV TO, oea-fia TY)? at^yuaX&Wa? G'XCDV, 
6 be (TToXfj T6 Kal Kivrjaei ^pcoyu-e^o? fjaXaKWTepa C 
wcrTrep at yvvatKes. Kal 6 Se^X^z/o? TT/JO? fjiev 


t9 OUTO? O 

UpoTrap 09 rjyeiTai 
ecf)?), 7T/JO? Se TOV Ya\\ir)vov, 

' N O? Kal xpvcrov e%c0v TcdvTif] Tpvcf>a rjVTe Kovprj" 
TOVTfo &e 6 Zeu? et-Tre T^ e/cetcre Ooivris K/3f)vai. 

reicrepXTai, KXa^5to9, eh ov airi- 
ol Oeoi irdvTe^ rjyda-dijo-dv re avTov Tr)<s 
<; Kal eirevevcrav avTov rc3 >yevei TTJV 
ijv, SiKaiov elvai vofJuaavTe^ OVTQ) ^tXoTrarpt- 
7rl 7r\el<JTOv elvai TO ye^O9 ev rjje- 
TOUT069 eTreiGeSpajjiev AvprjXiavbs wcnrep 
v TOV<$ eipyovTas avTov irapd TW 

1 f'lirev Hertlein suggests, ^irelirfv MSS, 


for his crimes. Next Macrinus, assassin and fugitive, 
and after him the pretty boy from Emesa 1 were driven 
far away from the sacred enclosure. But Alexander 
the Syrian sat down somewhere in the lowest ranks 
and loudly lamented his fate. 2 Silenus made fun of 
him and exclaimed, " O fool and madman ! Exalted 
as you were you could not govern your own family, 
but gave your revenues to your mother : 3 nor could 
you be persuaded how much better it was to bestow 
them on your friends than to hoard them." " I 
however/' said Justice, " will consign to torment all 
who were accessory to his death." And then the 
youth was left in peace. Next entered Gallienus 
and his father, 4 the latter still dragging the chains 
of his captivity, the other with the dress and lan- 
guishing gait of a woman. Seeing Valerian, Silenus 
cried, " Who is this with the white plume that leads 
the army's van ? " 5 Then he greeted Gallienus with, 
"He who is all decked with gold and dainty as a 
maiden." 6 But Zeus ordered the pair to depart 
from the feast. 

Next came Claudius, 7 at whom all the gods gazed, 
and admiring his greatness of soul granted the empire 
to his descendants, since they thought it just that 
the posterity of such a lover of his country should 
rule as long as possible. Then Aurelian came rush- 
ing in as though trying to escape from those who 
would detain him before the judgment seat of Minos. 

Heliogabalus ; cf. Oration 4. 150 D, note. 

Alexander Severus was assassinated in 235 A.D. 


Valerian died in captivity among the Persians. 

Euripides, Phoenissae 120. 

Slightly altered from Iliad 2. 872, 

Cf. Oration 1. 6 p, 

36 i 


MM>&H* TroXXcu jap avrw avv'KnavTO Bitcai TWV 

dBlKCOV (f)OVCi)V, KOI (f)Vye T9 ypa<j)d<; KaKO)<$ 

aTroXoyovjAevos. r/ HXi09 Be OV/JLOS BeaTrorrj^ avrw 314 
Tr/009 re ra aXXa ftorjOwv, ov% r//a<7ra Be KCU 
TT/JO? rovro avrb crvvrjparo, <f)pdaas eV rot9 Oeols, 
aTrericre rrjv SiKrjv, rj \e\rj6ev rj SoOetcra 

A.IK6 irdOrj rd r' epe^e, Bi/crj K lOela yevoiTo; 

TOVTM avveiaep^erai ITpoySo9, 09 e/3So/j,ijfcovTa 
7roXet9 dvacmjcras ev ovSe 0X0^9 eviavrois evrra B 
KCU TroXXa Trdvv crwfypovws oiKOvo^rj(ra^y aSiKa Be 
VTTO TWV aOewv, eTL/juaro rd re aXXa 
ra) Toi<9 (froveas avrm rrjv Biicrjv eKTLcrdi. 
Be CLVTOV o/A&>9 o 2etX77^o9 eTreiparo, 
TroXXwy a^Tw aiwnav 7rapa/ce\vo[jievtov 
'Eare, (j)r), vvv yovv Bi? avrov TOU9 e^9 
<f)peva)6f)vai. OVK olcrOa, w IT/oo/5e, OT^ ra tri/cpa C 
<f>dpfiaKa jjuiyvvvres ol larpol rw /ji6\iKpdrw Trpoa- 
<pepov(7L; av Be avcrrr/pos rj&Oa \iav KOI Tpa^vs 
del eircwv re ovBapov' TreirovOa^ ovv aBitca fiev, 
eiKOTd Be oyu,a)9. ov yap ecrriv ovre LTTTTCOV oure 
ftowv ap^eiv ovre fifJLibvwv, tfrcia-ra Be dvOpwTrwv, 
pr) TI KOI TWV Ke^apia/jLevwv avroi? fvy^mpovvra, 
wcnrep eaO^ ore rot9 dadevovaiv ol larpol fu/cpd 

iv ev rot9 /JLeifraiv fyajcriy avrovs D 
. Ti TOVTO, eljTCv 6 Aiovvaros, ft) TraTT- 
TTia; (>i\o(TO(})O$ rj/jiiv dvecfrdwrjs; ov yap, w ?rat, 



For many charges of unjustifiable murders were 
brought against him, and he was in flight because 
he could ill defend himself against the indictments." 
But my lord Helios l who had assisted him on other 
occasions, now too came to his aid and declared 
before the gods, " He has paid the penalty, or have 
you forgotten the oracle uttered at Delphi, ' If 
his punishment match his crime justice has been 
done ' ? " 2 

With Aurelian entered Probus, who in less than 
seven years restored seventy cities and was in many 
ways a wise administrator. Since he had been un- 
justly treated by impious men the gods paid him 
honours, and moreover exacted the penalty from his 
assassins. For all that, Silenus tried to jest at his 
expense, though many of the gods urged him to be 
silent. In spite of them he called out, "Now let 
those that follow him learn wisdom from his example. 
Probus, do you not know that when physicians give 
bitter medicines they mix them with ' honey ? 3 But 
you were always too austere and harsh and never 
displayed toleration. And so your fate, though 
unjust, was natural enough. For no one can govern 
horses or cattle or mules, still less men, unless he 
sometimes yields to them and gratifies their wishes ; 
just as physicians humour their patients in trifles so 
that they may make them obey in things more 
essential." "What now, little father," exclaimed 
Dionysus, "have you turned up as our philosopher?" 

1 Cf . Oration 4. 155 B. 

2 An oracular verse ascribed to Rhadamanthus by Aris- 
totle, Nic. Ethics 5. 5. 3 ; attributed to Hesiod, Fragments 
150 Goettling ; it became a proverb. 

3 Plato, Laws 659 E ; a rhetorical commonplace ; Them- 
istius 63 B. 



e<f>r), real o~v (f)i\6o~o(f)O<> vrr* ejJLOV yeyovas; OVK 
ola6a, on Kal 6 "ZayKpdrrjs, eot/coos e/JLoi, ra 
Trpcoreia Kara rr]V (f)i\oo~o<j)Lav aTrrjveyKaro rwv 
eavrov dvOpwrrwv, el rdBe\(j)w Triarreveis on 
; ea roivvv rj/uias fir) Trdvra yeXoia 
\e<yeiv, d\\a KCU cnrov^ala. 

"Erfc SidXeyo/Jievcov avr&v Trpo? d\\rj\ov$, o re 315 
Kapo? apa rot? iraialv ela-^prja-ai ftov\r)0el<; et? 
TO av/ATTOO'iov drre\^\aro Trapa T^? AI/CT;?, /cal 6 
kiOK\ririavos, aycov /J,e0' eavrov Ma|-t//,ta^o6 re ra) 
Svo /cal rov e/jibv Trairrcov T&wverrdvriov, ev Koa^w 
TTpofjyev. efyovro Se d\\rf\a>v rw ^elpe, KOI 
eftd&t^ov OVK ef fcr^9, aXX' ola XP^ T6? % v 7re P^ 
avrov, rwv jnev w&Trep $opv(f)opovvrci)v /cal TrpoOetv B 
avrov /3ov\o/jievci)v, rov oe e'ip<yovro<$' ovSev yap 
rj^iov 7r\eovefcreiv. a>? Be %vviei KafJivovros eavrov, 
Sovs avrois airavra, o<ra efapev eirl r&v w^wv^ 
avrbs euXuro? e/3aSt^ez/. rjyda-Qrja-av 01 Oeol rwv 
dvbpwv rrjv ofjbovoiav, Kal eirerpetyav avroi? Trpb 
Trdvv KadrfdOai. Set^w? $e ovra rov 
KoKaarov o ^ei\r}vb<> e7ri(TK(t)7rreii> 
/j,ev OVK r)%iov, TO Se rwv fBaGikewv OVK elo-e^e^ero C 
avGGiriov. ov jap /JLOVOV ra et? 'A(f>poolrr)v r]v 
Travroiav daehyeiav dtfeXyrfs, d\\d Kal (f)t\07rpay- 
aayv Kal arcKTros Kal ov ra Trdvra rw 
avvwbwv. e^TJ\aaev ovv avrov rj 
elra d7rrf\6ev OVK oiBa OTTOL 7^9* e7re\a06fjirjv yap 
avrb Trapa rov 'Epaov Tro'XvTrpa<yfjiOvfjo-ai. rovrw 
8e TW Travap/JLoviq) rerpa^opo'q) irapafyverai 



''Why, my son," he replied, "did I not make a 
philosopher of you ? Do you not know that Socrates 
also, who was so like me, 1 carried off the prize for 
philosophy from his contemporaries, at least if you 
believe that your brother 2 tells the truth ? So you 
must allow me to be serious on occasion and not 
always jocose." 

W'hile they were talking, Carus and his sons tried 
to slip into the banquet, but Justice drove them 
away. Next Diocletian advanced in pomp, bringing 
with him the two Maximians and my grandfather 
Constantius. 3 These latter held one another by the 
hand and did not walk alongside of Diocletian, but 
formed a sort of chorus round him. And when they 
wished to run before him as a bodyguard he pre- 
vented them, since he did not think himself entitled 
to more privileges than they. But when he realised 
that he was growing weary he gave over to them all 
the burdens that he carried on his shoulders, and 
thereafter walked with greater ease. The gods 
admired their unanimity and permitted them to sit 
far in front of many of their predecessors. Maximian 
was so grossly intemperate that Silenus wasted no 
jests on him, and he was not allowed to join the 
emperors at their feast. For not only did he indulge 
in vicious passions of all sorts, but proved meddle- 
some and disloyal and often introduced discord into 
that harmonious quartette. Justice therefore banished 
him without more ado. So he went I know not 
whither, for I forgot to interrogate Hermes on this 
point. However into that harmonious symphony of 

1 Cf. Plato, Symposium 215 ; cf. Julian, Oration 6. 187 A. 

2 A reference to the oracle of Apollo which declared that 
Socrates was the wisest man of his times. 

3 Cf. Oration 1. 7 A, B. 



Kal rpa^v teal Tapa%ay&e$ crva-rrj^La. TOU? /JLV ovv D 
Bvo ovBe TWV TTpoOvpwv d^raffOai rf;? rwv rjpwwv 
dyopds $ Aitcr) (rvve^wprjcre, AIKLVLOV Be 
TTpodvpcov \0ovra, 7ro\\d ical aroira 

ra^ew? 6 Mivws e^rjKaa-ev. o Kwv- 
Be 7rapfj\06V etVco teal TTO\VV e/ 
elra /^er' avrbv ra Trai&ia. 

'yap OVK fjv el'croSo?, on prfev 1/7^6? eireirpd^ei, 316 
KCLITOL TroXXa eBofcei TTeirpa^Oai ry dvBpl /ca\d' ol 
Oeol Be bpwwrts, ori fir) ravra etc /caXfjs avrq) 
SiaOecrecos, elw avrbv olfjiw^eiv diro- 

?^? dfji<f)l TO SeiTrvov irapa- 

cr/cevrjs, eirbdovv fiev ovBev OL deoi, Trdvra yap 
avrwv Be TWV rjpcowv eBo/cei TO> 
, ical r&> Atl rovro OVK dirb 
fy. eBeiro Be ical b KU/MZ/O? TjBrj rivd 
etceWev Trap 1 eavrov. 'HparX^9 Be eljrev, OVK B 
dve^ouai, w Kvplve' Bid ri yap ov^l KOI TOV efjibv 
*A\eJ;avBpov eVt TO BeiTrvov TrapeKoXeis ; crov 
Tolvvv, eljrev, w ZeO, Beo/tai, ei iiva TOVTWV 
eyvc&Kas dyeiv TTyoo? ^//.a?, iJKeiv TOV *A.\ei;avBpov 
KeXeve. ri yap ov^i KOWTJ TWV dvBpwv dTTOTreipot)- 
fj,evoi rw ^e\TLovt, nOe^eOa; BiKaia \eyetv 6 T% 
'AX/cyttTJ^? eBoKet TOO Att. Kal eVeto-eX#oi>TO? C 
avrov TO?? f)pa)(Ti,v ovre 6 Kaicrap ovre aXXo? Tt? 
vTravicrraTO' Kata\a/3a)v Be o"xp\d%ovaav Kade- 
Bpav, r)v b TOV ^eftrfpov ?rat9 eVeTrot^TO eavrw, 
CKeivos yap d7re\rj\aro Bid rrjv 



four there crept a terribly harsh and discordant strain, 
For this reason Justice would not suffer the two 1 so 
much as to approach the door of that assembly of 
heroes. As for Licinius, he came as far as the door, 
but as his misdeeds were many and monstrous Minos 
forthwith drove him away. Constantine however 
entered and sat some time, and then came his sons. 2 
Magnentius 3 was refused admission because he had 
never done anything really laudable, though much 
that he achieved had the appearance of merit. So 
the gods, who perceived that these achievements 
were not based on any virtuous principle, sent him 
packing, to his deep chagrin. 

When the feast had been prepared as I have 
described, the gods lacked nothing, since all things 
are theirs. Then Hermes proposed to examine the 
heroes personally and Zeus was of the same mind. 
Quirinus thereupon begged that he might summon 
one of their number to his side. " Quirinus," said 
Heracles, " I will not have it. For why did you not 
invite to the feast my beloved Alexander also ? Zeus, 
if you are minded to introduce into our presence any 
of these Emperors, send, I beg of you, for Alexander. 
For if we are to examine into the merits of men 
generally, why do we not throw open the competi- 
tion to the better man ? " Zeus considered that 
what the son of Alcmena said was only just. So 
Alexander joined the company of heroes, but neither 
Caesar nor anyone else yielded his place to him. 
However he found and took a vacant seat which the 
sqn 4 of Severus had taken for himself he had been 

1 i.e. the two Maximians, the colleagues of Diocletian. 

2 Constantine II, Constans and Constantius. 

a Cf. Oration 1. 31, 33 foil. 4 Caraoalla. 



KOI 6 XetX^i/o? erncr KOWTOW TOV Ku/ot- 
vov/'Opa, elTre, yurj TTOTC OVTOL ei/o? elcni> 1 aviafyoi 
TOVTOvl TOV TpaiKov. Ma Ata, elrrev o Ktynz/o?, 
olfiai TroXXoi'? eZwt ///^ %eipovas. OVTCO Be avTov 
ol e/iiol TedavjjLCiKacnv eyyovoi, Mare /AOVOV CLVTOV D 
6/c Trdvrcov, oaoi yefyova&iv rjyefjioves %evoi, ovo- 
/jid^ova-L Kal VO^I^OVGI /Jieyav. ov firjv eri KCU 
rwv Trap* eavrols yeyovorwv oiovrai /Aei^ova TOV- 
TOV, tVft)? /AW VTTO (friXavTias TI TraObvres, tVa>5 B 
/cal oirra)? eyov etVoyu-e^a Se avritca jjidXa TWV 
dvSpwv aTTOTreipw/Aevoi,. ravra fj,a\icrTa \eya)v o 
iv 09 rjpvOpia, KCU Sr)Xo? YJP dyoovicov iiirep TWV 

rwv eavrov, /AT) TTOV TO, Sevrepela 

Mera rovro 6 Zew? r//oero TOU? Oeovs, Trorepov 317 
rj Trdwras 7rl TOV dywva KoXeiv r}, Kaddirep ev 
rot? yv/jiviKOLS dywai, ryiverai, 6 TOV TroXXa? dve\o- 
/juevov vi/cas KpaTijcras, evo? TrepL^evo^evo^, ovoev 
e\aTTOV &OKi KCLtcelvuiv yeyovevai Kpeicrawv, ot 
TrpoaeTrakaiaav /xev ovBafjiws CLVTW, TOV /cpaTrj- 
6evTo<$ Be TJTTOVS eyevovTO. Kal e&oKei Tcacnv rj 
ToiavTrj cr(f>68pa e/z/^eXw? e^ens etfeTao'is. CKIJ- B 
pVTTev ovv o 'Ep/z,?}? rrapievai Katcra/9a Kai TOV 
'QK.Taj3iavov errl TOVTW, Tpaiavbv Be GK TpiTwv, 
a)? 7ro\ejjLLKO)TdTov^. elra ryevop,evr]s aiwjrri^ o 
Kpovos ^\e\fra<i el? TOV At'a 0avfjideiv 
fj,ev avTOKpaTopas opwv eirl TOV 
dywva TOVTovl Kokovfjievovs, ovBeva pevToi, <f>i,\6- 
(T0<j)ov. 'Eyaot Be, elrrev, ov-% TJTTOV elcnv ol 
TOLOVTOL <j)i\oL. Ka\eiT ovv elaw Kal TOV C 

1 ev6s elffiv avra^ioi Naber, ev~bs SXTIV OVK avrd^ioi Hertlein, 
MSS. ; V omits OVK. 



expelled for fratricide. Then Silenus began to rally 
Quirinus and said, " See now whether all these 
Romans can match this one Greek." 1 "By Zeus/' 
retorted Quirinus, " I consider that many of them 
are as good as he ! It is true that my descendants 
have admired him so much that they hold that he 
alone of all foreign generals is worthy to be styled 
' the Great/,, But it does not follow that they think 
mssr^feater than their own heroes ; which may be 
due to national prejudice,, but again they may be 
right. However, that we shall very soon find out by 
examining these men." Even as he spoke Quirinus 
was blushing, and was evidently extremely anxious 
on behalf of his descendants and feared that they 
might come off with the second prize. 

Then Zeus asked the gods whether it would be 
better to summon all the Emperors to enter the lists, 
or whether they should follow the custom of athletic 
contests, which is that he who defeats the winner of 
many victories, though he overcome only that one 
competitor is held thereby to have proved himself 
superior to all who have been previously defeated, 
and that too though they have not wrestled with the 
winner, but only shown themselves inferior to an 
antagonist who has been defeated. All the gods 
agreed that this was a very suitable sort of test. 
Hermes then summoned Caesar to appear before 
them, then Octavian, and thirdly Trajan, as being 
the greatest warriors. In the silence that followed, 
Kronos turned to Zeus and said that he was astonished 
to see that only martial Emperors were summoned to 
the competition, and not a single philosopher. " For 
my part," he added, " I like philosophers just as well. 
1 Of. Plato, Laws 730 D ; Julian, Misopogon 353 D. 




MdpKOv. eVel Be Kal 6 MdpKOS K\r)6el<> Traprjk9e, 
aefjuvos ayav, VTTO TWV irovwv e^wv TO, re oyLtyu-ara 
Kal TO TTpocrwTrov V7ro Ti avve<JTa\iJLevov, /caXXo9 
Be d/jufyavov ev avTW TOVTW BeiKvvwv, ev <j> irap- 
elyev eavTOV aKo/jb^rov Kal dKa\\(t)7rio~TOV rj re 
jap vTrijvr) (3a6ela nravrd'nacnv rjv avTW Kal ra 
i^aTia Xira Kal crax^pova, Kal VTTO Trjs evBeia? 
TWV Tpocfcwv r]v avTM TO (rw/jba BiavyeaTaTov Kal D 
Biatyavea-TaTov wcnrep avTo olfjiai TO KaOapooTaTov 
Kal el\LKpive(TTaTOv ^W9' eVel Kal OVTOS TJV elaw 

/3aaL\ev Kpove Kal Zev TraTep, dpa agiov ev 
^eot9 areXe9 elvai TI; TO)V Be ov (fra/jLevwv, EtVa- 
<ya)/j,ev ovv Tiva Kal a7roXaucreft)9 epaaTrjv evBaBi. 
Kal 6 Ztv$, 'AXX' ov Oe/jiLTov eicrco fyoiTav, elirev, 
dvBpl pr) TCL r]p,eTepa tyj\ovvTi. Tiryveo~0a> TOLVVV, 
eiTreV) eVt TWV TrpoOvpwv, 6 Ato^ucro9, avTols r) 

dXX', el TOVTO BOKCI Tavrr), KaXwuev 318 
OVK aTToXe/jiOV /juev, rjBovff Be Kal dTroXavaei 
rjKeTw ovv d^pi TWV TrpoOvpwv 
6 KwvcrTavTivos. 7rel Be eBeBoKTO Kal TOVTO, 

TrpovTedrj. Kal 6 fjiev '^p/mrjc; r)%lov \eyeiv en 
ev /jLepet, irepl TWV eavTOv, TiQeaQai Be TO 1)9 

e%eiv d\t]0Las yap eivai, Kal ov TTiOavo- B 

Be 6 Zei/9 d{i<f)OTepois ^api^eo'dai Kal 
Trpodyeiv 7rl 7r\eov avTols Trjv 
QvBev, 647T6, Kw\veu \eyeiv fjiev avTOts 
fMKpd TOV vBaTos 7riiATprjo~avTa$, elTa vo~Tepov 



So tell Marcus 1 to come in too." Accordingly Marcus 
was summoned and came in looking excessively 
dignified and showing the effect of his studies in 
the expression of his eyes and his lined brows. His 
aspect was unutterably beautiful from the very fact 
that he was careless of his appearance and unadorned 
by art ; for he wore a very long beard, his dress was 
plain and sober, and from lack of nourishment his 
body was very shining and transparent, like light 
most pure and stainless. When he too had entered 
the sacred enclosure., Dionysus said, " King Kronos 
and Father Zeus, can any incompleteness exist among 
the gods?" And when they replied that it could 
not, "Then," said he, "let us bring in here some 
votary of pleasure as well." "Nay," answered Zeus, 
" it is not permitted that any man should enter here 
who does not model himself on us." " In that case," 
said Dionysus, "let them be tried at the entrance. 
Let us summon by your leave a man not uiiwarlike 
but a slave to pleasure and enjoyment. Let 
Constantine come as far as the door." When this 
had been agreed upon, opinions were offered as to 
the manner in which they were to compete. Hermes 
thought that everyone ought to speak for himself in 
turn, and then the gods should vote. But Apollo 
did not approve of this plan, because he said the 
gods ought to test and examine the truth and not 
plausible rhetoric and the devices of the orator. 
Zeus wished to please them both and at the same 
time to prolong the assembly, so he said, "There is 
no harm in letting them speak if we measure them a 
small allowance of water,' 2 and then later on we can 

1 Marcus Aurelius. 

2 A reference to the water-clock, clepsydra. 


B B 2 


avepwrav KOI diroTreipaaOat r^9 eKciarov Biavoias. C 
Kal o SetX?;z;o9 eTria-tcwTTTCOv, 'AXX' OTTW? 
<ravTes avTo ve/CTap elvai, ^paiavos re real 
5po9 airav eKpotyrfffovcri 1 TO v$a)p, eira 
rou? aXXof?. Aral o Iloo-etSwt', Ov TOV/JLOV vSa 
elirev, d\\a rov v/juerepov TrwjJLaro^ epaaral TOD 
avSpe eyevecrOijv. virep TWV aeavrov roiyapovv 
dfjL7re\G)v /jia\\oi> rj TWV GJJLWV Trrjywv afyov 

SeSievai. Kal 6 ^i\rjvo<f Srj^Oel^ eVttwTra, KOL 
rot? dywvi^o/Jievois etc TOVTOV TOV vovv 


ad\wv Tafias, 
Be Ka\el 


K^pv/ca ftoav 319 

ol rrplv 




re fJbe<yav 

^pova vovv, 

IT, 9 aVTlTTdKoV 

Kpicriv, B 

ffi Hertlein suggests, fKpo^ffcaffi MSS. 
2 a<t>( \ovvrai Hertlein suggests, o.<pf\tavrai MSS. 


cross-examine them and test the disposition of each 
one." Whereupon Silenus said sardonically, " Take 
care, or Trajan and Alexander will think it is nectar 
and drink up all the water and leave none for the 
others." " It was not my water," retorted Poseidon, 
"but your vines that these two were fond of. So 
you had better tremble for your vines rather than 
for my springs." Silenus was greatly piqued and 
had no answer ready, but thereafter turned his 
attention to the disputants. 

Then Hermes made this proclamation : 

" The trial that begins 
Awards to him who wins 
The fairest prize to-day. 
And lo, the hour is here 
And summons you. Appear ! 
Ye may no more delay. 
Come hear the herald's call 
Ye princes one and all. 
Many the tribes of men 
Submissive to you then ! 
How keen in war your swords ! 
But now 'tis wisdom's turn ; 
Now let your rivals learn 
How keen can be your words. 



0*9 re (f)povrj(Tiv 


Ot9 T* a 

/cafca 7roA,V 
KOI xprj&ra 

Ot? 0' r)&i(TTr)V 

s re <f>epiv 

Be reXo9 

Toiavra rov 'EpyLtoO KrjpVTTOvros eK\rjpovvro' D 
:at 7rft)9 (Twe^pafJLe rfj rov Katcra/909 o K\r)po<; 
(f)i\07rpci)Tia. rovro e/ceivov p,ev eTroirjcre yavpov 
KOI ao/Sapcorepov eSe^cre 8e Sta rovro /ju/cpov KOI 
(f)evyeiv rrjv Kpiaiv o *A\eav$po$' d\\a Trapa- 
Oappvvwv avrov o jjieyas ( I{paK\rj<; eVea-^e. Sev- 

ot K\ijpoL rot9 e/cdarov %povoi<; 32C 
a-v/JL7rpor)\0ov. r)p%arc ovv o Kalaap wSi- 
/^e^, w Zeu /cal 6eoL, <yevi(T0(u ev 



Wisdom, thought some, is bliss 
Most sure in life's short span ; 
Others did hold no less 
That power to ban or bless 
Is happiness for man. 
But some set Pleasure high, 
Idleness, feasting, love, 
All that delights the eye ; 
Their raiment soft and fine, 
Their hands with jewels shine, 
Such bliss did they approve. 
But whose the victory won 
Shall Zeus decide alone." l 

While Hermes, had been making this proclamation 
the lots were being drawn, and it happened that the 
first lot favoured Caesar's passion for being first. This 
made him triumphant and prouder than before. But 
the effect on Alexander was that he almost withdrew 
from the competition, had not mighty Heracles 
encouraged him and prevented him from leaving. 
Alexander drew the lot to speak second, but the 
lots of those who came next coincided with the 
order in which they had lived. Caesar then began 
as follows : " It was my fortune, O Zeus and ye 

1 In this doggerel made up of tags of anapaestic verse, 
Julian reproduces in the first five and last two verses the 
proclamation made at the Olympic games. The first three 
verses occur in Lucian, Demonax 65. 



crvveftrj TroXet yu-era rocrovrovs avBpas, axrre rrjv 
fjLev o&wv ov TrcoTTore aXX?7 TroXt? e/3acrtXef<Te 
(3a<ri\eveiv, raft Be a^air^rov TO #ai ra Bevrepa 
KO/jbiaaadai. rt? 7/o TroXt? a?ro Tpia-^LKiwv 
dv8p)v ap^a/JLevr) ev ov$ oXot? eTecriv e^aKoaioi^ B 
eVl 7^79 77X^6 Trepara rot? o?rXot9; vrota 
avBpas dyaQovs re fcal Tr 
/cal vopoOeTiKovs; 6eov$ Se 
ovT(o rives; ev 8rj rocravrp teal rfj\L/cavrrj 7ro\ei 
<yev6fjbvo$ ov TOU? fear e/mavrov povov, d\\a /cal 

TOU? 7TO)7rOT6 7Tapfj\00V T0t9 p<yOl<>. KOi TWV 

efjicov fjiev 7ro\ira)v ev olSa <? ovSels dvriTroitfa-erai 
ILQI r&v Trpwreicov el 8e 'A\ej;avSpos ovroal C 
ro\/jua, riva rcov epycov rwv eavrov rot9 e/z-ot? 
afyol TrapaftdKelv; icrcos ra Hepai/cd, &<nrep ot-% 
eopaKODS eyrjyep/jieva poi rooravra Kara Tlo/jLTrrjiov 
rpoTraua; icairoi rt? Beivorepos arparvjybs yeyove, 
Aapei09 r) TIo/jLTrtfios ; jrorepa) Be dvSpeiorepov 
r)Ko\ov6ei crrparoTreSov; ra jjuev ovv (JLa^fiwrara 
rcov Aa^etw irporepov vTra/covovrcDV eOvwv ev rfj D 
lo/jLTrrfios ^l^ev, TOU9 &e e/c 
01 rr)v 'A.criav 7foA,Xa/a 

eTrdyovaav erpetyavro, /cal rovra)V avrwv 
dvSpeiordrovs, 'IraXou9, 'IXXty^oi^, KeXrou9. aXX' 
rwv KeXrcoz> vTre^vrjaO^v, dpa rols Ten/cots 
'AXegdvopov rrjv rfjs Ke\n/crj<} dvrirdr- 
rofjiev /caOaipeo-iv; ovros aira^ eirepaiwO^ rbv 
"Icrrpov, eyoD Sevrepov rbv 'Pijvov TepfJiaviKov 
av rovro rb e/^bv epyov. rovrw Be avrecrrr) fj,ev 

37 6 


other gods, to be born, following a number of great 
men, in a city so illustrious that she rules more 
subjects than any other city has ever ruled ; and 
indeed other cities are well pleased to rank as 
second to her. 1 What other city, I ask, began with 
three thousand citizens and in less than six centuries 
carried her victorious arms to the ends of the earth ? 
What other nations ever produced so many brave 
and warlike men or such lawgivers ? W T hat nation 
ever honoured the gods as they did ? Observe then 
that, though I was born in a city so powerful and so 
illustrious, my achievements not only surpassed the 
men of my own day, but all the heroes who ever 
lived. As for my fellow-citizens I am confident that 
there is none who will challenge my superiority. 
But if Alexander here is so presumptuous, which of 
his deeds does he pretend to compare with mine ? 
His Persian conquests, perhaps, as though he had 
never seen all those trophies that I gathered when I 
defeated Pompey ! And pray, who was the more 
skilful general, Darius or Pompey ? Which of them 
led the bravest troops ? Pompey had in his army the 
most martial of the nations formerly subject to 
Darius, 2 but he reckoned them no better than 
Carians, 3 for he led also those European forces which 
had often repulsed all Asia when she invaded 
Europe, aye and he had the bravest of them all, 
Italians, Illyrians, and Celts. And since I have 
mentioned the Celts, shall we compare the exploits 
of Alexander against the Getae with my conquest of 
Gaul ? He crossed the Danube once, I crossed the 
Rhine twice. The German conquest again is all my 
doing. No one opposed Alexander, but I had to 
1 Cf. Oration 1. 8 c. 2 Darius III. 3 Cf. Oration 2. 56 c. 



ovBe el?, 6700 Trpo? * ApiofticrTOV rjywvicrd/jL'rjv. 32 
TrpwTO? To\/JLr)<Ta 'Pw/jLaicov e7TL/3fjvaL T?}? e'/CTo? 
#aXacro-T7?. KOI TOVTO TJV 6<7W? TO epyov ov dav- 
/jLacrrov. KaiTOL rrjv ToXyiiav KOI ravTTjv a%iov 
dav/Jidcrai' d\\a TO fjbei^ov /JLOV, TO aTroftfjvai, TT}? 
Trpwrov KOI TOU? 'EX/SeTtou? (TiajTro) KCLI TO 
*\(3r)pwv eBvos. ovbevos en TWV 

, TT\IV 1 ^ Tpiarcoa-ia 
dvSpa)v Be OVK e'Xacro-ou? ^ 
. ovrcov Be TOVTWV poi TOLOVTWV epywv, 
e/celvo /jiei&v rjv real ro\/jL7jporpov. ^pr}v yap B 
fjie teal Trpo? auTOU? &t,aywvi%ecr(}ai, TOU? vroXtTa? 
/cat /cparelv TWV dfid^cov KOI dvi/ctfTwv 'Payfjiaicov. 
ovv 7r\r/0et, Tt? icplvei TTapard^ewv, T/?t? 

Bpov KG/AIT drover iv ol TO, Trepl avrov 
TTOIOVVTCS, eire 7r\ri6ei TroXewv al^f^aXcorajv, ov 
TT}? 'Acrta? JJLOVOV, d\\a teal TT}? Et/pa>7n75 Ta C 
TrXetcrTa Karea-Tpe^jrdfjirjv. 'AXefai'Spo? PCiyvmov 
e7rr)\0e 2 Oecopwv, eycb Be avfjLirbcria (rvyKpOTWv 
/caTeTroXe/^o-a. T^ 8e />teTa TO KpaTTJa-ai Trpao- 
rrjra (3ov\ea6e egerda-ai, rrjv Trap' eKarepw; eyw 
KOI TO? TroXe/Atot? crvveyvayv eiradov yovv UTT' 
ocra 6//-eX7/cre T^ A//CT;' o 5e TT/JO? TO?? 
uSe TWV (f)i\a)v dTrecr^ero. eri ovv D 

V 7TpCOTL(i)V d/JL<pL(T/3rjTelv OtO? T6 6(77?; 

/tal ou/c avrodev KOL &v Tra/oa^wprjcre 
aXXwv, aXXa dvayfcd<reis fjue \eyew, OTTW? 0*1) 
exprjarct) 7T4/C/9W? Sijftaiot?, eycb Be Tot? 

1 TrAeiV Cobet, irAe'ot/ Hertlein, MSS. 

2 ^rfjAfle Hertlein suggests,7T6ptr)A0e Cobet, TrapTjAfle MSS, 



contend against Ariovistus. I was the first Roman 
who ventured to sail the outer sea. 1 Perhaps this 
achievement was not so wonderful, though it was a 
daring deed that may well command your admira- 
tion ; but a more glorious action of mine was when I 
leapt ashore from my ship before all the others. 2 Of 
the Helvetians and Iberians I say nothing. And 
still I have said not a word about my campaigns in 
Gaul, when I conquered more than three hundred 
cities and no less than two million men ! But great 
as were these achievements of mine, that which 
followed was still greater and more daring. For I 
had to contend against my fellow citizens them- 
selves, and to subdue the invincible, the unconquer- 
able Romans. Again, if we are judged by the 
number of our battles, I fought three times as 
many as Alexander, even reckoning by the boasts 
of those who embellish his exploits. If one counts 
the cities captured, I reduced the greatest number, 
not only in Asia but in Europe as well. Alexander only 
visited Egypt as a sight-seer, but I conquered her while 
I was arranging drinking-parties. Are you pleased to 
inquire which of us showed more clemency after vic- 
tory ? I forgave even my enemies, and for what I 
suffered in consequence at their hands Justice has 
taken vengeance. But Alexander did not even spare 
his friends, much less his enemies. And are you still 
capable of disputing the first prize with me ? Then 
since you will not, like the others, yield place to me, 
you compel me to say that whereas I was humane 
towards the Helvetians you treated the Thebans 

1 The " inner" sea was the Mediterranean. 

2 Caesar, De Bella Gallico 4. 25, ascribes this to the stan- 
dard-bearer of the tenth legion. 



$>i\avO pwTrws ; &v fjiev jap etceivwv KaTeKavaas Tas 
7r6\LS, eyoo Be TOLS VTTO TWV ol/ceiwv 7ro\iTwv KKCLV- 
fjievas 7rb\eis avecrTTjaa. Kairoi OVTI ravrov 1 r)V 
juivpicov YpaiK&v KpaTYfaai Kal TrevTCKaiBeKa fjuvpi- 
dBas eTrifapofAevas VTroaTrjvai,. 7ro\\a eiTreiv e%wv 322 
ert ire pi e/Aavrov fcal rovBe, rw pr) d^oXrjv ayew 
TO \eyeiv e^e/jLeX^rrja-a. SioTrep ^prj awy- 
vfia<; eyziv, e/c 8e rwv elpr)fj,&a>v KOI 
r) prjQevrcov rrjv larjv KOI Sifcaiav e^i 


ToiavTa elirovTos TOV Katcrapo? KCU \eyew GTL 
/3ov\o]j,vov, fjioyis Kal TrpoTepov o 'AXefaz'Spo? 
tcapTepwv OVKCTI, tcaTeaxev, a\\a yw-era TWOS 
Tapa%7/9 KOI aywvias, '700 Be, elrfev, a> ZeO Kal B 
6eoi, yLte%/3i TWOS ave^opai (TiwTrf) TTJS OpacrvTrjTOs 
TTJS TOVTOV; Tcepas yap ovSev ecTTiv, GO? 6paT, 
ovTe TWV els avTov eiraivcdv OVTG TWV els e/me 
/3\a(r(f)r}jjLi(t)v. e^prjv $e IV w s fJbd\icrTa /J,ev a/ji^olv 
(j)ei$(T0ai' Kal yap elvai TTWS afJifyoTepa BoKel 
7rapa7T\rjcricos vjra/X&rf 7T\eov Be TOV Tapa Sia- , 
(Tvpeiv aXkws re Kal iJUfi^T^v avTuv yevo/JLevov. 
6 Be els TOVTO rj\6ev avaio-'xyvTias, wcrre TO\/Jirj(7ai, C 
ra apxeTVTTa KW ^wSelv TWV eavTOv epywv. e^prjv 
Se, w Katcra/3, VTrojjivrja-Oijvai ere TWV oaKpvcov 

, a rare atyiJKas, aKpowfjievos TWV 
, ova TreTroirjTai Trepl TWV efiw 
o Tlo/jbTT^Los eTrrjpe ere //-era TOVTO, Ko\a- 
KevOels fi>ev Trapa TWV 7ro\iTWV TWV eavTov, 
yevofjuevos Be ovBels ovBa/jLov. TO fiev yap D 
a7rb Aiftvfjs Opiappevaai, ov jjieya epyov, 

1 oijn ravrbv Hertlein suggests, ri -roaovrov MSS. 


cruelly. You burned their cities to the ground, but 
I restored the cities that had been burned by their 
own inhabitants. And indeed it was not at all the 
same thing to subdue ten thousand Greeks, and to 
withstand the onset of a hundred and fifty thousand 
men. Much more could I add both about myself 
and Alexander, but I have not had leisure to practise 
public speaking. Wherefore you ought to pardon 
me, but from what I have said and with regard to 
what I have not said, you ought, forming that de- 
cision which equity and justice require, to award me 
the first prize." 

When Caesar had spoken to this effect he still 
wished to go on talking, but Alexander, who had with 
difficulty restrained himself hitherto, now lost pati- 
ence, and with some agitation and combativeness : 
" But I" said he, " O Jupiter and ye other gods, how 
long must I endure in silence the insolence of this 
man ? There is, as you see, no limit to his praise of 
himself or his abuse of me. It would have better be- 
come him perhaps to refrain from both, since both are 
alike insupportable, but especially from disparaging 
my conduct, the more since he imitated it. But he 
has arrived at such a pitch of impudence that he 
dares to ridicule the model of his own exploits. Nay, 
Caesar, you ought to have remembered those tears 
you shed on hearing of the monuments that had 
been consecrated to my glorious deeds. 1 But since 
then Pompey has inflated you with pride, Pompey 
who though he was the idol of his countrymen was 
in fact wholly insignificant. Take his African 
triumph : that was no great exploit, but the feeble- 

1 At Gades, on seeing a statue of Alexander; cf. Sue- 
tonius, Julius Caesar 7. 


eTrourjcrev r) TWV Tore 
/j,a\aKLa. TOV $OV\LKOV Be e/ceivov 
ovBe 7T/9O? avBpas yevo/xevov, aXXa Trpbs rot>? 
%eipia'Tovs TWV olt<Twv, aX\oi fji 
Kyoacrcroi Kal Aov/cioi, TOVVO/JLO, Be KOI rrjv e 
<j>r)V eo-%e no/A7T7J0?. 'Ap/jLevi'av Se Kal ra 
OIKCL ravrrjs /careTroXe/jirjae AOVKOV\\OS, eOptd/ji- 
fiewe Be CLTTO TOVTCOV IIoyLtTr^o?. err' eKoKcucevcrav 323 
avTov ol TroXtrat Kal Me^ya^ tovo/jLaaav, ovra 
TWOS TWV Trpb eavTOV fjt,ei%ova; TL yap e/ceivw 
TOCTOVTOV eTrpd^Qr}, rf\iKov Ma/9t&) fj 
rot? Suo rj T& Trapa TOV Kvpivov TOVTOvl 
o? fjiLKpov (TV/jLTrecrova-av TTJV TOVTOV iro\iv d 
&v; OVTOL jap OVK d\\OTpioi<i epyois, wcnrep 
ev Tro\iTiKal<; olfco$ofjiiai<> Kal ^aTcavrniacnv VTT* 

etVat? Kal eViTeXecrtfe/o-flu? ere- B 
ap%(i)v e7T<ypd(f)r) pLKpa Kovidcras TOV Tolyov, 

Be avTol Kal Srj/jiiovpyol <yevofjievot, 
TWV KaX\,icrTcov r)ia)6r)(rav ovo^aTwv. ovBev ovv 
, el KeKpaT^Kas TIo/j,7rr)lov 
KOL TaXXa dXwTreKo? tta 



ness of the consuls in office made it seem glorious. 
Then the famous Servile War l was waged not 
against men but the vilest of slaves, and its suc- 
cessful issue was due to others, I mean Crassus and 
Lucius, 2 though Pompey gained the reputation and 
the credit for it. Again, Armenia and the neigh- 
bouring provinces were conquered by Lucullus, 3 yet 
for these also Pompey triumphed. Then he became 
the idol of the citizens and they called him "the 
Great.' Greater, I ask, than whom of his prede- 
cessors ? What achievement of his can be compared 
with those of Marius 4 or of the two Scipios or of 
Furius, 5 who sits over there by Quirinus because he 
rebuilt his city when it was almost in ruins ? Those 
men did not make their reputation at the expense of 
others, as happens with public buildings built at the 
public expense ; I mean that one man lays the 
foundation, another finishes the work, while the last 
man who is in office though he has only whitewashed 
the walls has his name inscribed on the building. 6 
Not thus, I repeated those men gain credit for the 
deeds of others. They were themselves the creators 
and artificers of their schemes and deserved their 
illustrious titles. Well then, it is no wonder that you 
vanquished Pompey, who used to scratch his head 
with his finger-tip 7 and in all respects was more of a 

1 Led by Spartacus 73-71 B.C. ; Appian, Civil Wars I. 
116-120. * 2 Lucius Gellius ; Plutarch, Crassus. 

3 Lieinius Lucullus the conqueror of Mithridates. 

4 Caius Marius the rival of Sulla. 

8 FuriusrCamillus repulsed the Gauls 390 B.C. ; cf. Oration 
1. 29 D. 6 Cf. Letter to Themistius, 267s. 

7 A proverb for effeminacy ; cf. Plutarch, Pompeim 48 ; 
Juvenal 9. 133, qui diyito scalpunt uno caput ; Lucian, The 
KhetorifMH* i Guide 1 1 . 



rj <yap avTOV 77 Tv%r) irpov^wKev, r) TOV /JL- 
Trpocrdev %povov avTw Trapeicnrj/cei,, rct^ew? eicpd- 

T7)(Ta$ fJLOVOV. Kal OTL BeiVOTIjTl /jLV OvBefMlO, 

KpeiTTwv eyevov, fyavepov KOI yap eV evBeia C 
7670^0)? L rwv eTTirrjBeicov <TTI Se ov fjuKpov, 
Co? olcrOa, TOVTO afjidpT'rjfj.a crTparrjiyov' teal /i%/7 
T^Or)<f. el Be Ilo/X7r?jio? VTT a(f>po- 
re KCU avoids T) TOV pr) Svvaa-Qai, rwv 
ap^euv cure, i]viKa e&ei TpijSeiv TOV 
7r6\fjLOV, v7repTi@TO TTJV fjid^Tjv OVTC TTJ VLKTJ 2 
VIK&V eTre^T/ei, VTTO rot? ol/ceuois aaapTrjaacri, 
Kal ov^ VTTO rot? crois ecr(j)d\,rj (TTpaTr)<yr)/jLa(ri. D 

Hepcrai, be TravTa^ov /ca\ws Kal ^povi^w^ irape- 
cr/cevao-fjievoi TT/JOS Trjv r]fJieTepav d\Kr)V eveooa-av. 
eVet Be ov TOV TrpaTTeiv avrXw?, a\\a Kal TOV 
TO, oi/caia TTpaTTeiv avBpa apiaTov Kal /3acri\ea 
irpoo"rjKei /jbeTaTrotelcrOai, eyo) JJLGV VTrep TWV 
TOL/5 Ile/ocra? aTryT'rjo'a $LKr)v, Kal rou? 
TroXeyLtof? eTTavet^o/jLrjv, ov^i TTJV 
\virelv /3ovXo/Lte^o?, aXXa rot"? KW- 
\VOVTGLS /me oiaftaiveiv Kal St'/ca? aTratTetv TOV 
Hepar)v eTriKOTTTWV. av oe> rou? Teppavovs Kal 324 
FaXara? KaTe7ro\efJLr)aas, em Trjv TraTpuoa TTJV 
aeavTOv Trapao-Keva^o/jLevos, ov TL yevoiT av %elpov 
rj fjuapwTepov; eirel Be wcrnrep Biaavpayv TWV 
fjLVpiwv efjivrj/JLOvevcra^ YpaiK&v, OTL /jiev Kal uyaet? 
evTevdev yeyovaTe Kal TO, TrXetcrra r% 'IraXta? 
ol YpaiKOi, Kalirep elBax; o//,&)9 ov irapa- 
TOVTWV Be avTwv 6\iyov Wvos, AmoXoi;? 

Petavius, Naber, 7670^05 Hertlein, MSS. 
2 rfj viKy before VIK&V Hertlein suggests ; cf. Oration i. 
59 D. ' 



fox than a lion. When he was deserted by Fortune 
who had so long favoured him, you easily overcame 
him, thus unaided. And it is evident that it was not 
to any superior ability of yours that you owed your 
victory, since after running short of provisions l no 
small blunder for a general to make, as I need not 
tell you you fought a battle and were beaten. And 
if from imprudence or lack of judgment or inability 
to control his countrymen Pompey neither postponed 
a battle when it was his interest to protract the war, 
nor followed up a victory when he had won, 2 it was 
due to his own errors that he failed, and not to your 

The Persians, on the contrary, though on all occa- 
sions they were well and wisely equipped, had to 
submit to my valour. And since it becomes a virtu- 
ous man and a king to pride himself not merely on 
his exploits but also on the justice of those exploits, 
it was on behalf of the Greeks that I took vengeance 
on the Persians, and when 1 made war on the Greeks 
it was not because I wished to injure Greece, but 
only to chastise those who tried to prevent me from 
marching through and from calling the Persians to 
account. You, however, while you subdued the Ger- 
mans and Gauls were preparing to fight against your 
fatherland. What could be worse or more infamous ? 
And since you have alluded as though insultingly to 
' ten thousand Greeks,' I am aware that you Romans 
are yourselves descended from the Greeks, and that 
the greater part of Italy was colonised by Greeks ; 
however on that fact I do not insist. But at any rate 
did not you Romans think it very important to have 

1 At Dyrrhachium ; Plutarch, Julius Caesar. 

2 An echo of Plutarch, Apophthegmata 206 D. 



ov (^>iXou9 fjiev B 
e^eiv Kal av^/jid'^ov^ eTroir)o~aa9e Trepl TroXXoO, 
Tro\efJi,w6evTas Be VJMV vcrTepov Si* daStjTTOTe 
alrias OVK dfciv&vvQx; vrraKOveiv V/ALV rjvayKacraTe; 
ol Be 7rpo9 TO yfjpas, o>9 av elVot Ti9, T?}9 
Kal ovBe Trda^y aXX' eOvovs /jbiKpov, 
TO t EXX?;z'6/eoi>, ovS* OTL ecrTi 
>, /jiLKpov Sew <f>dvat, /jLoyis dpKe- 
>, Ttj^69 av eyevecrOe, el rrpbf aK/jid^ovTas C 
ofjbovoovvTas TOU9 f/ EXX^va9 TroXejjieiv tyaa9 
aev; errel Kal Hvppov StaftdvTos efi u/z,a9 
i(TT 07Tft)9 67TT7;faT6. el Be TO Hepawv KpaTijaai 
f^LKpbv vo/jii^ets Kal TO Tri\iKOVTOv epjov Siaavpei?, 
0X^7779 Trdvv Tr)<> VTrep TOV Tiyprj-ra rroTajjibv 
VTTO \lap6vaiwv ^aaikevojjievr)^ ^copa9, errj rrXeov 
rj TpiaKocria Tco\fJbOVVTe<$, \ej /AOL, Si rjv aiTiav 
OVK eKpaTrja-aTe; ftov\ei crou (frpdcra); TCU Tlepcrwv D 
fyLta9 eip^e ySeXr^. (ppacraro) Be croi Trepi avTwv 
*A.VTCi)vio$ l 6 TraiSoTpiftiyOels errl aTpaTrjyia irapa 
a-ov. ejco Be ev ovSe 0X0^9 eviavTols BeKa rrpbs 
TOVTOLS Kal 'IvSwv yeyova Kvpios. eiT e^ol 
ToXyaa9 d/jL^}i(rftr)Tiv, 09 ex rraiSapiov (TTpaTrjywv 
epya errpa^a T^Xt/caOra, w<rr6 Trjv i^vrifji'^v, Kairrep 
OVK d^t&)9 vrro TWV avyypacfrewv vfjLvrjdevTwv, 
Oyu,a>9 2 av/jLTrapa/jieveiv T> yStft), KaOaTrep TWV 325 
TOU KaXXiviKov, Tov/jiov /3aai\ew<>, ov Gepdrrcov 
eya) Kal 77X0)^9 eyevo/ji^v, 'AytXXet fj,ev djjii\- 
Xo)yu-e^O9 TCO Trpoyovw, 't{paK\ea Be 
Kal erro/jievos, are Srj Kar fyvos Oeov a 

1 'Avrdvios Cobet rejects, since Julian prefers to substitute 
descriptive phrases for names. 

2 Sjtiwr Cobet, &>o>i Se Hertlein, MSS. 



as friends and allies one insignificant tribe of those 
very Greeks, I mean the Aetolians, my neighbours ? 
And later, when you had gone to war with them for 
whatever reason, did you not have great trouble in 
making them obey you ? Well then, if in the old 
age, as one may say, of Greece, you were barely able 
to reduce not the whole nation but an insignificant 
state which was hardly heard of when Greece was in 
her prime, what would have happened to you if you 
had had to contend against the Greeks when they were 
in full vigour and united ? You know how cowed you 
were when Pyrrhus crossed to invade you. And fa 
you think the conquest of Persia such a trifle and 
disparage an achievement so glorious, tell me why, 
after a war of more than three hundred years, you 
Romans have never conquered a small province 
beyond the Tigris which is still governed by the 
Parthians ? Shall I tell you why ? It was the arrows 
of the Persians that checked you. Ask Antony to 
give you an account of them, since he was trained 
for war by you. I, on the other hand, in less 
than ten years conquered not only Persia but India 
too. After that do you dare to dispute the prize 
with me, who from childhood have commanded 
armies, whose exploits have been so glorious that 
the memory of them though they have not been 
worthily recounted by historians will nevertheless 
live for ever, like those of the Iny incible_ Her 9, ] my 
king, whose follower I was, on ^vnom I modelled 
myself? Achilles my ancestor I strove to rival, but 
Heracles I ever admired and followed, so far as a 
mere man may follow in the footsteps of a god. 




"Ocra /juev ovv expr/v, o> Oeoi, TT/OO? rovrov 
a7ro\oyri<Tacr0ai' tcairoi Kpeirrov rjv vTrepi&elv 
avrov- eiprjrai. el Be TL iriKpov v<' rj/jiwv B 

ovri rravrdiraaiv et9 avairiovs 
, d\\a fj 7roX\tt/a9 real eVt TroXXot? 
tcpovaavTas 77 TO) Kaipw fj,r) ^aXw? jJLr)$e TTpe- 
7r6vT(0<? xpvjo'aijLevovs, r)Ko\ov0r)0' yovv eVt [lev 
rot? Sia rov KdLpbv e^a^apTrjOelffLv rj /zera/xeXeta, 
crwfypwv Trdvv KOI rwv e^rj/jbaprrj/coTwv a-coretpa 

SaifAQJV, TOL9 5e toffTTep ^i\,O-TL^OV^eVOV<^ 67Tt C 

TOO TToXXaM? cLTre^OdvecrOai real Trpoaicpoveiv 
ovSev w/jirjv a$i/cov Troielv KO\d^wv. 

'ETrel 8e etprjro KOI TOVTW 
6 Xo7o?, eVt TOZ^ 'O/CTaftiavov Trjv v 
6 rov IIocretSwi'09 OepaTrcoi', eTri/jLerpwv 
rov vBaros eXaaaov Bia rov icaipbv, aXX&)9 re 
teal fivrj&ifcaKwv avrq> rrjs els rov Oeov vjreprj- 

. Kal 09 eTreiSr) avvrjKev v-rrb dy*%ivoias, D 
TO \eyiv rt rrepl rwv d\\orpi(av, 'Eyco 
Be, eljrev, a> ZeO teal deoi, rov Siaavpeiv /JLCV rd 
ra>v aXXcoi/ epya Kal fiiKpd Troieiv d^e^ofiai, Trepl 
Be TU>V efjiavrov rov Trdvra 7rotr)o-o/j,ai \6yov. 1/609 
TT pova'r'rjv rr}9 epavrov 7roXeft)9 waTrep ovros 6 
<yevvaios 'A^e^avSpos, Karu>pdw(ra Be YeppaviKovs 
7ro\efjLOV<; wcnrep 6 e'yLto9 Trarrjp ovroo-l Katcrap. 326 
o-vpTrXa/cels Be rofr e/jL(f>v\iois dyaxnv A.L<yv7rrov 
/jLev Trepl TO "A/cTioi/ fcarvav/jLd%r)cra, JSpovrov 
Be xal Kdo-o-iov Trepl rovs ^tXtTrTrot^ KareTroXe- 
, Kal rov TLo/jL7rr)LOV TralBa "Zegrov Trdpepyov 



ff Thus much, ye gods, I was bound to say in my 
own defence against this man ; though indeed it 
would have been better to ignore him. And if some 
things I did seemed cruel, I never was so to the 
innocent, but only to those who had often and in 
many ways thwarted me and had made no proper or 
fitting use of their opportunities. And even my 
offences against these, which were due to the emer- 
gency of the time, were followed by Remorse, that 
very wise and divine preserver of men who have 
erred. As for those whose ambition it was to show 
their enmity continually and to thwart me, I con- 
sidered that I was justified in chastising them.' 

Whe'n Alexander in his turn had made his speech in 
martial fashion, Poseidon's attendant carried the 
water- clock to Octavian, but gave him a smaller allow- 
ance of water, partly because time was precious, but 
still more because he bore him a grudge for the dis- 
respect he had shown to the god. 1 Octavian with his 
usual sagacity understood this, so without stopping to 
say anything that did not concern himself, he began : 
" For my part, Zeus and ye other gods, I shall not 
stay to disparage and belittle the actions of others, 
but shall speak only of what concerns myself. Like 
the noble Alexander here I w r as but a youth when I 
was called to govern my country. Like Caesar 
yonder, my father,' 2 I conducted successful campaigns 
against the Germans. When I became involved in 
civil dissensions I conquered Egypt in a sea-fight 
off Actium ; I defeated Brutus and Cassius at Philippi : 
the defeat of Sextus, Pompey's son, was a mere 

1 Suetonius, Augustus 16; during the campaign against 
Pompey when the fleet of Augustus was lost in a storm, he 
swore that he would win in spite of Neptune. 

2 Augustus was Julius Caesar's nephew, and his son only 
by adoption. 



T?}? ejjLavTOv o-TpaTrjyia^. ot/ro) Be i 
ov ry <f>C\,o(To$lq vtiporjtfij, a>o~T /cal r^9 
AOrjvoBaipov irapprjfTia^ rjveff^o^v, ov/c dyava/c- 
TWV, ttXX' ev<f)paw6/Ji,vo<; eV avrf), KOI TOV avBpa B 
Tcait>aywyov fj rrarepa jj,a\Xov alSov- 
Apeiov Be /cal (f>i\ov /cal a-vjjL/Sicorrjv 
, /cal oXw? ovBev eaTLV v<f> TI^IWV et? 
TIJV <j)i\ocro(j>iav d/jLaprrjdev. VTTO Be rcov e/z- 
<f>v\id)v (TTd(7(i)v TY]V Pwjjirjv opa)v et? TOV 1 
ecr^arov e\avvovaav TroXXdtcis /cwSvvov ovrco 
^nede/Jiriv ra Trepl avrrjv, wcrrc elvai, el /J,rj Bi 
vfias, a) 6eoi, TO \onrov dBa/jLavrlvrjv. ov yap C 
rat9 dfierpois eTnOv/jLiais ei/ccov errLKraffOaL irav- 
avrfj Bivoij0r)v, opta Be Birrd, &(T7rep VTTO 
(j)vcre(i)<t dTroBeBeiyfijieva, 2 "larpov teal EL>- 
irorafjiovs eOefJLrjv. elra vrrord^as TO 
real Spatcwv eOvos, CTrifjieTpovvTcov V/JLWV 
oi TOV %p6vov, ov Tr6\e/jiov a\\ov 
ef aXXof Trepiea-KOTTOvv, d\\a et? vo/jiodeo-iav /cal 


<fXp\r)V BieTiOe/Jirjv, ovBevbs vo^l^wv TWV irpo e/j,av- 
TOV X 6 ^P OV j3e{3ov\evo-0ai, paXkov Be, el ^pr] Oap- 
pijcravTa cf>dvai, /cpelcrcrov TWV TTcoTrore Tr)\i/cavTa$ 
eTTiTpoTrevo'di'Tcov. ol fjiev yap rat? 

/cal * /JLrj o'TpaTeveo'Oai, TroXe/zoi'? e/c 

t?, Mcnrep ol fyi\07r pay /jioves Bi/cas ara 

s' ol Be /cal TroXeyctou/xevot Trj Tpv(f>fj 327 
ov fjiovov TT}? yttera raura evK\eia<$ 

1 r'bv Hertlein would add. 

2 airoSSiy/u.fva Cobet, aTroSeSo/iei/a Hertlein, MSS. 

Reiske adds. 


incident in iny campaign. I showed myself so gentle 
to the guidance of philosophy that I even put up 
with the plain speaking of Athenodorus, 1 and instead 
of resenting it I was delighted with it and revered 
the man as my preceptor, or rather as though he 
were my own father. Areius 2 I counted my friend 
and close companion., and in short I was never guilty 
of any offence against philosophy. But since I saw that 
more than once Rome had been brought to the verge 
of ruin by internal quarrels, I so administered her 
affairs as to make her strong as adamant for all time, 
unless indeed, O ye gods, you will otherwise. For I 
did not give way to boundless ambition and aim at 
enlarging her empire at all costs, but assigned for it 
two boundaries defined as it were by nature herself, 
the Danube and the Euphrates. Then after con- 
quering the Scythians and Thracians I did not 
employ the long reign that you gods vouchsafed me 
in making projects for war after war, but devoted my 
leisure to legislation and to reforming the evils that 
war had caused. For in this I thought that I was 
no less well advised than my predecessors, or rather, 
if I may make bold to say so, I was better advised 
than any who have ever administered so great an 
empire. For some of these, when they might have 
remained quiet and not taken the field, kept making 
one war an excuse for the next, like quarrelsome 
people and their lawsuits ; and so they perished in 
their campaigns. Others when they had a war 
on their hands gave themselves up to indulgence, 

1 A Stoic philosopher ; cf. pseudo-Lucian, Long Lives 21. 
23 ; Suetonius, Augustus Dio Ghry-tostom 33. 48. 

2 Letter 51. 434 A ; Letter to Themiliu 265 o ; Themistius 
63 D, 



ala^pdv Tpvcfrrjv TrpOTi/Awvres, aXXa teal r^9 
o-o)Tr)pia<; avTrjs. eya> pev ovv ravra Biavoovpevos 
OVK dia) T779 %eipovo<; epavTov /jiepiBov o, TL &' 
av vfjiiv, <w OeoL, <paivr)Tai, TOVTO et/co? eaTiv e//,e 

fjLera TOVTOV TO> Tpalavw rov \eyeiv 
egovaia. 6 Be, Ka'nrep Bvvd/jievos \eyeiv, VTTO 
paOvfJiia^' 7riTp67Ti,v yap eltoOei ra 7ro\\a rw B 
^ovpa ypd(f>iv vTrep avrov' fydeyyofJLevos fjia\\ov 
TI \eycov, eTrebeiKwev aurot? TO re YerLKov /cal TO 
Tlapdi/cbv rpoTraiov. yrtdro &e TO yfjpas &>? OVK 
eTriTpetyav avTW rot? HapQi/cois TrpdyfJiaaiv eVe^- 
e\6eiv. /cal 6 %eL\r)i>6<;, ' AXX , w yuarate, e<j)r], 
eifcoo-i ySeySacrtXef/co? er^, 'AXefaz^S^o? Be ovToal 
BwBefca. TL ovv a^>et? auTidaOai TTJV aavTOv 
Tpv(f)r]v Trjv TOV ^povov fiefji^rj aTevoTrjTa; Trap- 
Oels ovv VTTO TOV a/cwfi/jiaTOS, ovBe yap rjv C 
TOV Bvva(70at prjTopeveiv, VTTO Be T?}? <^t\o- 
d/j,/3\VT6po<> eavTOv 7roXXa:t9 rjv, 'E^w 
Be, elirev, co ZeO /cal Oeoi, TTJV dp'jfyv 7rapa\.aj3a)v 
vap/cwcrav wcnrep /cal Bia\e\v/j,evr)v VTTO re TTI? 
OLKOL TTO\VV %povov eTriKpaTrjcrda'r)*; TVpavviBo? 
teal T^? TWV TeTwv vftpews, fjuovos virtp Tov"l(TTpov D 
eroXyLir/cra TrpocT\apelv eOvrj, /cal TO TCTCOV eOvos 
ee1\ov, 01 TWV TrcoTrore /za^yawrarot yeyovaariv, 
ou% VTTO dvBpeias /JLOVOV TOV o-coyLtaro?, aXXa /cal 
wv eireicrev avTOvs o TifAWfJievos Trap avTois Za- 
yuoX^t?. ov ydp diroQvr)O'Keiv, aXXa fJueTOiKi^eaOai 
vofjii^ovTes eTOifjbOTepov avTo TTOLOVCTLV rj aXXot 1 
ra? aTroBrjfjiias vTrofjievovcriv. eTrpd^drj Be pot, TO 

1 &\\oi Reiske adds. 


and preferred such base indulgence not only to 
future glory but even to their personal safety. When 
I reflect on all this I do not think myself entitled to 
the lowest place. But whatever shall seem good to 
you, O ye gods, it surely becomes me to accept with 
a good grace." 

Trajan was allowed to speak next. Though he had 
some talent for oratory he was so lazy that he had 
been in the habit of letting Sura write most of his 
speeches for him ; so he shouted rather than spoke, 
arid meanwhile displayed to the gods his Getic and 
Parthian trophies, while he accused his old age 
of not having allowed him to extend his Parthian 
conquests. " You cannot take us in," said Silenus ; 
te you reigned twenty years and Alexander here only 
twelve. Why then do you not put it down to your 
own love of ease, instead of complaining of your short 
allowance of time ?" Stung by the taunt, since he 
was not deficient in eloquence, though intemperance 
often made him seem more stupid than he was, 
Trajan began again. "O Zeus and ye other gods, 
when I took over the empire it was in a sort of 
lethargy and much disordered by the tyranny that 
had long prevailed at home, and by the insolent 
conduct of the Getae. I alone ventured to attack 
the tribes beyond the Danube, and I subdued the 
Getae, the most warlike race that ever existed, which 
is due partly to their physical courage, partly to the 
doctrines that they have adopted from their admired 
Zamolxis. 1 For they believe that they do not die 
but only change their place of abode, and they meet 
death more readily than other men undertake a 
journey. Yet I accomplished that task in a matter 

1 Cf . 309 c, Oration 8. 244 A and note. 



epyov TOVTO ev eviavTols ICTCDS TTOV irevTe. TCOLVTWV 
Be OTI TWV Trpb e/jLavTov 1 yeyovoTwv avTOKpaTopwv 328 
w(f)0rjv T0t9 VTrrjKoois TrpaoTaTos /cal OVTC Kalaap 
ovToal Trepl TOVTWV dfji<j)io~l3'r)Trfo~iev dv /JLOL OUT' 
aXXo9 ovBe et9, evB^\6v eVrt TTOV. Trpbs Tlap- 
6valov<$ Be, Trplv /JLCV dBi/ceicr6ai Trap* avTwv, ov/c 
Beiv ^prfcrOai Tot9 07rXot9* dBi/covcri Be 
> ovBev VTTO T7}9 rf\,LKias /cco\vdei<; ) /caiTOi 
IJLOL TWV VO/JLWV TO fir; aTpaTevecrOai. 
TOVTWV Brj TOLOVTWV ovTcov, ctp* ov%l /cal TLfJt,acr0aL B 

TTyOO TWV CL\\WV LfJil BiKaiOS, 7r/3O9 fJbeV 7T/009 TOU9 

VTrrjKoovs, <f)o/3epb<? Be 7r/?09 rou9 7roXeyLttou9 8m- 
<j)p6vTa)$ yevojjievos, alBeaOel^ Be Kal Trjv v/j,eTepav 
eKyovov 2 (j)i\o(TO(f)Lav; TouavTa o Tpa'iavbs elitru>v 
eBoKei TTI TTpaoTTjTi TrdvTWV KpaTelv, Kal Bf)\oi 

rjaav ol Oeol yLtaXtcrTa rjaOevTes eTrl TOVTW. 
Tov MdpKOv Be dpxofiei'ov \eyeiv, 6 %6i\rjvbs 


TOVTOVL, TL TTOTe dpa TWV TTapaBogcov 
eKeivcov epel Kal Tepao~Tiwv Boy/naTwv. 6 Be CLTTO- 

7T/909 TOV Am Kal TOL/9 ^60U9, 'AXX' 

:, elnev, w Zeu Kal Oeoi, \oywv ovBev Bel. Kal 
el /jiev ydp rjyvoeiTe Tajjid, TrpocrfjKov rjv 
n BiBdcrKeiv v/jids' ejrel Be ICTTC Kal \e\r)6ev 

TWV ciTrdvTwv ovBev, avToL pot, TipaTe T^9 E 
afta9. eBoge Brj ovv 6 MdpKO? Ta re aXXa 

1 lfj.awrov Hertlein suggests, e/j.ov MSS. 
- exyovov Wright, eyyoi/ov Hertlein, MSS, 



of five years or so. That of all the Emperors who 
came before me l I was regarded as the mildest in 
the treatment of my subjects, is, I imagine, obvious, 
and neither Caesar here nor any other will dispute it 
with me. Against the Parthians I thought I ought 
not to employ force until they had put themselves in 
the wrong, but when they did so I marched against 
them, undeterred by my age, though the laws would 
have allowed me to quit the service. Since then 
the facts are as I have said, do I not deserve to be 
honoured before all the rest, first because I was so 
mild to my subjects, secondly because more than 
otHers I inspired terror in my country's foes, thirdly 
because I revered your daughter divine Philosophy ?" 

When Trajan had finished this speech the gods 
decided that he excelled all the rest in clemency ; 
and evidently this was a virtue peculiarly pleasing to 

When Marcus Aurelius began to speak, Silenus 
whispered to Dionysus, " Let us hear which one of 
his paradoxes and wonderful doctrines this Stoic will 
produce." But Marcus turned to Zeus and the other 
gods and said, " It seems to me, O Zeus and ye other 
gods, that I have no need to make a speech or 
to compete. If you did not know all that concerns 
me it would indeed be fitting for me to inform you. 
But since you know it and nothing at all is hidden 
from you, do you of your own accord assign me such 
honour as I deserve." 

Thus Marcus showed that admirable as he was in 
other respects he was wise also beyond the rest, 

1 For this idiom cf. Milton, Paradise Lost 4. 324. 
" Adam the goodliest of men since born 
His sons, the fairest of her daughters Eve." 



6av/jid(n6s rt? elvai KOI <ro</>o? Biatyepovrco? are 

\eyetv 0* orrov %pr) Kal criydv orrov Ka\6v. 

Tw Ka>v<rravriv<p jjuerd rovrov \eyeiv erre- 
Tp7rov. 6 Be rrporepov fiev eOdppei rrjv dywviav. 
ft>? Be drrefB\errev et? ra rwv a\\a)v epya, jjuKpa 
TravTaTraa-iv elSe ra eavrov. Bvo yap Tvpdvvovs, 329 
el ye XP?) rd\r)0rj (f)dvai, tcaBypriKei, rov [lev 
drroKepov re KOL fjLa\a/c6v, rov 8e a6\iov re fcal 
Bia ro <yr)pa$ dcrBevr), 1 dfj,(f)orepa) Be Beols re KOI 
e^Oicrrw. rd ye p^v et? rovs fiap- 
ye\oia avr&>- (fropovs yap uxiTrep 
erere\eK6t, 2 /cal Trpo? rrjv Tpvcfrrjv dfyeaipa' rroppw 
Be eicrrij/cei, rwv Oewv avrrj rrepl rd rrpodvpa r/}? 
*,e\r)vri<5' eptorncws re ovv el%ev avrfjs, fcal 0X0? 
7T/30? efceivrjv ftXerrayv ovBev efte\ev avrw rrepl rr}? B 
tn/crj?. 6 errel Be e^prfv /cal avrbv elrrelv ri, Tavry 
rovrwv Kpeirrcov, e<pr), elfiL, rov M.arceB6vo<; ph, 
on Trpo? 'Pw/jiaiovs teal rd Tepfjuivircd KOI ^KV- 
GLKO, yevr) teal ou^l rrpbs rou? 'Aami^ou? ftap- 
/3apou? ijycwurd/jirjv, KatVa/oo? Be Kal 'Q/cra- 
T< /Jitf, Ka6drrep ovroi, TT/OO? /ca\ovs 
s TroXtra? (rracrid&ai, rot? p,iapwrdroi<$ 
Be /cal rrovrjpordrois rwv rvpdvvwv erre%e\0elv. 
Tpaiavou Be rot? /j,ev Kara rwv rvpdvvwv dvBpa- C 
av rrpori/jL^OeLr^Vy ru> Be rjv 
a)pav dva\a/3eiv 100$ di> 
OVK drreuKorws vofu^olfjitjv, el /jirj Kal /JLCL^OV ean 

1 ar0ej/fj Sylburg adds. 

2 After freTAt Cobet suspects that several words are 
lost. 3 J/IKTJS Cobet, MSS, SI'KTJS Hertlein, V, M. 



because he knew " When it is time to speak and 
when to be silent." l 

Constantine was allowed to speak next. On first 
entering the lists he was confident enough. But 
when he reflected on the exploits of the others 
he saw that his own were wholly trivial. He had 
defeated two tyrants, but, to tell the truth, one 
of them 2 was untrained in war and eifeminate, the 
other 3 a poor creature and enfeebled by old age, 
while both were alike odious to gods and men. 
Moreover his campaigns against the barbarians 
covered him with ridicule. For he paid them 
tribute, so to speak, while he gave all his attention 
to Pleasure, who stood at a distance from the gods 
near the entrance to the moon. Of her indeed he 
was so enamoured that he had no eyes for anything 
else, and cared not at all for victory. However, as 
it was his turn and he had to say something, he 
began : 

" In the following respects I am superior to 
these others ; to the Macedonian in having fought 
against Romans, Germans and Scythians, instead of 
Asiatic barbarians ; to Caesar and Octavian in that 
I did not, like them, lead a revolution against brave 
and good citizens, but attacked only the most cruel 
and wicked tyrants. As for Trajan, I should naturally 
rank higher on account of those same glorious 
exploits against the tyrants, while it would be only 
fair to regard me as his equal on the score of 
that territory which he added to the empire, and I 
recovered ; if indeed it be not more glorious to regain 

1 Euripides, fr. 417 Nauck. 

2 Maxentius. a Licinius. 



TO avaKTijo-ao-Oai TOV KTijcraaBai. Mdpfcos Be 


Trpwrelwv e^tcrrarat. KCU 6 ^6^X77^05, 'AXX* 77 
Toi>9 'ASOM/4&09 KrjTrovs &>9 epya rjjuv, w Kwv- 
a-Tavrive, ceavrov Trpocfrepeis ; ri Be, elirev, elaiv 
01)5 \eyt,<; 'AScoz/tSo? /CIJTTOVS; oi>$ at yvvaiKes, e^rj, D 
vBpl <f)VT6vov(riv o 

ravra Trpbs 6\iyov avri/ca aTropapaiverai. KOI 
o Kcwo-ravTivos ypvOpiaaev, avriKpv? 
TOIOVTOV TO eavrov epyov. 

'Htfu^aa? Se yevofievrjs ol fiev ew/ceaav 
vew, OTW 6r)(TOvrai rrjv vTrep TWV irpwreicDv OL deol 
ol 8' WOVTO Belv Ta? irpoaLpeaei^ 6t? TOV/JL- 
TWV av&pwv irpodyeuv KCU ov Kpiveiv e/c l rwv 330 
7T7rpa<y/j,ev(i)v auTOt?, wv rj TV^T; /JLereTroieiTO TO 
KOI TTCLVTWV avrwv Karaftoctxra jrapei- 
7r\r)v 'QfCTafiiavov /JLOVOV. TOVTOV Be 
Trpo? eavrrjv elvai \e<yev. eBoj^ev ovv 
t9 0eoi<$ eTTiTpe^rai real TOVTO TO> l&p/jifj, /cat 
eBocTav avTW irpwrov 'A-\%dvBpov irv6ea'6ai ) TI B 
vo/juo'eie /cd\\L(rTOV teal 7rp09 ri ySXeTrcoz/ epydaairo 
KOI TrdBot TravTa ocrairep BeBpd/coi re teal 
TreTTovOoi. o Be eff)r), To Trdvra VIKCLV. elra, 
elirev o '^9, otet o~ot TOVTO TreTrotrj^Bat,; /cat 
6 'AXefa^S/309. o Be ^6^X771/09 T(oda- 
7eXao-a9, 'AXXa e/cpaTOW <ye <rov 
7roXXtt/ct9 al -fjfieTepai OwyaTepes, alviTTOfJievos Ta9 
ayttTreXoi'9, TOV *A.\ej;avBpov ola 877 TIVCL ^edvaov G 

1 ov Kpiveiv IK Hertlein suggests, OVK fit MSS. 


than to gain. As for Marcus here,, by saying nothing 
for himself he yields precedency to all of us." " But 
Constantine," said Silenus, "are you not offering us 
mere gardens of Adonis ] as exploits ? " " What do 
you mean," he asked, " by gardens of Adonis ? " " I 
mean/' said Silenus, " those that women plant in 
pots, in honour of the lover of Aphrodite, by scraping 
together a little earth for a garden bed. They bloom 
for a little space and fade forthwith." At this 
Constantine blushed, for he realised that this was 
exactly like his own performance. 
. Silence was then proclaimed, and the Emperors 
thought they had only to wait till the gods decided 
to whom they w r ould vote the first prize. But the 
latter agreed that they must bring to light the 
motives that had governed each, and not judge them 
by their actions alone, since Fortune had the greatest 
share in these. That goddess herself was standing 
near and kept reproaching all of them, with the 
single exception of Octavian ; he, she said, had 
always been grateful to her. Accordingly the gods 
decided to entrust this enquiry also to Hermes, and 
he was told to begin with Alexander and to ask him 
what he considered the finest of all things, and 
what had been his object in doing and suffering all 
that he had done and suffered. " To conquer the 
world," he replied. "Well," asked Hermes, "do 
you think you accomplished this ? " "I do indeed," 
said Alexander. Whereupon Silenus with a malicious 
laugh exclaimed, "But you were often conquered 
yourself by my daughters ! " by which he meant his 
vines, alluding to Alexander's love of wine and 

1 A proverb for whatever perishes quickly ; cf. Theocritus 
15. Frazer, Attis, Adonis and Osiris, p. 194. 



Kal <f)L\OLVOV (TKCOTTTWV. KOI O 'A.\eavBpO<? O,T 

Brj yepcov TlepnranjTi/cwv TrapaKovcr/ijLdrwv, Ov ra 
, e(f>rj, viicdv ovBe ydp dya>v rj/Jiiv ecrrt 
d\\a Trdv fiev dvOpcaTrcov, Trdv 8e 
76^09. teal 6 2,i\r)vb$ wairep ol 

fjbd\a, 'lou, lov, $?), rwv 8ia\KTiKwv D 

auro? Be fj/juv eV Trorepa) cravrov 
<yvei, TWV d-^v^wv rj TMV 

teal 09 axiTrep dyava/crrjcras, 
(f>ij' VTTO <ydp fjueyaXotyvxias, ore &rj teal 6eb<? 

ry6VOL/J,r)V, fJiaXkoV 8' L1JV, 7T6TTi(T/jLr)V. AuTOV OVV, 

elirev, rjTTtjOrj? aeavrov iro\\d/a^. 'AXX' avrbv 
eavrov, elirev 6 'AXe^a^8/?O9, Kparelv KOI r^rrdcrdaL 

\ej6Tai' efjLol 8e rjv vTrep rwv Trpov 331 
o \6<yo<>. Ba/8al T?} 
07TCD9 rj/jiwv rd ao^io-fjiara 8^X67^6^9. 
elirev, ev 'Iz^Sot9 erpwOr)? /cal 6 H.VK6(TTrj<; e/ceiro 
Trapd ere, a~v Be egrfyov ^v^oppay&v r?}9 7roXea)9, 
dpa Tjrrcov r}<r6a TOV Tpa>aavTOs, rj /cal eicelvov 
; OVK eicelvov, e^ry, JJLOVOV, dX\d /cal avrrjv 
TIJV 7ro\iv. Ov av ye, elirev, w 
(TV jLiev ydp e/ceio-o /card TOV 'O/Arjpiicbv 
r/ Ei/cropa o\iyoBpaveci)v /cal ^v^oppaycov ol Be B 
rjjwvi^ovro real GVIKWV. 'Hyov^evayv 7' rj/jiwv, 
eljrev o 'AXegavBpos. /cal 6 SetX^^o9, ITft>9; 01 ye 


intemperate habits. But Alexander was well stocked 
with Peripatetic subterfuges, and retorted, " In- 
animate things cannot conquet ; nor do we contend 
with such, but only with the whole race of men and 
beasts." "Ah," said Silenus, "behold the chicanery 
of logic ! But tell me in which class you place your- 
self, the inanimate or the animate and living? " At 
this he seemed mortified and said, " Hush ! Such 
was my greatness of soul that I was convinced that I 
should become, or rather that I was already, a god." 
" At any rate," said Silenus, " you were often defeated 
by yourself." "Nay," retorted Alexander, " to 
conquer oneself or be defeated by oneself amounts 
to the same thing. I was talking of my victories 
over other men." " No more of your logic ! " cried 
Silenus, " how adroitly you detect my sophisms ! But 
when you were wounded in India, 1 and Peucestes 2 
lay near you and they carried you out of the town at 
your last gasp, were you defeated by him who 
wounded you, or did you conquer him ? " "I con- 
quered him, and what is more I sacked the town as 
well." "Not you indeed, you immortal," said 
Silenus, "for you were lying like Homer's Hector in 
a swoon and at your last gasp. It was your soldiers 
who fought and conquered." " Well but I led them," 
said Alexander. " How so ? When you were being 
carried away almost dead ? " And then Silenus 

1 At the storming of the capital of the Mallians, probably 
the modern city Multan, in 326 B.C., cf. Plutarch, Alexander; 
Lucian, Dialogues of the Dead 14. 

2 Peucestes was wounded but saved Alexander's life ; 
Pliny 34. 8. 




e(f)epecr0 fj,i/cpov vetcpoi; elra ^Se rwv e 


Oi/jiot,, tcaO" 'EA\a&' ft>9 Kaicws vo/ 

r 'Orav rporraiov rroKe/JLiutv arrfar) a~rparo<f. 

/cal 6 kioi'vaos, Havaai, elrrev, w rramriSiov, 
roiavra \eywv, IJLIJ ere ouro? oirola rov K\irov C 

/cal 6 'AXefaz^Spo? epvOpida-as re 
KOI wvTrep crvy)(v6el^ VTTO TWV Sa/cpvcov TO, 

Tra. teal 68e jjiev a)Se e\r)t;v 6 \6yos. 
'O Se f E/9//-?79 rjpero TraKiv rov Kaiaapa, Sot Be, 
elrrev, w Kalaap, rt? eyevero cr/toTro? rov ftiov; 
To rrpwreveiv, e<^rj, TT}? e^avrov KOI /jujSevos /jitjre D 
elvai fir^re vofiL^eaOai 2 Sevrepov. ToOro, elrrev o 
f E/)yLt^?, aerate? eVrf norepov yap, etVe, 3 /cara 
crofyiav r) rrjv ev rot? \o<yoi<$ Seivorrjra rj Tro\e- 
/jLi/crjv e/jLireipiav r) 7ro\iritcr)V SvvajJiiv; *Hv fiev 
ovv, e<j)r) 6 Kaiaap, r)8v yuot rwv rravrwv ev rcaaiv 
elvcu rrpwrw' rovrov &e ov Svi>d/j,evo<> emrv^elv rb 
SvvaaQat, /jbeyiarov rrapti rot? e/juavrov TroXtrat? 
e^ijXwaa. ^v $e, elrrev, eSvvrjOijs pAya; Trpo? avrbv 332 
o i<L\r)v6<>. /cal 09, F[dvv ye, (f>r)' /cvpios youv 
avrwv eyevoprjv. 'AXA,a rovro fjuev, elrrev, eSv~ 
vrjO^' (iyarrrj07JvaL 8e vrr' avr&v ov% 0^09 re 
eyevov, ical ravra rro\\r)v /J,ev vrroKpivdfjievos 
wffrrep ev opdjjLan /cal (T/crjvfj <$>i\,av0p(Drriav, 
aiaxpMS o~e avrovs rrdvras Ko\aKevwv. Elra OVK 
dyarrrjdrjvai, SOKO), elrrev, vrrb rov SIJ/AOV rov Sico- B 

1 rlv K\~ITOV (Spafffv epyaffyrat MSS. ; Hertlein suggests 
omission of (Spaaev. 

2 ^T ivat ^Te vo/id^tcr&ai Hertlein suggests, thai ^re 
vofj.iCea6ai MSS. 

3 6 t '7r e ' Hertlein suggests; cf. 333 D, e'lire MSS. 



recited the passage in Euripides l beginning " Alas 
how unjust is the custom of the Greeks, when 
an army triumphs over the enemy But Dionysus 
interrupted him saying " Stop, little father, say no 
more, or he will treat you as he treated Cleitus." At 
that Alexander blushed, his eyes became suffused 
with tears and he said no more. Thus their con- 
versation ended. 

Next Hermes began to question Caesar, and said, 
"And you, Caesar, what was the end and aim of 
your life?'' "To hold the first place in my own 
country," he replied, " and neither to be nor to be 
thought second to any man." " This," said Hermes, 
" is not quite clear. Tell me, was it in wisdom that 
you wished to be first, or in oratorical skill, or 
in military science, or the science of government ? " 
" I should have liked well," said Caesar, " to be first 
of .all men in all of these ; but as I could not attain 
to that, I sought to become the most powerful of my 
fellow-citizens." " And did you become so very 
powerful ? " asked Silenus. " Certainly," he replied, 
" since I made myself their master." " Yes that you 
were able to do ; but you could not make yourself 
beloved by them, though you played the philan- 
thropic role as though you were acting in a stage- 
play, and flattered them all shamefully." "What ! " 
cried Caesar, " I not beloved by the people ? When 

1 Andromache 693 foil. : the passage continues "Tis not 
those who did the work that gain the credit but the general 
wins all the glory." Cleitus was killed by Alexander at a 
banquet for quoting these verses. 


D D 2 


^povrov teal Y^daaiov, OVK eTTCt&ij ere 
direKTewav, e<j>r)' Bid TOVTO aev jap avTOvs 6 
Sfjfj.o<$ e^lr^(j)LcraTO elvai vTrdrovs' aXXa Sea TO 

dpyvpiov, eTreiSr] TWV BiadrjKMV 

fjLia0bv ecopwv TT}? dyavaKTijaews avrols OVTOI I TOV 

Se KOL rovBe TOV \6<yov, TOP 'O/cra- C 
ftiavov avdis o ^p/Jbij^ e/eivet. Su Be, elTrev, OVK 
TL fcd\\i<rTov evofjut^es elvai; KCU 09, 
, (p7j, /caXw?. Tt Se eaTi TO /caXco?, w 
(f>pdcrov, evrel TOVTO <ye eo~Ti /cal rot? 
eyeiv. wero <yovv KOI &,LOVVO~IOS 
co? j3ao-i\eveiv Kal 6 TOVTOV /j,iapa>Tpos *A<ya- 

' IO~T, 6L7T6V, ft) 060L, ft)? TrpOTTe/jLTTCOV D 

TOV OvyaTpiBovv r^v^dfjirjv V/MV ToKpav fjiev aura) 
Sovvai Tr)i> Kaiaapos, SetvoTrjTa Be Trjv HofjLTrrjiov, 
TV%r)V Se Tr)v ejj,ijv. IIoXA-a, elirev 6 S^iX^^o?, real 
Qewv OVTWS crtoTr)pa>v epya Beo/Jieva avi>6(j>6p^(Tev 
OVTOS o Kop07r\d@o<>. Eira 8ta TI TOVTO, efyr), TO 
ovo/Jid fjioi <ye\oiov OVT&)? eOov; >V H yap OVK 
67rXaTT69 rj/jiiv, eiirev, warTrep eicelvou TCL<$ vv^a^, a) 
^e^a(7T, Oeovs, wv eva Kal TrpwTov TOVTovl 
Kaio-apa; Kal o /j,ev 'O/eTa/3mi>o9 coaTrep Bva- 333 

C O 8e r Ep/A7}? TTyoo? TOV Tpaiavbv 
Be, eiTre, TI Biavoovfjievo^ GTrpaTTes oaaTrep enroa- 

] afoot V, Cobet, otfn Hertlein. 


they punished Brutus and Cassius ! " " That was not 
for murdering you/' replied Silenus, "since for that 
they elected them consuls ! l No, it was because 
of the money you left them. When they had heard 
your will read they perceived what a fine reward was 
offered them in it for such resentment of your 

When this dialogue ended, Hermes next accosted 
Octavian. " Now for you," he said, " will you please 
tell us what you thought the finest thing in the 
world?" "To govern well," he replied. "You must 
say what you mean by ' well,' Augustus. Govern 
well ! The wickedest tyrants claim to do that. 
Even Dionysius, 2 1 suppose, thought that he governed 
well, and so did Agathocles 3 who was a still greater 
criminal." "But you know, O ye gods," said 
Octavian, "that when I parted with my grandson 4 
I prayed you to give him the courage of Caesar, the 
cleverness of Pompey, and my own good fortune." 
" What a many things," cried Silenus, " that do need 
really saving gods have been jumbled together by 
this doll-maker ! " " Why pray do you give me that 
ridiculous name?" asked the other. "Why," he re- 
plied, "just as they model nymphs did you not 
model gods, 5 Augustus, and first and foremost Caesar 
here ? " At this Octavian seemed abashed and said 
no more. 

Then Hermes addressing Trajan said, " Now you 
tell us what was the principle that guided all your 
actions ? " ' ' My aims," he replied, "were the same 

1 This is not according to history. The Senate gave 
Brutus and Cassius proconsular power in their provinces. 

2 Tyrant of Syracuse 405-367 B.C. 

3 Tyrant of Syracuse 317-289 B.C. 4 Caius Caesar. 
5 Julian refers to the custom of deifying the Emperors. 



elrrev, wpe')(0r)v. /cal 6 ^etXr^o?, 'HmjOij^ pev 
ovv, 1 elrce, real crv rwv dyevve&repwv. 6 pev yap 
Ovpov TO rr\elcrrov rJTrwv fy, crv Be ala-ftpa? 
r)Bovi)<; real errovetBiarov. BaXX' et? pafeapiav, B 
elrrev o AtoVucro?, errel a-Kcbrrreis crv rrdvras 
avrovs teal iroieis ovSev virep eavrwv \yiv. 

etceivoov et%e aoi %a)pav ra or 

Se vvv, OTTCO? awri\r)'fyr) rov 
So/cet jap elvai JJLOI TTW? az/r/p Kara rov 
TTpdy(ovos avev tyoyov Tervy/j,evos. 
Be /3Xe^a? et? TOZ^ MapAroi^, ^ot Be, etTrev, w 
B?)/oe, rt Ka\\icrTov eBo/cei rov piov reXo? elvai; 
real 09 rfpe/jia /cal craxfypova)?, To fJUjJielaOai, C 

6eov<$. e$o%e aev ovv eu$e&>? 7; 
OVK dyevvrjs, d\\d /cal rov rravros 
d%ia. d\\d real 6 'Eip/Afjs OVK /3ov\ero TTO\V- 
Trpay/jboveiv, rrerreio-fjievo^ on rrdvra o Mdprcos 
aKO\ov6w^ epel. rot? fjuev ovv aXXoi? Oeois eBofcei 
ravrr)' /JLOVOS Be 6 SetX^i/o?, 'AXX' ov pa rov Ato- 
vvcrov dve^opaL rovrov rov crofyicrrov. ri Bijrrore 
yap rjaOies, elrre, 2 /cal emves ovy^ warrep r//^et? dp- D 
f3poo-ia<$ re real vetcrapos, aprov Be /cal oivov; 'AXX' 
eycoye, elrrev, ov% flTrep ovv wprjv rovs Oeovs pipel- 
<T0ai, ravrrj rrpoo~(f)ep6p'rjv cnrta /cal rrord' TO 
crwpa Be erpe^ov, tV&>? pev tyevBws, rreiOopevos 
Be, on real ra vperepa crwpara Belrat rf}<? 
e/c rwv dvaOvpidcrecov rpo<jb>}9. rrXrjv ov /card 
ravrd ye vpas elvai piprjreovs, d\\d Kara rrjv 
Bidvotav V7re\a/3ov. o\iyov o SetX?^o? Biarroptfcras 3 334 

1 /j.fv ovv Hertlein suggests, ovv MSS. /cal before <rv Cobet 
adds.. 2 1*4 Hertlein suggests, cf. 331 D, el MSS. 

3 StoTropTjeraj Reiske suggests to complete the construction. 



as Alexander's, but I acted with more prudence." 
"Nay," said Silenus, "you were the slave of more 
ignoble passions. Anger was nearly always his weak 
point, but yours was pleasure of the vilest and most 
infamous sort." "Plague take you!" exclaimed 
Dionysus, " You keep railing at them all and you 
don't let them say a word for themselves. However, 
in their case there was some ground for your 
sarcasms, but now consider well what you can find 
to criticise in Marcus^ Fon in^nr^ opinion he is a 
man, to quote ^imonides, ^four-square and n^ide 
without ajlaw.' " l Then Hermes addressed Marcus 
and said, " And you, Verus, what did you think the 
noblest ambition in life ? " In a low voice he answered 
modestly, "To imitate the gods." This answer they 
at once agreed was highly noble and in fact the best 
possible. And even Hermes did not wish to cross- 
examine him further, since he was convinced that 
Marcus would answer every question equally well. 
The other gods were of the same mind ; only Silenus 
cried " By Dionysus I shall not let this sophist off so 
easily. Why then did you eat bread and drink wine and 
not ambrosia and nectar like us ? " " Nay," he replied, 
"it was not in the fashion of my meat and drink 
that I thought to imitate the gods. But I nourished 
my body because I believed, though perhaps falsely, 
that even your bodies require to be nourished by the 
fumes of sacrifice. Not that I supposed I ought to 
imitate you in that respect, but rather your minds." 
For the moment Silenus was at a loss as though he 
1 Simon ides fr. 5 Bergk. 



wcnrep VTTO TTVKTOV Be^iov Tr\r)yei$, Etiprjrai fj,ev 

<TOL TOVTO, elvre, Tw%bv ovtc aroTTft)?, e/nol Be, 

e<f)rj, (j>pd(rov, TL Trore evofufa elvai rrjv TMV 

0ewv fJLi/JLrjaiv; teal 09, kelcrdai /JLCV &>9 

ev Troielv Be ft>9 o, 7i /jidXtara TrXetcJTOi/?. 

o5^, 617T6V, ovBevbs eSeov; /cal 6 

ouSe^o9, 6cr&)9 &e TO aw^driov /JLOV 

T09 o5z^ /cal TOVTO 6/90W9 clprj/cevai TOV Mdptcov, B 

TO reXo9 aTropov/jievos 6 SeiX^^o9 eiritftverai rot9 

7re/ot TOI' Trat^a /cat T^ yafj,Trjv CLVTW SOKOVCTIV 

OVK op0a)<> ovBe KCLTCL \6yoi> TreTTOirjadai, TTJV /AW 

OTI rat9 ypwivdis eveypatye, TW Be OTL Tr^v 

rjye/Aoviav eTreTpe^rev. 'EtfjLifArjcrd/jirjv, elire, /cal 

KaTCL TOVTO TOV9 OeOVS' 'O/ATJpCi) fAV <jap e7TL06/jir)V 

\iyovTL Trepl Trjs yafjLeTfjs, OTI apa, ocrTfc9 dyaObs C 
teal e^e^pwv, Trjv avTov <fyi\eei teal KijBeTai* Trepl 
Be TOV 7ra^o9 avTov TOV Ato9 airofyacnv e%co- 
aiTKajjievos yap TOV "Apea, ITaXat av, elirev, 
e(3e/3\r)cro T> xepavvw, el fjirj Bia TO TraiBd ere 
elvai rjyaTrtov. aXXco9 re /cal ovBe WJULTJV eycb 
TOV TralBa Trovrjpov OVTCOS ea-eadai. el Be rj 
veoT?)? efi etcaTepa /j,eyd\as Troiovpevrj p 
7rl TO ^elpov r}ve%0r], ov%l Trovrjpw TTJV 

a, avvrjve^Orj Be TOV \a/36vTa Trovrjpbv 
. TOL re ovv Trepl TTJV y waited TreTroirjTui D 
fwt, fcaTa %rj\ov 'A^XXe9 TOV Oelov, /cal TO, 
Trepl TOV TralBa /cara fjii^aLV TOV /jLeyicrTOV Ato9, 
aXXa>9 T /cal ovBev /eaivoTO/jitjaavTi. iratcri 
re yap vo^ifjiov eTTiTpeTreiv r9 BiaBo-ftd?, /cal 


had been hit by a good boxer, 1 then he said " There 
is perhaps something in what you say ; but now tell 
me what did you think was really meant by e imitat- 
ing the gods.' " "Having the fewest possible needs 
and doing good to the greatest possible number." 
" Do you mean to say," he asked, " that you had no 
needs at all?" "I," said Marcus, "had none, but 
my wretched body had a few, perhaps." Since in 
this also Marcus seemed to have answered wisely, 
Silenus was at a loss, but finally fastened on what 
he thought was foolish and unreasonable in the 
Emperor's behaviour to his son and his wife, I mean 
in enrolling the latter among the deified and entrust- 
ing the empire to the former. " But in that also," 
said the other, "I did but imitate the gods. I 
adopted the maxim of Homer when he says 'the 
good and prudent man loves and cherishes his own 
wife,' 2 _ while as to my son I can quote the excuse of 
Zeus himself when he is rebuking Ares : ' Long ago,' 
he says, f I should have smitten thee with a thunder- 
bolt, had I not loved thee because thou art my son.' 3 
Besides, I never thought my son would prove so 
wicked. Youth ever vacillates between the extremes 
of vice and virtue, and if in the end he inclined 
to vice, still he was not vicious when I entrusted the 
empire to him ; it was only after receiving it that he 
became corrupted. Therefore my behaviour to my 
wife was modelled on that of the divine Achilles, 
and that to my son was in imitation of supreme Zeus. 
Moreover, in neither case did I introduce any 
novelty. It is the custom to hand down the succes- 
sion to a man's sons, and all men desire to do so ; as 

1 Plato, Protagoras 339 E &<rireo virb ayadnv TTVKTOV v\ijyeis. 
' 2 Iliad 9. 343. 3 A paraphrase of Iliad 5. 897. 



TOVTO cnravres evyovrai, rrjv re <ya/jLTrjv OVK 335 
eya) 7T/3WTO9, aXXa fjiera TroXXoiW aXXof9 erL/j,rjcra. 
io-609 Be TO /Jiev dp^aaOai TWV TOLOVTWV OVK 
ev\o<yov, TO Be eVl 7ro\\o)v jevofjievov 

aTTOCTTepeiv 7719 

e\a9ov ejjiavTOv eya) ^a/cpoTepa a7ro\o<yov/jii;o<> 
O KOL 0eoi m StoTrep /JLOL 

Tlavvajjievov oe KOI TOvSe TOV \6yov, TOV 

6 t E/?yLt^9 r)pTO, 2<V $ Tl KO\OV 

elire, KTrjcrd/jLevov 7ro\\a %apt- 
cracrOai, rat9 T' eTTiOvfjiiaiS rat9 eavTOV real 

ovv 6 2,ei\r)vbs /ji<ya, 'AXX' ^ Tpaire^iT^ elvcu, 
Oe\cov e'XeXei<? aeavTov OOTT^LOV KOI 

iov (t>v; 


aov tcaTrjyopei. TOVTOU /JLCV ovv 6 ^eiXrjvbs 

7TO>9 KaO^aTO. 

Be <yevofjievris etyepoi' ol Oeol \ddpa C 
^. eiTa e<yevovTO TroXXal TCO Ma/9A:ft). 
Koivo\oyrj(rd/Ji,vos Be 6 Zei/9 t'Sta ?r/?09 Tor 7rare/?a 
Trpoo-erafe Krjpvgai rw 'Epyu-^. o Se e/crjpvTTev, 
"AvBpe? 01 r 7Tape\OovTe^ eirl TOVTOVL TOV dywva, 
vofjbOL Trap' rj/jLLV elcri Kal Kpiaew TOiavTai 
ryivovrcu, wcrre at roi' VIKWVTO, %aipeiv Kal TOV 
rjTTto/jLevov fj,r) fjAfJufyecrOai. iropeveade ovv, eiirev, 
OTTOI (j)L\ov e/cacrT&), VTTO 6eol<$ rjye/jioai, fiiwao/Aevoi D 
TO evTevdev \ea0w 8' e/ca<7T09 eavTO) TOV 
TTpoa-TaTrjv re Kal rjye/jiova. /JLCTCL TO 

1 C" Cobet, efyw.' Reiske, rxa>/ Hertlein, MSS. 


for my wife I was not the first to decree divine 
honours to a wife, for I followed the example of 
many others. It is perhaps absurd to have intro- 
duced any such custom, but it would be almost an 
injustice to deprive one's nearest and dearest of 
what is now long-established. However, I forget 
myself when I make this lengthy explanation to you, 
O Zeus and ye other gods ; for ye know all things. 
Forgive me this forwardness." 

When Marcus had finished his speech, Hermes 
asked Constantine, " And what was the height of 
your ambition?" "To amass great wealth," he 
answered, "and then to spend it liberally so as 
to gratify my own desires and the desires of my 
friends." At this Silenus burst into a loud laugh, 
and said, " If it was a banker that you wanted 
to be, how did you so far forget yourself as to 
lead the life of a pastrycook and hairdresser ? " 
Your locks and your fair favour x betokened this 
all along, but what you say about your motives 
convicts you." Thus did Silenus sharply reprove 

Then silence was proclaimed and the gods cast a 
secret ballot. It turned out that Marcus had most 
of the votes. After conferring apart with his father, 2 
Zeus bade Hermes make a proclamation as follows : 
" Know all ye mortals who have entered this contest, 
that according to our laws and decrees the victor is 
allowed to exult but the vanquished must not com- 
plain. Depart then wherever you please, and in 
future live every one of you under the guidance of 
the gods. Let every man choose his own guardian 
and guide." 

1 Iliad 3. 55. 2 Kronos. 



TOVTO 6 fiev 'AXefai>fyjo9 eOeu 7rpo9 TOV 'H/oa/cXea, 
'O/cTaftiavos Be 737)09 TOV 'AvroXXwrn, dfifyolv 
Be aTTpi% et'^ero TOV Ato? KOI K/ooi'ou Map/co?. 
Tr\avw/jivov Be TroXXa /cal TrepiTpe^ovTa rov 
Kaiaapa /careXe^'cra? o /^eya? "A^? ^ re 
'AQpo&LTTj Trap 1 eaurot'9 e/caXeadTrjv Tpaiavbs 
Be Trapa TOV *A\e};avBpov eOei co? etceiva) avyKaO- 
eBovfievo^. 6 Be KcwcrTavTivos, ^X svpicr/cwv 336 
et' #eot? TOI) /Stof TO ap%6TV7rov, eyyvOev rrjv 
r Ypv<f)r)V /caTiBoav eBpa/j, Trpos avTrjv rj Be VTro\a- 
fiovaa yLtaXa/cw9 teal Trepif3a\ov(Ta rot9 Tnj^eo-i 
7re7rXot9 re CLVTOV rroiKiXois acrKijcracra KOI KO\- 
\(07ricraa-a ?rpo9 TT);; 'Acrwrtay aTrrfyayev, iva 
KOI TOV 'Irjaovv evpwv avacrTpefyofJievov KOI 
TrpoayopevovTO, Trdaiv, ""OaTis $6opevs, OCTTIS 

oo-Ti9 eVay^9 /cat /3Be\vpo<;, ITW Oappwv B 
yap avTOv TOVTW\ TOO vBaTi Xouo~a9 
avTi/ca KaOapov, KO.V Trd\LV eW^09 T0?9 avTois 
yevrjTai, Bctxro) TO crTr)6os Tr\r)i;avTi /cal Trjv 
rraTa^avTi, KaOapw yeveaOaL," a-(f>6Bpa 
evew^ev avTy, avve^ayaycav T?}9 TWV 
Oewv dyopas Tot9 rralBas. erreTpiftov B* avTOV 
T Kaiceivovs ov% r)TTov T7}9 dOeoTrfTO^ ol Tfa- 
\afjuvaloi Bai/Aoves, al^aTwv crvyyevwv Tivvvpevoi 
Bitcas, eco9 o Zeu9 BLO, TOV K\avBt,ov /cal Kwv- 
(TTCLVTLOV eBcotccv dvaTTvevcrai. 



After this announcement, Alexander hastened to 
Heracles, and Octavian to Apollo, but Marcus attached 
himself closely to Zeus and Kronos. Caesar wandered 
about for a long time and ran hither and thither, till 
mighty Ares and Aphrodite took pity on him and 
summoned him to them. Trajan hastened to Alex- 
ander and sat down near him. As for Constantine, 
he could not discover among the gods the model of 
his own career, but when he caught sight of Pleasure, 
who was not far off, he ran to her. She received him 
tenderly and embraced him, then after dressing him 
in raiment of many colours and otherwise making 
him beautiful, she led him away to Incontinence. 
There too he found Jesus, who had taken up his 
abode with her and cried aloud to all comers : " He 
that is a seducer, he that is a murderer, he that is 
sacrilegious and infamous, let him approach without 
fear ! For with this water will I wash him and will 
straightway make him clgan. And though he should 
be guilty of those same sins a second time, let him 
but smite his breast and beat his head and I will 
make him clean again." To him Constantine came 
gladly, when he had conducted his sons forth from 
the assembly of the gods. But the avenging 
deities none the less punished both him and them 
for their impiety, and exacted the penalty for the 
shedding of the blood of their kindred, 1 until Zeus 
granted them a respite for the sake of Claudius and 
Constantius. 2 

1 Introduction to Volume I. p. vii. 

2 Constantius Chlorus. 



e^(ov o E/3/u,>}<?, Be&w/ca rov C 
Trarepa M.l0pav eTriyvwvar crv 8' avrov rwv 
vro\ct)v e%ov; Treta/Ad Kal opfjiov a(T<j>a\f) ^MVT'I 
re aeawrS) Trapaaicevd^wv, Kal rjvi/ca av evdevbe 
aTTievat Bey, yu-era rf/? dyaO^ e'\7ru)O'? ^ 
deov evfjLevf) KaQicrras creavra). 



" As for thee/' Hermes said to me, " I have 
granted thee the knowledge of thy fatlier Mithras. 
Do thou keep his commandments, and thus secure 
for thyself a cable and sure anchorage throughout 
thy life, and when thou must depart from the world 
thou canst with good hopes adopt him as thy 
guardian god." 





JULIAN came to Antioch on his way to Persia in 
the autumn of 361 and stayed there till March, 362. 
The city was rich and important commercially, but 
in Julian's eyes her glory depended on two things, 
the famous shrine of Apollo and the school of 
rhetoric ; and both of these had been neglected by 
the citizens during the reign of Constantius. A 
Christian church had been built in Apollo's grove 
in the suburb of Daphne, and Libanius, Antioch's most 
distinguished rhetorician, was more highly honoured 
at Nicomedia. 1 Julian's behaviour at Antioch and 
his failure to ingratiate himself with the citizens 
illustrates one of the causes of the failure of his 
Pagan restoration. His mistake was that he did 
not attempt to make Paganism popular, whereas 
Christianity had always been democratic. He is 
always reminding the common people that the true 
knowledge of the gods is reserved for philoso- 
phers ; and even the old conservative Pagans did 
not share his zeal for philosophy. Antioch moreover 
was a frivolous city. The Emperor Hadrian three 
centuries earlier had been much offended by the 
levity of her citizens, and the homilies of Saint 

1 cf. Libanius, Oration 29. 220, where he warns the people 
of Antioch that Caesarea had already robbed them of one 
sophist by the offer of a higher salaiy, and exhorts them not 
to neglect rhetoric, the cause of their greatness. 



Chrysostom exhibit the same picture as Julian's 
satire. His austere personality and mode of life 
repelled the Syrian populace and the corrupt officials 
of Antioch. They satirised him in anapaestic verses, 
and either stayed away from the temples that he 
restored or, when they did attend in response to his 
summons, showed by their untimely applause of the 
Emperor that they had not come to worship his gods. 
Julian's answer was this satire on himself which he 
addresses directly to the people of Antioch. But he 
could not resist scolding them, and the satire on his 
own habits is not consistently maintained. After he 
had left the city the citizens repented and sent a 
deputation to make their peace with him, but in 
spite of the intercession of Libanius, who had accom- 
panied him to Antioch, he could not forgive the 
insults to himself or the irreverence that had been 
displayed to the gods. 

E E 2 



'Ava/cpeovri r& iroirjTf) TroXXa eirouqui) fjie\r] 
^apievra' rpv(j)av jap e\a%ev e/c fjioipwv' 'AX- 
/caiqy 8' oviceTi ov8' 'A/o%tXo%ft> rw Ylapiw rrjv 
eSw/cev 6 #eo? et? evtypoavvas KOI rjSovas 
fjuo^delv yap aXXore aXXw? avayica^o- 
oi rfj fjbovcriKf) TT/OO? TOUTO e^p^vro, /cov^orepa B 
rroiovvres aurot? oaa 6 SaujjLwv e'St8ou rj et 9Tot9 
otSopia. epol 8e dirayopevei /JLCV o 
7r ovofiaro? aiTiaaQai TOU? aSi/covfJievovs 
fjL6v ovBev, elvai $ eTT^eLpovvra^ Bv a Bevels, a<f>ai- 
pelrai Se rrjv ev rot? yw-eXeo-t ^ovaiK^v o vvv eVt- 
Kparwv ev rot? e\ev6epoi<; rfjs TraiSeias 
aiff^iov yap elvai So/ci vvv fiov<riicr)V e 

Tj TTaXttt 7TOT6 cBoK6i TO 7T\OVTlv ttSt/CO)?. OV fJLIJV 

Sia rovro TT)? eyu.ol Swarfy e'/c pova-wv 
las. e0aadfj,r)v TOI KCLI rou? uTre/? TOZ/ 

1 " The Discourse at Antioch " is an alternative title in 
the MSS. 



ANACREON the poet composed many delightful 
songs ; for a luxurious life was allotted to him by 
the Fates. But Alcaeus and Archilochus of Paros l 
the god did not permit to devote their muse to 
mirth and pleasure. For constrained as they were 
to endure toil, now of one sort, now of another, they 
used their poetry to relieve their toil, and by 
abusing those who wronged them they lightened 
the burdens imposed on them by Heaven. But 
as for me, the law forbids me to accuse by name 
those who, though I have done them no wrong, try 
to show their hostility to me ; and on the other 
hand the fashion of education that now prevails 
among the well-born deprives me of the use of the 
music that consists in song. For in these days men 
think it more degrading to study music than once in 
the past they thought it to be rich by dishonest 
means. Nevertheless I will not on that account 
renounce the aid that it is in my power to win from 
the Muses. Indeed I have observed that even the 

1 In the seventh century B.C. Aleaeus of Lesbos and 
Archilochus both suffered exile, and the latter fell in battle 
against Naxos. For the misfortunes of Alcaeus, cf. Horace, 
Odes 2. 13. 



'Pr/vov fiapftdpovs dypia 
7rapa7r\ricna Tot9 KpwyfJi 
opviOuiv aSovTas fcal ev(j)paLvo/jLevov<; eVt rot? 
[ji\ea'iv. elvai 'yap ol/j,ai crv fjiftaivei rot? (f>av\,oi<; 3 
rrjv /uLovo-i/crjv Xvjrijpols pev rot? dedrpoi^, or^iai 
S* aurot? r)$[(7Toi<;. o Brj /cal auro? ^vvvoijcras 
TT/oo? e^avrov \eyeiv OTrep 6 'lo-yu^Wa? OVK 

w?, (ITTO 8e TT}? Oyuota?, co? 

otfipocrvvris, OTI Srjra rat? 
a&o) teal /j,avrq). 
To 8' ao-ytta Tre^ /zez^ Xefet TreTroirjrai, XotSo/ota? 
S* e^et TroXXa? /cat fj,eyd\a<f, OVK et? aXXou? yu-a 
Ata* TTO)? 7^; aTrayopevovros TOV VO/JLOV et9 B 
8e TOV jroiljTrjv avrov /cal TOV vyypa(f)ea. TO 
et9 eavrov ypdtyeiv elre eTraivov? eire 
eipyei VO^JLO^ ovSeis. eTraiveiv JJLGV Srj teal a~(f)6Bpa 
e0\wv ejjLavrov OVK e-^w, ^reyeiv $e fjbvpLa, /cai 
irpwrov dp%dfjvos GLTTO TOV TrpoaunTOv. TOVTO) 
yap ol/jiai (frvaei, yeyovori ^ \Lav /caXw /z^S' 
evrrperrel /JUJQ^ wpaiw vrro Sv&TpOTrias /cal Svcr- 
Ko\ia<; atTO? Trpoa-TeOeiKa TOV ftaOvv TOVTOVL G 
Trwywva, 8i/cas avTO TrpaTTOfJievo<;, 009 eoi/cev, ov- 
Sevos /J,ev d\\ov, TOV Be ^ (frvcrei yeveaOai KO\OV. 
TavTa TOL SiaOeovTcov dve^ofjiai TWV fyOeip&v 
wairep ev \6%/jLr) TWV Or^piwv. ecrQleiv be \d/3pa)<; 
rj Trlveiv %av8bv ov o-vy%(i)pov/jLai' Set yap ol 

1 <TvyKaTa<t>aycav Cobet, Kal ffvyKara(f>ayciDV Hertlein, MSS. 


barbarians across the Rhine sing savage songs com- 
posed in language not unlike the croaking of harsh- 
voiced birds, and that they delight in such songs. 
For I think it is always the case that inferior 
musicians, though they annoy their audiences, give 
very great pleasure to themselves. And with this in 
mind I often say to myself, like Ismenias for though 
my talents are not equal to his, I have as I persuade 
myself a similar independence of soul " I sing for 
the Muses and myself." x 

However the song that I now sing has been 
composed in prose, and it contains much violent 
abuse, directed not, by Zeus, against others how 
could it be,, since the law forbids ? but against the 
poet and author himself. For there is no law to 
prevent one's writing either praise or criticism of 
oneself. Now as for praising myself, though I should 
be very glad to do so, I have no reason for that ; but 
for criticising myself I have countless reasons, and 
first I will begin with my face. For though nature 
did not make this any too handsome or well-favoured 
or give it the bloom of youth, I myself out of sheer 
perversity and ill-temper have added to it this long 
beard of mine, to punish it, as it would seem, for 
this very crime of not being handsome by nature. 
For the same reason I put up with the lice that 
scamper about in it as though it were a thicket for 
wild beasts. As for eating greedily or drinking with 
my mouth wide open, it is not in my power ; for I 
must take care, I suppose, or before I know it 1 shall 
eat up some of my own hairs along with my crumbs 

1 For Isrnenias of Thebes cf. Plutarch, Pericles. The saying 
became a proverb ; cf. Dio Chrysostom, Oration 78. 420 ; 
Themistius 366 B ; Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, " I have 
lived mihi et Musis in the University." 



Tot? dpTOis. vrrep 8e TOV <tXetcr#at Kal <j)t\,iv D 

d\JM. KaiTOl Kal TOVTO e%lV eOLKeV 6 

wcnrep TCL aXXa \V7rrjp6v, OVK eTTiTpeTrwv 
KaOapd Xetot? Kal Sid TOVTO ol/jicu j\VKpa)Tepa 

%6tA,7y Trpoa'iJbdTTeiv, OTrep 'tjSr) TIS ecfrr) TWV 
%vv TO) Ila^l /cat Ty KaXXtoTT^ et? 
TOV Ad^viv 7roir)/j,aTa. vfjieis oe ^>are Seiv Kal 

fjv fjibvov eXiceiv SvvrjOrJTe teal f^rj ra? a 

VJJLWV /cal fJLa\aKa<$ xelpas 77 r/oa^wr^? ai>Twv 

Seiva epydcrrjTai. vofJiiarj Se /mrjBels Bvo")^paivtv 

fJi TO) (TKMfJL/JLaTL. SiOW/JLl, jap ttUTO? T7)V OlTiaV 339 

wcnrep ol Tpdyoi TO jeveiov e^wv, e%ov olf^ai \eiov 
avTo TToielv Kal ^n\ov, oirolov OL Ka\ol TWV TCCLL- 
$o)v e^ovcriv airaaai T al yvvaiKes, at? ( 
rrp6(T(TTL TO epda/jiiov. u/xet? 8e Kal ev TW 

rot/5 V/JLWV avTwv vt'ea? Kal ra? dvja- 
VTTO dfipoTrjTOS /3tou Kal tcra)? aTraXoT^ro? 
TpoTrov \elov eTTtyLteXci)? pydeo~0, TOP dvSpa 

Kal TrapaSeiKvvvTes Sid TOV fJLCTWTrov B 

yLtet? K TWV <yva0wv. 

l oe OVK d7rexpr)o- povov r) (3a6vTr)<$ TOV 
yei/etov, a\Xa Kal Trj Kefyakf) rrpocrea'TLV au^//.o?, 
Kal oXrya/a<? Keipopai Kal ow^i^o^ai, Kal TOV? 


^teXai/a?. el Be /3ov\ecr@e rt Kal TWV drropprJTCOV 
/j,a@eiv, eo~TL yttot TO crT?7^o? oao~v Kal \daiov wcrrrep 



of bread. In the matter of being kissed and kissing 
I suffer no inconvenience whatever. And yet for 
this as for other purposes a beard is evidently 
troublesome, since it does not allow one to press 
shaven " lips to other lips more sweetly " because 
they are smooth, I suppose as has been said already 
by one of those who with the aid of Pan and 
Calliope composed poems in honour of Daphnis. 1 
But you say that I ought to twist ropes from it ! 
Well 1 am willing to provide you with ropes if only 
you have the strength to pull them and their 
roughness does not do dreadful damage to your 
"unworn and tender hands." 2 And let no one 
suppose that I am offended by your satire. For 
I myself furnish you with an excuse for it 
by wearing my chin as goats do, when I might, 
I suppose, make it smooth and bare as hand- 
some youths wear theirs, and all women, who 
are endowed by nature with loveliness. But you, 
since even in your old age you emulate your own 
sons and daughters by your soft and delicate way 
of living, or perhaps by your effeminate dispositions, 
carefully make your chins smooth, and your manhood 
you barely reveal and slightly indicate by your 
foreheads, not by your jaws as I do. 

But as though the mere length of my beard were 
not enough, my head is dishevelled besides, and I 
seldom have my hair cut or my nails, while my 
fingers are nearly always black from using a pen. 
And if you would like to learn something that 
is usually a secret, rny breast is shaggy, and covered 

1 Daphnis is the hero of bucolic poetry ; Julian echoes 
Theocritus 12. 32 &y Se Kf irpo(T/j.dy y\vKepc*>Tfpa xe/A.c<n x 6 ^ 7 ?- 

2 Odyssey 22. 151 ; of. Zonaras'lS. 12. 213, Dindorf. 



TWV \OVT(dV, O f L7Tp {3aari\VOV(Tl TWV 

\elov avTO TrcoTrore Sid SvcrKo\Lav KOL 

, ovBe d\\o TI /^epos rov (rw/mcnos C 
elpyacrd/jLrjV \elov ovSe /AaXatcov. elrrov y* av 
V/JLIV, et Ti? 971^ fjioi Kal aKpo^opSwv wo-Trep r& 
Ki/cepwvt,' 1 vvvl S* OVK ecrrt. /cal el 2 av<yyivu>- 
cr/cere, <j)pd(Tw vfjfiv teal 3 erepov. e/^ot yap OVK 
TO crwyLta elvai TOLOVTO, TT/OO? Se Kal Siaira 
eTTLTrjSeverat. elpyw rwv Oedrpwv 

/j(,aVTOV V7T d^\T7Jpia<;, OV& L(T(0 T% aV\'t)S 

rr)v dv^e\f]v e%u> TT}> vovfi/qvtas rov 
VTT dvaia-6r)<TLas, wairep TWO, <f>6pov rj D 

elcr<f>epwv Kal 7roSiSou? aypoiKOs o\iya 
OVK TTiLKei SecTTTOT?;. Kal Tore Se elcreXQcov 
rot9 dfyocTiovfjievnis eoiKa. KeKrrjfjiai Be ov&eva, 
Kal ravra /SacrtXet'? CLKOVWV /xya<?, 09 

(TTparrjybs Bca Trdcnj^ rr/9 
TMV fjbifjLwv Kal TWV r)vi6%a)V' oirep 

dva/jLLfJLV)ja-Kea-Oe vvv 
vov T' eKetvov Kal fypevwv* 

ovv tcTft)9 Kal TOVTO /3apv Kal Seiy/Aa 340 
^(9r]pia<=; rpoTrov irpoa-TiOr^fjii o eyco 
Kaivorepov del' /JUCTW r9 i7T7roS/3Oyu,/a9, wairep 
ol xprj/jiara oD^XrjKore^ ra9 dyopds. 

OVV i9 aVTCLS (f)OlTO) V Tat9 6O/?TaA9 

1 KtKepwvi Naber, cf. Plutarch, Cicero, Kipoavi. Hertlein, 
MSS. 2 el Reiske, & Hertlein, MSS. 

3 &fuv Kal Reiske, ^v Hertlein, MSS. 

4 ava/Ln/jLv-rja-Keffd^ Qpevwv Hertlein writes as prose ; Brambs 
identified as a fragmetit of Cratinus. 



with hair, like the breasts of lions who among wild 
beasts are monarchs like me, and I have never in my 
life made it smooth, so ill-conditioned and shabby 
am I, nor have I made any other part of my 
body smooth or soft. If I had a wart like Cicero, 1 I 
would tell you so ; but as it happens I have none. 
And by your leave I will tell you something else. I 
am not content with having my body in this rough 
condition, but in addition the mode of life that I 
practise is very strict indeed. I banish myself from 
the theatres, such a dolt am I, and I do not admit 
the thymele 2 within my court except on the first day 
of the year, because I am too stupid to appreciate 
it ; like some country fellow who from his small 
means has to pay a tax or render tribute to a harsh 
master. And even when I do enter the theatre I 
look like a man who is expiating a crime. Then 
again, though I am entitled a mighty Emperor, 
I employ no one to govern the mimes and chariot- 
drivers as my lieutenant or general throughout the 
inhabited world. And observing this recently, "You 
now recall that youth of his, his wit and wisdom." 3 

Perhaps you had this other grievance and clear 
proof of the worthlessness of my disposition for 
I keep on adding some still more strange character- 
istic I mean that I hate horse-races as men who 
owe money hate the market-place. Therefore I 
seldom attend them, only during the festivals of the 

1 cf. Plutarch, Cicero, who says that Cicero had a wart on 
his nose. 

2 i e. the altar of Dionysus which was set up in the 

3 Cratinus, Eunidaefr. 1; cf. Synesius, Epitflel2Q; Julian 
refers to Constantius, whom the people of Antioch now com- 
pare with him. 



ovBe Bt,r)fiepev(i), /caddjrep ela)0eaav 6 re d 
6 epos fcal o #e?09 /cal 6 aeX<o9 6 
ef Be TOU9 Trdvras Oew/Jievos Bpo/Jiovs, ovB* avrovs 
o>9 av T9 epwv TOV Trpdjf^aro^ rj val /jua Ata fj,rj B 
avro /jLrjBe d7TO(TTpe(f)6/jLVO<>, a 

ra fjuev efw ravra- Kairoi TTOGTOV 
etprjrai /*oi /jLepos TMV /JLWV e/9 v^as dSitcrj/jidTcov; 
ra Be evSov aypVTrvoi VVKTCS ev cmftdSi,, /cal 
rpo(f)rj Travros IJTTWV Kopov iri/cpov 77^09 Troiei 
KOI Tpv(f)ct)crr) iroXei 7ro\efJbiov. ov fJLrjV vfjuwv 
y V6Ka TOVTO eTriTijSeveTai 'Trap' e/juov- Seivr) 
Se r^9 K Trat&apiov fjie /cal dvorjros dirdrrj 
Kara\a/3ovo-a rfj yacrrpl Trokepelv eireiaev, ovSe 
7rirp7ra) TroXXwv epLTri/jsTrXaa'dai aiTiwv avrfj. C 
o\LyiardfCL^ l ovv e/jiol TWV Trdvrwv e/aecrai crvveftr). 
/cal fjbefJivr]fjLai avro TraOwv ei; OTOV Kalaap eyevo- 
/jLijv djra^ drro ffi/^TTTco/iaTO?, ov TrX^cr/y 01/7)9. 
a^iov 8e V7ro/jivr)(r0f}vai Sirjyrf/uiaTos ov$e avrov 
irdvv %apivros, e/Jiol Be Bia TOVTO /xaXtcrra 

'EtTvyxavov eyw ^ei^d^u>v Trepl TTJV <f)i\t]v D 
Aov/ceTiav bvofjid^ovai B* OVTWS ol KeXrot TWV 
TIapi<ri'(ov TTJV 7ro\ij(yr)v ecrrt B 1 ov jJLeyd\rj vijcros 

TW TroTa/Aw, ical avTrjv KVK\W Traaav 
7repi~\,a/Li(3dvei, 2 ^vKivai B 1 eir avT^v 
dfjifyoTepwOev ela-dyovcri yefyvpai, /cal o\,iyd/ci,s 
o 7roTa/xo9 e\aTTOVTai /cal pei^wv yiveTai, TCL 
TroXXa 8' eo-Tiv birolos wpa Oepovs /cal 


1 o\Lyi(TTa.KLs Hertlein suggests, oXiydicis MSS. 

2 Trepi\K/j.8a.vft Cobet, /faroAo^aj/ei Hertlein, MS8. 


gods ; and I do not stay the whole day as my cousin l 
used to do, and my uncle 2 and my brother and my 
father's son. 3 Six races are all that I stay to see, 
and not even those with the air of one who loves 
the sport, or even, by Zeus, with the air of one who 
does not hate and loathe it, and I am gl#d to get 

But all these things are externals ; and indeed 
what a small fraction of my offences against you 
have I described ! But to turn to my private life 
within the court. Sleepless nights on a pallet and 
a diet that is anything rather than surfeiting make 
my temper harsh and unfriendly to a luxurious city 
like yours. However it is not in order to set an 
example to you that I adopt these habits. But in 
my childhood a strange and senseless delusion came 
over me and persuaded me to war against my belly, 
so that I do not allow it to fill itself with a great 
quantity of food. Thus it has happened to me most 
rarely of all men to vomit my food. And though I 
remember having this experience once, after I 
became Caesar, it was by accident and was not due 
to over-eating. It may be worth while to tell the 
story which is not in itself very graceful, but for 
that very reason is especially suited to me. 

1 happened to be in winter quarters at my beloved 
Lutetia for that is how the Celts call the capital of 
the Parisians. It is a small island lying in the river ; 
a wall entirely surrounds it, and wooden bridges 
lead to it on both sides. The river seldom rises and 
falls, but usually is the same depth in the winter as 

1 Constantius. 

2 Count Julian who had been 'Governor of Antioch. cf. 
Letter 13. 3 Gallus his half-brother. 



ijSio-rov KCLI KaOapwrarov opdv /cal rriveiv 
e6e\ovn rrape^wv. are jap vr/aov ol/covvras 
vopeveo~6ai ^a\iara evOevoe xptf. jiverai Be 
KOI 6 ')(eiiJi(t>v e/cel rcpaorepos elre vrrb rf)<? Oep/Ji^ 341 
rov wtceavov- crrdBia jap drre^ei ~'oz^ evvaKoaiwv 
ov TrXetct?, KCLI SiaBi&orai, TW^OV Xt/rr^ Tt9 avpa 
rov vSaTOS, elvai Se So/cet 6epp,oTepov TO da\drTiov 
rov 7Xf/ceo?- elre ovv etc ravrrjs elre etc 
aAA,?79 atria? d<f>avovs e/j,oi, ro rrpajpa 
roiovrov, akeeivorepov eyovcnv ol ro 
oiKovvres rov %ei/Awva, /cal fyverat, rrap aurot? 
ayu,7reXo9 dya0i'j, /cal cru/ca? rf^r) eio~Lv o't l e/jfrj^avrj- 
aavro, o~Krrd%ovre<$ avrds rov %ei/ji(J!)vo<> warrep B 
i/jLariois rfj Ka\d/jLrj rov rrvpov real roiovrois 
naiv, oaa eiwOev elpjeiv rrjv etc rov aepos 
CTnjijvo/jievrjv rot? SevSpois fi\d/3rjv. ejevero 8rj 
ovv 6 'xeifjitov rov elcoOoro? o-tyoSporepos, /cal 
Trapefapev o Trora/io? wo~rrep f^ap/jidpov Tr\dicas' 
lo~re S^TTOV rov <&pvyiov \i6ov rov \v/c6v rovrw 
em/eel fjid\io-ra ra Kpvo~ra\\a, z /j,eyd\a /cal 
7rd\\r)\a (pepojjieva' /cal Br) /cal o~vv%rj rroielv 
rjSrj rov rropov 6yu,eXXe /cal rb pevfj,a <ye(f>vpovv. C 
a)? ovv v TOVTOLS dypitorepo? r)v rov avvijOovs, 
edd\rrero Be rb Bcofidnov ovSafMWS, ovirep e/cd- 
QevSov, ovrcep elaydet rporrov V7ro<yaioi<; 
ra TroXXa ra)v ol/c^/jidrcov e/cei 
/cal ravra e%ov evrperr&s ?ryoo9 TO 7rapaBe^ao~6ai 
rrjv e/c rov rrvpos d\eav a~vve/3r) S' ol/Jiai /cal 

1 eio-ij/ ot Cobet, rives elffiv ol Hertlein, MSS. 

a r})V Kpv<TTa\\a Hertlein suggests, ^ e^wct /j.d\icrra TOV 
XfuKov TOVTOV TO, Kpv(Tra\\a, MSS. 

a vwoyatois Naber, cf. Pliny Ep. 2 17 ; VTT& rods Hertlein, 



in the summer season, and it provides water which is 
very clear to the eye and very pleasant for one who 
wishes to drink. For since the inhabitants live on 
an island they have to draw their water chiefly from 
the river. The winter too is rather mild there, 
perhaps from the warmth of the ocean, which is not 
more than nine hundred stades distant, and it may 
be that a slight breeze from the water is wafted so 
far; for sea water seems to be warmer than fresh. 
Whether from this or from some other cause obscure 
to me, the fact is as I say, that those who live in 
that place have a warmer winter. And a good kind 
of vine grows thereabouts, and some persons have 
even managed to make fig-trees grow by covering 
them in winter with a sort of garment of wheat 
straw and with things of that sort, such as are used 
to protect trees from the harm that is done them by 
the cold wind. As I was saying then, the winter 
was more severe than usual, and the river kept 
bringing down blocks like marble. You know, I 
suppose, the white stone that comes from Phrygia ; 
the blocks of ice were very like it, of great size, and 
drifted down one after another; in fact it seemed 
likely that they would make an unbroken path and 
bridge the stream. The winter then was more 
inclement than usual, but the room where I slept 
was not warmed in the way that most houses are 
heated, I mean by furnaces underground ; and that 
too though it was conveniently arranged for letting 
in heat from such a fire. But it so happened 
I suppose, because I was awkward then as now, and 




rare &ia a KaiorrjTa rrjv efirjv Kal rrjv et? /MIVTOV 
Trpwrov, ft)? et/co?, arravO pwiriav eftovXo/Jirjv yap 
edi^euv Gfjiavrov avkyzaQai TOP depa 
avevSe&s eyovra, r% ftorjdeias. &>? 8e o 
7rKpa,Ti /cat ael /jLci^cov 7reyiveTO, Oepprjvcu D 
p,ev ov& a)? eTrerpe^ra rot? vTrrjperais TO o'l/cij/jia, 
vrfffau rrjv ev rot? rot^ot? vyporrjTa, 
' ev$ov eKeXevaa Trvp KeKavfievov Kal 
/j,7rpov<s ajrodecrdai, Tra^reXco? /jLtrpiovs. 
ol 8e Kaiirep oVre? ou iro\\ol Tra/ATrX^^et? avro 
UT/JLOVS eKivrjaav, v<$> wv 

? ' efr, rwv larpMv 342, 
diroppl-^rai rrjv evreOeiaav apri 
Tpotyrjv, ovri p,a Aia 7r6\\r)v ovaav, ee/3a\ov, 
Kal eyevofjirjv avTLKa pawv, ware JJLOI <yeve<rdai 
KOU(f)OTpav TTJV vvKTa Kal TT}? v(TT6paia<; Trpdr- 
reiv OyTiirep e0e\oifjii. 

OI/T&) /ACT ovv eja) Kal ev KeXrot? Kara rbv 


Trpoo'eTiu'rjv. aXX r/ KeXxw^ JJLGV TCLVTCL paov 
(j)pev aypoiKLa, TroXt? o evoaijjiwv Kal fjuaKapia 
Kal TroXvdvOpwTros et/coTft)? a^derai,, ev y 7ro\\ol B 
JJLGV 6p^r)(rrai, 7ro\\ol 8' avX.rjTai, JU/JLOI Be 
vrXetoi'? TWV TTO^LTCOV, at5cb? S' OVK effTtv dpyov- 
rcov. epvOpiav jap TrpeTrei rot? dvdvSpois, eVet 
rot? 76 dv&peioL<$y c5<j7re/3 u//,eZ?, e&Oev Kcofid^eiv, 
ffiviraOelv, OTL TWV VO/JLWV vTrepopare /JLTJ 



displayed inhumanity first of all, as was natural, 
towards myself. For I wished to accustom myself 
to bear the cold air without needing this aid. And 
though the winter weather prevailed and continually 
increased in severity,, even so I did not allow my 
servants to heat the house, because I was afraid of 
drawing out the dampness in the walls ; but I 
ordered them to carry in fire that had burned down 
and to place in the room a very moderate number of 
hot coals. But the coals, though there were not 
very many of them, brought out from the walls 
quantities of steam and this made me fall asleep. 
And since my head was filled with the fumes I was 
almost choked. Then I was carried outside, and 
since the doctors advised me to throw up the food 
1 had just swallowed, and it was little enough, by 
Zeus , I vomited it and at once became easier, so 
that I had a more comfortable night, and next day 
could do whatever I pleased. 

After this fashion then, even when I was among 
the Celts, like the ill-tempered man in Menander, 1 
" I myself kept heaping troubles on my own head." 
But whereas the boorish Celts used easily to put up 
with these ways of mine, they are naturally resented 
by a prosperous and gay and crowded city in which 
there are numerous dancers and flute players and 
more mimes than ordinary citizens, and no respect 
at all for those who govern. For the blush of 
modesty befits the unmanly, but manly fellows like 
you it befits to begin your revels at dawn, to spend 
your nights in pleasure, and to show not only by 

1 cf. Oration 3. 113 C, note. Cobet thinks that the verse 
in Menander, Duskolos was avrbs S' ejttaury irpoariQ-tuJH TOVS 




A,o<y&> &i&d<TKeiv, aAAa rots 6/0706? ev&elicvva'Oat,. 
Kal jap ol vofJLOi (froftepol m TOL/? dp%ovra<$- 
ware ocrns dp^ovra vftpicrev euro? etc Trepiovcrias 
TOU9 VO/JLOVS KareTrdrrjaev &>9 6 eVt rovrois C 

Troielre 7ro\\a^ov 
8' eV rat9 dyopals teal ev rot9 


ol 8' ez/ reXet ro> yvaypi/jLcorepoi, /jid\\ov elvai KOI 
ovofJid^eaOai Trapd irdcnv dffS wv et9 ra9 roiavras 
copras eBaTrdwrjaav rj %6\a)v 6 'A^?;z/atO9 diro 
r^9 7Tyoo9 Kpolo-ov Tov A.v&(ov ySacrtXea avvovaias. 
fca\ol Se 7rdvT$ real /Jie^dkoi Kal \eloi Kal 
dyeveioi, veoi re o/W9 Kal Trpecrfivrepoi tyjXwral 
r&v QaiaKtov, 

d \oerpd re Oepfid KOI evvds 

dvrl r^9 o<7ta9 dTroBe^o^LevoL. 

" Tqv &rj crrjv dypotKiav Kal diravd pwirlav Kal 
(TKaiorrjra rovrois dp/JLoaeiv t7reXa/3e9; ovrws 
dvorjrov e&rL crot, Kal (pavXov, w Trdvrwv dv- 
OpwTrcov d^aOearare Kal <pi\a7re%07}fjiovea'rar, 
TO \eyofievov VTTO rwv dyevveardrwv o-a><f>pov 
rovrl ^rv^dpiov, o Brj av Koafielv Kal 
Vtofypocrvvr) %pr)vai vofjii^eis; OVK bpOws, on 
rov /jiev TI &a)(f)poo~vvr) 6,rt TTOT' ecrnv OVK Lajjiev, 343 
ovo/jia 8' avrijs aKOvovres JJLOVOV epyov ov 
el 8* oTroiov av vvv eTTirrj&eveis eariv, eiri 
fjuev on. deol<$ XP?) 8ov\eveiv Kal VO/JLOL^, CK r&v 



your words but by your deeds also that you despise 
the laws. For indeed it is only by means of those 
in authority that the laws inspire fear in men; so 
that he who insults one who is in authority, over 
and above this tramples on the laws. And that you 
take pleasure in this sort of behaviour you show 
clearly on many occasions, but especially in the 
market-places and theatres ; the mass of the people 
by their clapping and shouting, while those in office 
show it by the fact that, on account of the sums 
they have spent on such entertainments, they are 
more widely known and more talked about by all 
men than Solon the Athenian ever was on account of 
his interview with Croesus the king of the Lydians. 1 
And all of you are handsome and tall and smooth- 
skinned and beardless ; for young and old alike you 
are emulous of the happiness of the Phaeacians, and 
rather than righteousness you prefer "changes of 
raiment and warm baths and beds." 2 . 

"What then?" you answer, "did you really 
suppose that your boorish manners and savage ways 
and clumsiness would harmonise with these things ? 
O most ignorant and most quarrelsome of men, is it so 
senseless then and so stupid, that puny soul of yours 
which men of poor spirit call temperate, and which 
you forsooth think it your duty to adorn and deck 
out with temperance ? You are wrong ; for in the 
first place we do not know what temperance is and 
we hear its name only, while the real thing we 
cannot see. But if it is the sort of thing that you 
now practise, if it consists in knowing that men must 
be enslaved to the gods and the laws, in behaving 

1 For Solon's visit to Croesus at Sardis cf. Herodotus 1. 29. 

2 Odyssey 8. 249. 


F F 2 


tffCOV Be T0t9 OUOTL/JLOIS 7T/)OCr</>e/)ecr#at, KOI T1JV V 

rovrois vTrepo^rjv (frepeiv Trpaorepov, e7rt//,eXe<j$afc 
Kal Trpovoelv, OTTO)? ol Trevrjres VTTO TWV TT\OV- 
rovvrwv TJKLara dBiKijaovrai, KOI vTrep TOVTOV 
TTpdyfjiara e^eiv, oirola GLKOS eari croi yeveaOai 
TroXXaACt?, aTTe^Oeia^, oyoya?, \oi$opia<$' elra KOI B 
ravra (frepetv eyrcparws KCU /JLTJ ^akeTraiveiv ytt^S' 
7n,TpeTTiv TO) flu/Aw, 7rai$ayci)<y6tv Be avrov, a>? 
KOI crwfypovl^eiv' el Be teal TOVTO rt? 
061TO aw^poauvrj^, cnre'xea'Oat, Trd&rjs rjBovijs 
ov \iav dirpeirov^ ovS* eTroveiSiarov BoKOVffrjs ev 
TO> (fravepw, 7T67r6i(TjjLevos &)? OVK eanv ISua cra)- 
<f>povelv teal \dOpa rbv ^fjLoaia teal tyavepax; C 
dtco\aarov elvai OeXovra Kal repTro/jievov rot? 
Oedrpois' el Srj ovv OVTWS rj a-wfypoavvr) TOUWTOV 
ecrriv, aTroXcoXa? pev awro?, aTroXXuet? 8e rj/jias 
OVK dve-%o/jievov<; d/coveiv TrpWTOV ovo^a SouXeta? 

OVT 7T/30? 0OVS OVT 7Ty30? VO/JbOVS' TjBl) jdp 6V 

Trdcri TO e\ev6epov. 

" 'H Be elpwveia Trocrr;; SCCTTTOTT;? elvai ov 
ovBe dve^rj rovro d/covcov, aXXa Kal d 

eVeicra? TOU9 TrXetcrrou? eOdoas TraXat D 

(f)e\elv a>9 e7ri<J)0ovov T/)9 dp^f/s TOVTO 
TO ovo/Aa, Bov\evLv S' 77/^0.9 d 
Kal vocals. KairoL TTOCTO) Kpeirrov 
/jiev ere Beo'TTOTrjv, epyqy Be edv rj/jid^ elvai e\ev- 
Oepovs, w T jjiev ovo/uLara Trpaorare, TriKporare 


with fairness to those of equal rank and bearing 
with mildness any superiority among them ; in 
studying and taking thought that the poor may 
suffer no injustice whatever at the hands of the rich ; 
and, to attain this, in putting up with all the annoy- 
ances that you will naturally often meet with, hatred, 
anger, and abuse ; and then in bearing these also 
with firmness and not resenting them or giving way 
to your anger, but in training yourself as far as possible 
to practise temperance ; and if again this also one 
defines as the effect of temperance that one abstains 
from every pleasure even though it be not excessively 
unbecoming or considered blameworthy when openly 
pursued, because you are convinced that it is impos- 
sible for a man to be temperate in his private life 
and in secret, if in public and openly he is willing to 
be licentious and delights in the theatres ; if, in 
short, temperance is really this sort of thing, then 
you yourself have ruined yourself and moreover you 
are ruining us, who cannot bear in the first place 
even to hear the name of slavery, whether it be 
slavery to the gods or the laws. For sweet is liberty 
in all things ! 

" But what an affectation of humility is yours ! 
You say that you are not our master and you will not 
let yourself be so called, nay more, you resent the 
idea, so that you have actually persuaded the major- 
ity of men who have long grown accustomed to it, to 
get rid of this word ' Government' as though it 
were something invidious ; and yet you compel us to 
be enslaved to magistrates and laws. But how much 
better it would be for you to accept the name of 
master, but in actual fact to allow us to be free, you 
who are so very mild about the names we use and so 



Be rd epya; Trpbs Be rovrous drroKvaieis /3tao- 344 

jjbevos IJLV T0i>9 TrKovGiov? 6V 

%iv, TOU9 Trevrjras Be eLpyeis 

Se T^ crKrjvrjv KOL rov$ /JLL/JLOV? /cal TOU? o 

avroXcoXe/ca? rjfjiwv rr]V TroXfi^, wcrre ovBev rj/juv 

dyaObv VTrdp^ei Trapa crov 7r\rjv r^9 ftapvrrjros, 

179 dvexofJLevoi fir^va eft&o/jiov TOVTOVL TO yitep eu- 

^ecr^at Trdvrw*; d7ra\\a<yf)vai rov rocrovrov /ca/cov 

rot? Trept TOL? Ta0ou? 

^vve^wprjaai^ev, rj^ei^ 8e auro 

evTpa7re\ias egeipyaa-d/jieda (3d\\ovre<; ere rot? B 

wcrirep ro^ev/^acn. <rv Be, w yevvcue, 
dve^rj ra Heparwv /3e\rj, ra r)fj,erepa rpevas 

\oi$o prjcraa'dai. " t&oirqs et? ra lepd y BV(TKO\ KO\ 
BvarpOTre KOI ndvra fioj^O^pe. avppei 8ia <re rd 
7r\r)0rj 7T/909 rd repevrj KOI /Jbevroi Kal ol TrXetou? 
rwv ev reXei, Kal drro$')(ovral ore avv ftof) fierd 
icporwv Xa/ATT/oft)? ev TO?? re^eveaLV wcnrep ev TO?? 
Qedrpois. ri ovv OVK dyarrqs ov& y eVatvet?, aXX' C 
eVt%et/3et9 elvai aofywrepos rd roiavra rov H.V- 
Olov, Kal Srjfjirjy opels ev rw rr\r)6ei, Kal KaOdrrrr) 
rwv jBowvrwv TriKpws avrb Brj rovro \e<ya)v, 009 
t9 rcov Oewv eveKev o\i<ydKi<$ et9 Ta re/jievrj 
o-vvbpapbvres Be BS e'/xe 7ro\\f)s 
dvarrifJLTT\are rd lepd. rrpeTrei ' dv- D 



very strict about the things we do ! Then again you 
harass us by forcing the rich to behave with modera- 
tion in the lawcourts, though you keep the poor from 
making money by informing. 1 And by ignoring the 
stage and mimes and dancers you have ruined our 
city, so that we get no good out of you except your 
harshness ; and this we have had to put up with 
these seven months, so that we have left it to the old 
crones who grovel among the tombs to pray that we 
may be entirely rid of so great a curse, but we our- 
selves have accomplished it by our own ingenious 
insolence, by shooting our satires at you like arrows. 
How, noble sir, will you face the darts of Persians, 
when you take flight at our ridicule ? " 

Come, I am ready to make a fresh start in abusing 
myself. " You, sir, go regularly to the temples, ill- 
tempered, perverse and wholly worthless as you are ! 
It is your doing that the masses stream into the 
sacred precincts, yes and most of the magistrates as 
well, and they give you a splendid welcome, greeting 
you with shouts and clapping in the precincts as 
though they were in the theatres. Then why do 
you not treat them kindly and praise them ? Instead 
of that you try to be wiser in such matters than the 
Pythian god, 2 and you make harangues to the crowd 
and with harsh words rebuke those who shout. 
These are the very words you use to them : ' You hardly 
ever assemble at the shrines to do honour to 
the gods, but to do me honour you rush here in 
crowds and fill the temples with much disorder. 
Yet it becomes prudent men to pray in orderly 

1 i.e. bringing false accusations, which was the trade of 
the sycophant or blackmailer. 

2 Apollo who was worshipped at Daphne near Antioch. 



Trapa rwv Oewv alrovpevois ra dyaOd. rovrov 
OVK r}Kpodo~6e rov VO/AOV ' 

o>? 'OSucrCTeu? eTrecr^e r^v }LvpvK\eiav GKTTC- 
VTTO /jueyeOovs rov Karopdco/naro^, 

*E*v Ou/jLO), yprjv, ^alpe KOI I&XGO /jUjS 1 o\6\v^e; 

ra? Se Brj TpwaSa? ovrt irpos rov Tlpia/JLOV rj riva 
TWV rovrov Ovycnepwv rj vlecav, ov fjuyv ot8' avrov 

TOV "EttCTOpCi' KCLlTOi TOVTW ^(flv CO? 6eW TOL/? 345 

V%<T0ai' eu^oyLte^a? 8e OVK eBet^ev ev rfj 
ovre jwal/ca^ OVTG avSpas, a\\a rf) 

KOL TOVTO /cal yvvai^l TrpeTrov, 

OV fMTjV aVOGiOV TT^O? TOl)? 0OV$ WO~7rp TO TTa/)' 

7roiov/ui6vov. CTTaivelre yap dvrl TWV 6ewv 
dvOpcoTrovs, /jid\\ov 8e dvrl rwv Oewv rou? B 

a Oeparreveiv 

'ISov, rrd\iv 70) ra crvv^Orj 
KOI ov& e/jiavrS) avy^wpM (^Oeyyeadai a>? 
aSeco? Kal e\ev0epws, d\Xa vrro TT}? 
a-/cai6rr)ros KOI e/jiavrbv (Tvtco<f)avrw. ravrd ri? 
/cal roiavr dv \eyoi TT/JO? avBpas ov ra TT/QO? 
TOL/? ap^ovras JJLOVOV, d\\d Kal ra 7rp&> TOU? C 
vs e\v0epov<> elvat 0e\ovras, OTTO)? 



fashion, and to ask blessings from the gods in silence. 
Have you never heard Homer's maxim, " In silence, 
to yourselves" 1 , or how Odysseus checked Eury- 
cleia when she was stricken with amazement by 
the greatness of his success, " Rejoice, old woman, in 
thy heart, and restrain thyself, and utter no loud 
cry"? 2 And again, Homer did not show us the 
Trojan women praying to Priam or to any one of his 
daughters or sons, nay not even to Hector himself 
(though he does indeed say that the men of Troy 
were wont to pray to Hector as to a god) ; but in his 
poems he did not show us either women or men in 
the act of prayer to him, but he says that to Athene 
all the women lifted up their hands with a loud cry, 3 
which was in itself a barbaric thing to do and suit- 
able only for women, but at any rate it displayed no 
impiety to the gods as does your conduct. For you 
applaud men instead of the gods, or rather instead 
of the gods you natter me who am a mere man. But 
it would be best, I think, not to natter even the 
gods but to worship them with temperate hearts.' " 

See there I am again, busy with my usual 
phrase-making ! I do not even allow myself to speak 
out at random fearlessly and freely, but with my 
usual awkwardness I am laying information against 
myself. It is thus and in words like these that 
one ought to address men who want to be free 
not only with respect to those who govern them 
but to the gods also, in order that one may be 
considered well-disposed towards them, "like an 

1 Iliad 7. 195 

il Kpovioavi, &VO.KTI 
ffiyfi ety' v/j.f(wv, 'iva p.^ Tptaes y* irvOwvTai. 
2 Odyssey 22. 411. 3 Iliad 6. 301, 



w&Trep TraTrjp VJTUOS vofj,ia-0eirj, 
os wv w&Trep eyco. avejfov TOIVVV avrwv 
/JLHTOVVTWV /ceil \oi8opovvTO)V \d0pq TI KOI (f>a- 
vepws, 7ret,Sr) Ko\aK6Vt,v evbfiicras rou? eV rot? 
iia l ere eTraivovvra*;. ov >yap olfjiai 
OTTO)? apfjioaei rwv avbpwv ovre rot? 
7T(,Tr)Sevfj,ao'iv ovre roi? '/Stot? ovre rot? rjOeaiv. 
elev. oXX' efcelvo ris dve^erai crov; /caOevbeis 
Co? eTTLTrav vvfcrcop fjiovos ovB' GO-TLV ov&ev, o <rov D 
TOV aypLov real avij/juepov fjbdXd^ei 0vfjt,6v aTro/ce- 
K\ei(TTai Be Trda-y Travra^ov TrdpoSos rf^vicvQvpia' 


(Blov ev(f)paivr) KOI ireTroirjcrai, r9 KOivas fcardpas 
j)Sovijv. LTa d<yavaKTi<s, ei rov ra TOiavra 
dicoveis; e%ov elSevat, ^dpiv rot? VTT evvoias efju- 
fjie\(TTepov ere vovOerova-LV ev TOIS dvarraia-roi^ 
dTro"fyi\w(Tai fjbev ra? irapeids, Kaka Be diro 
o-avrov Trpwrov dp^dfievov Seitevveiv Trdvra rw 

TW (f)i\oy\(i)Ti r&Se Oed/jiara, [JLI/JLOVS, 346 

Sdpia Trepl /caXXou? d/ju,\\(i)jjLeva rat? 
avSpas aTre^tXwyLtei/ou? OVTL ra? yvdOovs JJLOVOV, 
d\\a KOI airav TO (TW/JLO,, \ioTpoi rwv yvvaiKwv 
OTTO)? (fraivoivTO rot? evTvyx,dvov<TLV, eo/jra?, Travrj- 
yvpeis, OVTL yLta Ata ra? lepds, ev at? %/o^ crwfypo- 
velv aXt? fiev yap e/eeivwv eVrtV, w&Trep T^? 

1 f>pp.rt /j-iS. Naber, 6p(afjiev6if Hertlein, MSS. 


indulgent father," l even though one is by nature 
an ill-conditioned person like myself: "Bear with 
them then, when they hate and abuse you in secret 
or even openly, since you thought that those who 
applauded you with one accord in the temples were 
only flattering you. For surely you did not suppose 
that you would be in harmony with the pursuits 
or the lives or the temperaments of these men. I 
grant that. But who will bear with this other habit 
of yours ? You always sleep alone at night, and there 
is no way of softening your savage and uncivilised 
temper since all avenues are closed to anything that 
might sweeten your disposition, and the worst of all 
these evils is that you delight in living that sort of 
life and have laid pleasure under a general ban. Then 
can you feel aggrieved if you hear yourself spoken 
of in such terms ? No, you ought to feel grateful 
to those who out of kindness of heart admonish 
you wittily in anapaestic verse to shave your cheeks 
smooth, and then, beginning with yourself, first 
to show to this laughter-loving people all sorts 
of fine spectacles, mimes, dancers, shameless women, 
boys who in their beauty emulate women, and 
men who have not only their jaws shaved smooth 
but their whole bodies too, so that those who meet 
them may think them smoother than women; yes 
and feasts too and general festivals, not, by Zeus, 
the sacred ones at which one is bound to behave 
with sobriety. No, we have had enough of those, 
like the oak tree in the proverb ; - we are completely 

1 Odyssey 5. 12. 

2 The phrase Spvs KO.\ irerpa, literally, "the oak tree and 
the rock " became a proverb for something hackneyed ; cf. 
Hesiod, Theogony 35, a\Xa rirj ^01 ravra -rrepl Spvv % Trepl 



$pv 09, Kal 7roXi>9 o Kopo$ avTwv. eOvdv o Kalcrap B 
ev TO) TOV Ato9 a-Traf, elra ev r& TTJS T 1/^779, et'<? 
TO r^? r) fjurjT po$ T/H9 
yap et? TO T^? 

, irpoSodev fjiev oXiyaypia TMV 
Tcoy dOecov avbpwv TO\fJba^ afyavicrdev. r] 
fjtcei vovfjurfvia, Kal o Kalcrap avOis et9 
Ato9' eiTa 77 Trdy/coLvos eoprrj, Kal 6 
Kalcrap et9 TO T7}9 Tw^9 epj^erai re/jievos. TTL- C 
cr^wv Se T^V aTrocppdSa irakiv 69 Qikiov Ato9 r9 
eu^a9 dva\a/Ji/3dvei, Kara rd Trdrpia. Kal Tt9 
dve^erai TocravraKt,? et9 te/aa (froirwvTos Kaicrapos, 
e^ov drra^ 7} 819 evo%\elv Tot9 Oeols, eTTiTe\elv 8e 
T9 Travrjyvpeis eKeivas, Qiroerai KOival fJLev elcn 
Travrl TM Siyfiq) Kal wv e^ecm fjiere^eiv ov Tot9 
e r ma"TaiJLevois JJLOVOV Oeovs, 1 d\\d Kal TOIS &v 2 
ecrriv rj 7roXi9 7r\r)prj<;; rjbovr) & 7ro\\r) Kal 
%dpiTs, O7rota9 av T^9 evfypaivoiTO SirjveKcos 
KapTTOv/jievos, opom op%ov/jLevovs dv$pa$ Kal Trat- D 
Bdpta Kal yvvaia 7ro\\d. 

v ovv ravra \oyicr w/jiai i 

ias, e/jLavrw Be OVK 

ovov deovs Hertlein suggests, Ofovs MSS. 
ls&v Naber, v Hertlein, MSS. 



surfeited with them. The Emperor sacrificed once 
in the temple of Zeus, then in the temple of 
Fortune ; he visited the temple of Demeter three 
times in succession." (I have in fact forgotten 
how many times I entered the shrine of Daphne, 
which had been first abandoned owing to the 
carelessness of its guardians, and then destroyed 
by the audacious acts of godless men. 1 ) " The 
Syrian New Year arrived, and again the Emperor 
went to the temple of Zeus the Friendly One. 
Then came the general festival, and the Emperor 
went to the shrine of Fortune. Then, after refraining 
on the forbidden day, 2 again he goes to the temple 
of Zeus the Friendly One, and offers up prayers 
according to the custom of our ancestors. Now 
who could put up with an Emperor who goes 
to the temples so often, when it is in his power 
to disturb the gods only once or twice, and to 
celebrate the general festivals which are for all 
the people in common, those in which not only 
men whose profession it is to have knowledge of 
the gods can take part, but also the people who 
have crowded into the city? For pleasure is here 
in abundance, and delights whose fruits one could 
enjoy continuously ; for instance the sight of men 
and pretty boys dancing, and any number of 
charming women." 

When I take all this into account, I do indeed 
congratulate you on your good fortune, though I do 

1 The Christians invaded the shrine of Apollo at Daphne 
and the priests of Apollo abandoned it to them. Julian 
destroyed the Christian Church there and restored the wor- 
ship of Apollo. 

2 Literally the "day not to be mentioned," i.e. "unholy 
day," nefandus dies, on which business was suspended. 



<f)i\a yap eVrt fjuoi /card nva Oeov icrcos ravra. 
BioTrep ov& dyava/CTw, ev tare, rot? Bva-^epaivovcri 
IJLOV TO) fiiq) teal rfj Trpoaipeeei. TT poariOr] JJLL 8* 
avros ocra Bvvarov earl JJLOI rols els e/jiavTov 
o-Kw/jL/jLaat, /jL6L^6va)<; GTriKara^ewv epavrov ravraal 
ra? XotSopta?, 09 UTTO afypocrvvris ov (TvvrJKa, 347 
TroraTrbv et; dp%r)s TO rfja-Se TT)$ TroXect)? 
KOL ravra TWV r)\iKia)Twv TO>V epwv, &>? 
TreiQco, /3i/3\ia dve\ij;a<> ovBevbs apidpov eXdrrco. 
\ejerau TOL TTOTC rbv e'jrwvv^ov rrjaSe TT}? 7roXea>9 
ea, fjba\\ov be ovirep eVftW/uo? ^Se rj 7roXt9 
r)' TreTroXicrTai l /jiev jap VTTO %e\,evicov, 
Be e%ei a,7rb TOV 2e\evKov TraiBos" bv Stf 
(f>a(ri Bt V7repj3o\r)v dftpOTyTos Kal rpv(j)fjs ep&vra B 
del /cal epcofjievov re\os dBi/cov epcora Tr)$ eavrov 
epaa6r)vai' KpvTr-reiv 8' eOeXovra TO 
ov SiivaaOai, TO crw/u-a 5' avro) /card 
TrjKo/jievov dfyav&s OL^eaOat, Kal viroppelv 
Ta9 Svvd/jueis, Kal TO Trvevpa e\arrov elvau TOV 
GvvriOovs. ewKet 8' olfjiai rd 2 KMT OUTOV alviy- 
fjiari,, <ra(f))j IJLCV OVK e^ovar]<; alrLav TTJS voaov, 
jjba\\ov Be ovB* avrfjs, 77^9 TTOTE ean, ^aivo^vr]^, C 
evapyovs S' 01/0*779 TTJS Trepl TO jjueipaKtov daOe- 
veias. evQdBe /jueyas a^X,o9 larpw TrpowreOr) ra> 
2a/u&> T^V voaov, tfrt,? Trore eo-Tiv, e^evpelv. 6 
Be VTTOvoricras e/c TWV 'Qjjurjpov, rives Trore 

a( Cobet, Hertlein approves, TreTroujrai MSS. 
- ra Hertlein suggests, rl) M88. 



not reproach myself. For perhaps it is some god 
who has made me prefer my own ways. Be assured 
then that I have no grievance against those who 
quarrel with my way of life and my choice. But 
1 myself add, as far as I can, to the sarcasms against 
myself and with a more liberal hand 1 pour down on 
my own head these abusive charges. For it was due 
to my own folly that I did not understand what has 
been the temper of this city from the beginning ; 
and that too though I am convinced that I have 
turned over quite as many books as any man of my 
own age. You know of course the tale that is told 
about the king who gave his name to this city or 
rather whose name the city received when it was 
colonised, for it was founded by Seleucus, though it 
takes its name from the son 1 of Seleucus; they 
say 2 then that out of excessive softness and luxury 
the latter was constantly falling in love and being 
loved, and finally he conceived a dishonourable 
passion for his own step-mother. And though he 
wished to conceal his condition he could not, and 
little by little his body began to waste away and to 
become transparent, and his powers to wane, and his 
breathing was feebler than usual. But what could 
be the matter with him was, I think, a sort of riddle, 
since his malady had no visible cause, or rather it 
did not even appear what was its nature, though the 
youth's weakness was manifest. Then the physician 
of Samos 3 was set a difficult problem, namely to 
discover what was the nature of the malady. Now 
he, suspecting from the words of Homer 4 what is 

1 i.e. Antiochus. 2 cf. Plutarch, Demetrius. 

3 i.e. Erasistratus. 

4 The phrase occurs in Hesiod, Works and Days 66, but 
not in Homer. 



al yviofiopoL /j,e\eBwvai, teal on vroXXa/cf? OVK 
do-0evei,a crco/iaro?, aXX' appa>O"ria -frv^s alria 
<yiyvTaL Trj/ceBovos T< croo/zcm, teal TO {Aeipd/ciov 
opwv VTTO re ffKiKLas teal crvvrjOeias OVK dva(ppo- 
OLTOV, 6Bov erp/iTreTO Toiavrrjv eirl rrjv TOV vocnfj- 
/xaro? 6tjpav. /caOi^ei 7r\?)(TLOi> rt}? K\ivr)s dcfropwv D 
et? TO Trpoa-wjTov TOV /neipafciov, irapievai 

T KOL AraXa? diro TT}? /3a<jiXtSo9 
. TI o' a)? r]\0ev, 67no-Ketyo/jievr) 
CLVTOV, avTi/ca e&i&ov TO, o~vv0rj/uaTa TOV 
o veavias, aaOfjia TWV 0\t,/3o/jLeva)v vjcfrtet, &jr4 
yap avTo Kivov^evov Kaijrep &(f)6opa edekwv ov% 
olo? re r)V, KOI Tapa%r) rjv TOV 7rvev/jLaTos fcal 
TTO\V Trepl TO TrpoawTTov epvdrj/jia. TavTa opwv 348 
6 iar/309 7rpocrd<yi TW o-Tepvw TTJV %6tpa, KOI 
eV^Sa Seivcos rj Kapoia tcai ea> iero. roiavTa 
ciTTa eVao-%6^ eKeiv^ Trapovo-^- eVet Be a7n)X- 
6ev, eTTiovTWv d\\cov, ar/se/xa? el^e KOI rfi> o/xoto? 
rot? ovBev r irdo~%ovo~i. avvi&wv $e TO irdOos o 
Eyoacr/crrparo? <f)pdei TT/OO? TOV /3ao-i\.ea, KOI 
09 V7TO TOV 0iXo7rat9 elvai Trapa^pelv etyrj TW 
iraiol r?59 7ayU6rr}9. o Be avTiKa /JLtv rfpvrfaaTO' 
TeXevTijcravTos Be TOV iraTpo^ yuK^bv vo~Tepov, 
fjv irpoTepov BtSofihnjv avTW X^P 

JAW Brj TavTa eTroiijOrj. rot9 8* IITT B 
eiceivov yevo/Aevois ov ve^ais %r]\ovv TOV 



the nature of "cares that devour the limbs," and 
that in many cases it is not a bodily weakness but 
an infirmity of soul that causes a wasting of the 
body ; and seeing moreover that the youth was very 
susceptible to love because of his time of life and his 
habits, he took the following way of tracking down the 
disease. He sat near the youth's couch and watched 
his face, after ordering handsome youths and women 
to walk past him, beginning with the queen l 
herself. Now when she entered, apparently to see 
how he was, the young man at once began to show 
the symptoms of his malady. He breathed like one 
who is being choked ; for though he was very 
anxious to control his agitated breathing, he could 
not, but it became disordered, and a deep blush 
spread over his face. The physician on seeing this 
laid his hand to his breast, and found that his heart 
was beating terribly fast and was trying to burst 
forth from his breast. Such were his symptoms 
while she was present ; but when she had gone 
away and others came in he remained calm and was 
like a man in a normal state of health. Then 
Erasistratus saw what ailed him and told the king, 
and he out of love for his son said that he would give 
up his wife to him. Now the youth for the moment 
refused ; but when his father died not long after, he 
sought with the greatest vehemence the favour 
which he had so honourably refused when it was 
first offered to him. 2 

Now since this was the conduct of Antiochus, I 
have no right to be angry with his descendants when 

1 Stratonice. 

2 In Plutarch's version Antiochus married Stratonice dur- 
ing his father's lifetime. 




rj TOV eTTtovv/jLOV. 1 Mffirep jap ev rot? </>vrot9 et/co? 
BiaBiBocrOai f^eXP 1 7ro ^^' Ta< > 
Be /cal eiriTcav 6/jLOia ra pera ravra 
c5z> e/3Xao"r?7cre <f)ve(T0ai, OVTCO real evrt 
eivai elites 7rapa7T\r)(Tia ra ijOr) 
rot? TrpoyovoLS. eye!) TOI /cal auro? 
eyvaiv 'Affijvalovs 'EXX^wz/ ^tXoTiyLtoTarou? /cal C 
<f)i\,av0pco7TOTdTov<;- Kairoi TOVTO <ye eVtet/cw? ev 
iracnv elSov rot? f '}L\\r]cri,v, e^w S' t'Tre/) avrwv 
elirelv, co? /cal <f>i\60eoi yaaXtcrra TTCLVTWV etcrl 
/cal Seftol ra TT/JO? TOU? fe^ou?, Ka66\ov /JLCV 

f/ E\X^^69 7raZ/T9, aVTWV S' 'EXX^WZ^ 7T\OV 

TOVTO e^co /mapTVpelv ' AQijvaioi'i. el Be e/celvoi 
SiaGw^ovaiv elicbva T^<? vraXata? eV rot? rjOecnv 
apeTY)<s, et/co? 8i]7rov0ev TO avTO virdp^eiv /cal 
^vpois /cal 'A/?a/Sto^9 /cal KeXim? /cal 
/cal Ilatocrt /cal rot? eV yu-ea-w /ce^e 
/cat Ilato^ft)^ evr' aurat? "Icrrpou rat? ?;o(ri D 
Mf(jot?, o^ez^ 8^ /cal TO <yevos ecrrt yu-ot Traz^ 
aypoLKov, avGTvjpov, d$ej;iov, dvacfrpoBiTOv, e/u,- 
/nevov rot? tcpiOel&iv dfjueraKiviJTO)^' a Brj iravra 
<TTl Beuy/JiaTa Seivij? dypoifcuas. 


, ev fjiepei Be /cal vfj,iv vejjLW TO, 
, ovB' ev ovetBei TrpofyepofjLai TO 

T op^Tjo-Tau re ^opoiTVTrrjdiv apiaTOi, 349 
TovvavTLov Be dvT* eyKW/micov V/JLLV Trpoaeivai 

1 Trwvu/j.ov Hertlein suggests, b^vv^ov MSS. 


they emulate their founder or him who gave his 
name to the city. For just as in the case of plants 
it is natural that their qualities should be trans- 
mitted for a long time, or rather that, in general, the 
succeeding generation should resemble its ancestors ; 
so too in the case of human beings it is natural 
that the morals of descendants should resemble 
those of their ancestors. I myself, for instance, 
have found that the Athenians are the most 
ambitious for honour and the most humane of 
all the Greeks. And indeed I have observed that 
these qualities exist in an admirable degree among 
all the Greeks, and I can say for them that more 
than all other nations they love the gods, and 
are hospitable to strangers ; I mean all the Greeks 
generally, but among them the Athenians above 
all, as I can bear witness. And if they still preserve 
in their characters the image of their ancient virtue, 
surely it is natural that the same thing should 
be true of the Syrians also, and the Arabs and 
Celts and Thracians and Paeonians, and those who 
dwell between the Thracians and Paeonians, I mean 
the Mysians on the very banks of the Danube, 
from whom my own family is derived, a stock 
wholly boorish, austere, awkward, without charm 
and abiding immovably by its decisions ; all of which 
qualities are proofs of terrible boorishness. 

I therefore ask for forgiveness, in the first place 
for myself, and in my turn I grant it to you also 
since you emulate the manners of your forefathers, 
nor do^ I bring it against you as a reproach when 
I say that you are " Liars and dancers, well skilled 
to dance in a chorus" ; 1 on the contrary it is in the 

1 Iliad 24. 261. 


G G 2 


Trarplwv ^rfkov einr'rjBevfjidrmv. eTrel /cal 
eiraivwv rbv AvroXvtcov $r)<ri Trepieivai 

K\7rro(Tvvr) $' op/cay re. 

/cal eaavrov rijv crKaior'rjra KOI rrjv daadiav 
Kal rrjv $vaKO\iav Kal TO fjurj pa&iws /jLaXdrTea-Qai B 
/jbrjSe 7rl rot? SeofMevoi? rj rot? e^airarwcn ra 
e/jLCLvrov TTOieiaOaL /jLrjSe TCLLS /9oat? ei/ceiv Kal 
ra roiavra arep<yw oveiftr). Trorepa /JLGV ovv eari 
Kov(j)6repa, 6eol$ tcra)? S^A-oy, 7ret7re/3 dvOpwTrcov 
old? re r]^iv eaTiv vTrep rwv Sia<popwv 
a'ai' ireicrofjueOa yap ot'SayLtw? avrw Sia 
(f)L\avriav, Oavfjid^eiv yap et/co? ra eavrov eica- 
GTOV, dnfjid^eiv 8e ra Trapa rot? aXXot?. o Be 
TW ra evavria %ri\ovvri ve^wv avyyv^^v elvai 
fioi So/eel Trpaoraros. 

'70) 8e ivvo^Gas evpiaKw teal ere pa Seiva C 
e/jiavrbv elpyaafjievov. TroXet yap Trpocriwv e\ev- 
0epa, rbv av^fiov rwv rpi%wi' OVK dve%ojjLi'r), 
wcrTrep ol Kovpewv diropovvres a/capros Kal /3adv- 
yeveios elo-eSpa/jiov' evo/nicras av ^fjiiKpivrjv opav 
ri typaavKeovra, BvaKO\ov irpeo'fivr'rjv r) err par LM- 
rr]v dvorjrov, e^bv (fiavr/vai rS> Ka\\w7rLa-jjLM TralSa 
utpalov Kal yevecrOai peipaKiov, el ur) rrjv rf\,iKiav, 
rbv rpoTrov ye Kal rrjv dftporrjra rov Trpoa-w-rrov. D 
" OVK olaOa dvQpWTrois 6/M\elv, ov8' e 

45 2 


place of a panegyric that I ascribe to you emulation 
of the practice of your forefathers. For Homer too 
is praising Autolycus when he says that he 
surpassed all men "in stealing and perjury." 1 
And as for my own awkwardness and ignorance 
and ill-temper, and my inability to be influenced, 
or to mind my own business when people beg me 
to do so or try to deceive me and that I cannot yield 
to their clamour even such reproaches I gladly 
accept. But whether your ways or mine are more 
supportable is perhaps clear to the gods, for among 
men there is no one capable of arbitrating in our 
disagreement. For such is our self-love that we 
shall never believe him, since everyone of us 
naturally admires his own ways and despises those 
of other men. In fact he who grants indulgence 
to one whose aims are the opposite of his own is, in 
my opinion, the most considerate of men. 

But now I come to ponder the matter I find that I 
have committed yet other terrible sins. For though 
I was coming to a free city which cannot tolerate 
unkempt hair, I entered it unshaven and with a long 
beard, like men who are at a loss for a barber. One 
would have thought it was some Smicrines 2 he saw, 
or some Thrasyleon, some ill-tempered old man or 
crazy soldier, when by beautifying myself I might 
have appeared as a blooming boy and transformed 
myself into a youth, if not in years, at any rate in 
manners and effeminacy of features. " You do not 
know," you answer, " how to mix with people, and 

m 19. 396. 

2 Smicrines is a typical name in New Comedy for an 
avaricious old man ; Thrasyleon is said to have been used by 
Menander as the name of a boasting soldier, " m-iles gloriostis." 



el rov oyvi,Bo<;, ovBe /uyu,?} rov d( 
TGU9 rrerpais 7ro\V7rovv, d\\ rj 
z/O9 dypoiKia re Kal dpaOia Kal d(3e\rr)pia 
7T/909 rrdvras eTTirrjBeverat, rrapd crov. \e\rj6e 
ere on 1 TTO\\OV Bel ravra elvai KeA/ro! Kal 
typqKes Kal l\\vpioi; ov% opqs, OTrocra /JLCV 
ev ry TroXet ravrrj Kairrj\.ela; av Be dire^Oavrj 35C 
TOt9 KaTTr)\oi<s ov %vy%a)pa)v OTTOCTOV ftov\ovrai 
7T(o\Lv auroi'9 2 TW Btjfjia) rd eTrirrjBeia Kal rot9 
eTTiBrj/juovo'iv. ol Be rovs KeKrrjjjievovs rr/v yrjv 
alnwvrai. cru Be Kal rovrovs e%^pot'9 Troiei 
aavrw rd BiKaia nroLelv dvayKa^oyv. ol Be ev 

ralv ?;- 

a)(T7rep oi/jiai irporepov e%aipov Bi%60ev 
Kap7rou/aevoi rd$ a)0eX,eta9, Kal ft>9 KeKrtj/jLevoi B 
/cal 009 Ka7rrj\evovres, rd vvv euKorws \vrrovvrai 
Bi d/n(j)orepo)v dtyrjprj/AevoL r9 eiriKepBeias. 6 
Be rwv ^vpwv Brj/Aos OVK eywv ^eOveiv ovBe 
KopBaKifeiv dyOerai. crv Be alrov dd>6ovov Trape- 

i ^ /V r / 

oiei rpe(f)i,v avrovs iKavws. CKCLVO Be GOV 
, on ovBe 07Tft)9 l^Ovs ev rfj ?roXet irerpalos 
cr/co7T6t9* aXXa Kal Trpwrjv /jbe/JL^ofJievov 
&)9 ovre tyOvBiwv ovre 6pvu6a)v TTO\\WV 

1 o-e '6n 86? Cobet, o-e Sy Hertlein, MSS. 

2 avrovs Reiske, OUTO?? Hertlein, MSS, 



you cannot approve of the maxim of Theognis, 1 for 
you do not imitate the polypus which takes on the 
colours of the rocks. Nay rather you behave to all 
men with the proverbial Myconian 2 boorishness and 
ignorance and stupidity. Are you not aware that we 
here are far from being Celts or Thracians or 
Illyrians ? Do you not see what a number of shops 
there are in this city ? But you are hated by the 
shopkeepers because you do not allow them to sell 
provisions to the common people and those who are 
visiting the city at a price as high as they please. 
The shopkeepers blame the landowners for the high 
prices ; but you make these men also your enemies,, 
by compelling them to do what is just. Again, those 
who hold office in the city are subject to both 
penalties ; I mean that just as, before you came, 
they obviously used to enjoy profits from both 
sources, both as landowners and as shopkeepers, so 
naturally they are now aggrieved on both accounts, 
since they have been robbed of their profits from 
both sources. Then the whole body of Syrian 
citizens are discontented because they cannot get 
drunk and dance the cordax. 3 You, however, think 
that you are feeding them well enough if you 
provide them with plenty of corn. Another charming 
thing about you is that you do not even take care 
that the city shall have shell-fish. Nay more, when 
someone complained the other day that neither 
shell-fish nor much poultry could be found in the 
market, you laughed very maliciously and said that a 

1 Theognis 215 foil, advises men to imitate the adaptability 
of the polypus. 

2 Mykonos was an island in the Cyclades whose inhabitants 
were proverbial for poverty and greed. 

3 The cordax was a lascivious dance. 



evpi(TKO/Ava)v ev dyopa, rwOaarLKOv /uaXa eye- C 
Xacra9, dprov icai olvov teal eKaiov rfj 
TroKei Seii> fydfAevos, Kpewv 6" ijB'T) rfj 
TO yap KOL fyOvcov teal opviOiwv \6<yov 
7Tpa Tpvfyrjs eivat, KOL ^9 ovSe rot? ev ' 
/jLvrja-Trjpai fjierrfv aaeX-yeia^. ora) Be OVK ev 
rjBovfj Kpea veia KOI Trpoftdreia GiTtiaQai, ra)v 
oaTrpicov GLTTTOfjievos ev Trpd^ei. ravTa evofjucras 
Spa^l vofJLoOe'relv rot? a-eavrov TroXtrat? r) T0t9 D 
avaia6r)TOi<s FaXarat?, oi ae eTraiSoTpiftrja-av 
Kaff r)p(ov " TTpivivov, a-^ev^dfjLVivov^ OVKCTI 
fievroi Kal " M.apadcovo/jid'xov" aXX' 'A^apvea 
/juev e rjfJbLffeia^, drjSij S' avSpa Travrdiraai fcal 
avOpwTrov d^apiv. ov Kpelrrov r)v 68co8evai pvpwv 
Trjv dyopav fia&ifyvTQS arov KOL TratSa? r)yeicr0ai 
KCL\OVS> et? 0^9 d r rro(3\e'fyovcriv ol TroXtrat, /cat 
yvvaiKwv, OTTOLOL Trap rjjjuv Laravrai KaO* 


,e Se vypov fSXeireiv punovvra 7ravra%ov 351 
rd o/ji/jLaTa, O7ra)9 vplv #aXo9, OVTI rrjv 
aXXa TO TrpoacDTTOv o<f)0eir)v, 6 T/3o?ro9 ov 
pel. <TTL jdp, ft>9 u//,et9 /cpivere, 

vypoTrj? ftiov. e'yue Be 6 TrcuSaycoybs eSi- 
Baa/cev et9 yijv ft\eTTeiv 9 SiBaa/cdXov 
dearpov S' OVK elBov irplv jjia\Xov 

45 6 


well-conducted city needs bread, wine and olive oil, 
but meat only when it is growing luxurious. 1 For 
you said that even to speak of fish and poultry is 
the extreme of luxury and of profligacy such as was 
beyond the reach of even the suitors in Ithaca ; and 
that anyone who did not enjoy eating pork and 
mutton 2 would fare very well if he took to 
vegetables. 3 You must have thought that you were 
laying down these rules for Thracians, your own 
fellow-citizens, or for the uncultured people of 
Gaul who so much the worse for us ! trained you 
to be ' a heart of maple, a heart of oak,' though 
not indeed ' one who fought at Marathon ' 4 also, 
but rather to be half of you an Acharnian and 
altogether an unpleasant person and an ungracious 
fellow. Would it not be better that the market 
place should be fragrant with myrrh when you walk 
there and that you should be followed by a troop of 
handsome boys at whom the citizens could stare, and 
by choruses of women like those that exhibit them- 
selves every day in our city ? " 

No, my temperament does not allow me to look 
wanton, casting my eyes in all directions in order 
that in your sight I may appear beautiful, not indeed 
in soul but in face. For, in your judgment, true 
beauty of soul consists in a wanton life. I, however, 
was taught by my tutor to look on the ground when 
I was on my way to school ; and as for a theatre, 
I never saw one until I had more hair 011 my chin 

1 Plato, Republic 372 E. 

2 The suitors of Penelope lived on pork and mutton. 

3 Literally "pulse." 

4 Aristophanes, Acli<irnians 180 uses these words to de- 
scribe the older, more robust generation of Athenians. 



K(f)a\fj<; rb yeveiov, ev e/ceivw be rrfg rj\iKia<s IBia 
fjiev Kal tear* e/juavTOV ovBeiroTe, rpirov Be rj re- 
raprov, ev icrre, HarpotcXq) eTrurjpa (frepcov dp^wv B 
eVeraTTei/ otVeto? wv ejjiol Kal dvajKalos' ervy^a- 
vov Be l&iWTrjs err crvyyvwre ovv e/jioi' SiSwfjLt, 
yap ov avr efjiov Sifccuorepov /juLa-^aere rbv (j)i\a7T- 
TraiSaycoyov, 05 /ne teal Tore eXvTret 
6Sbv levai SiSdcTfcwv real vvv atrto? ecrrt yu-ot 
TT)? Trpo? u/za? aTre^^eta?, evepyacrdfjievo^ rfj tyvxf) C 
Kal wcnrep e^rfTrwcra? ojrep eyw /JLCV OVK efiov- 
rore, 6 Be w? $ij TL ^apiev TTOIWV fid\a 
eveTiOei, KaXwv OL/MIL a-e/jLvoTrjTa TTJV 
dypoLKiav Kal awtypoavwrjv TVJV dvaiaOriaiap, dv- 
Bpeiav Be TO ^TJ CLKeiv rat? eTTlOvfiiaiS jjirjo' 
evBai/jiova TavTy yiveadai. efyr] Be poi 7roXXa:t9, 
ev iffTe, val pa Ata Kal fjiovaas, o TraiBaywybs ert 
TraiBapiw KO/ja&f), M?J ere TrapaTreiOeTO) TO 7r\f)0os 
TMV rjKiKiWTWV 7rl TO, OeaTpa (f)ep6fj,evov ope^drjvai, D 
TTore TavTrjal T^? #?. i7T7roBpo/j,ia$ eTridvfJiels ; 
(TTI trap 1 'QfjLrjpw Be^iwTaTa TreTroiijfAevr)' ~\aftc!ov 
eTre^iOi TO f3ij3\iov. TOU? TravTO/jiifjiOvs aKoveis 
0/9%7/o-Ta?; ea ^aipeiv avTovs" dvbpiKWTepov irapa 
rot? <&aia%iv bp-^elTai TO, peipaKia' av 
Ki0ap(Bbv TOV Qij/jiiov Kal caBbv TOV 



than on my head, 1 and even at that age it was never 
on my own account and by my own wish, but three 
or four times, you must know, the governor who was 
my kinsman and near relative, " doing a favour 
to Patroclus," ordered me to attend ; it was 
while I was still a private individual. 2 Therefore 
forgive me. For I hand over to you instead of 
myself one whom you will more justly detest, I 
mean that curmudgeon my tutor who even then used 
to harass me by teaching me to walk in one straight 
path 3 and now he is responsible for my quarrel with 
you. It was he who wrought in my soul and as it 
were carved therein what I did not then desire, 
though he was very zealous in implanting it, as 
though he were producing some charming character- 
istic ; and boorishness he called dignity, lack of 
taste he called sobriety, and not yielding to one's 
desires or achieving happiness by that means he 
called manliness. I assure you, by Zeus and the 
Muses, that while I was still a mere boy my tutor 
would often say to me : " Never let the crowd of 
your playmates who flock to the theatres lead you 
into the mistake of craving for such spectacles 
as these. Have you a passion for horse races ? 
There is one in Homer, 4 very cleverly described. 
Take the book and study it. Do you hear them 
talking about dancers in pantomime ? Leave them 
alone ! Among the Phaeacians the youths dance 
in more manly fashion. And for citharode 5 you 
have Phemius ; for singer Demodocus. Moreover 

1 Xenophon, Symposium 4. 28. 

2 i.e. before he had been appointed Caesar. 3 cf. 352 C. 

4 The chariot race in Iliad 23. 

5 The citharode played and sang to the lyre : Phemius was 
at the court of Odysseus in Ithaca ; Demodocus in Phaeacia. 



real (f)VTa Trap avTto TroAAa repTrvorepa 

Srj 7TOT6 rolov ' A.7r6\\a)vo<> Trapd ^wfjiov 
veov epvos dvep^o/jLevov evorjcra. 352 

teal ?} SevSprfecro'a TT}? KaXfv/roi)? vrjcros KCLI ra 
TT}? Ktyo/cr?? (j r jr r Y]\aia KOI o 'A\/civov tcrjTros' ev 
IcrOi, TOVTWV ovftev o^reu Teprrvbrepov. 

*Apa TroOelre Kal TOVVO/JLO, VJJLLV (frpdcra) TOV 
7rai8aja)jov, Kal ocms wv yevos ravra 
f3dp/3apo<; vrj 6eov<$ teal 9eds, ^tcvd?)? fj,ev TO 
o/xco^u^o? 8e TOV TOV He/of^ dvaireiaavTos eVl 
TTfV 'EXXaSa (TTpaTevaai, teal TO 7ro\v6pv\r)TOV 
TOVTO &rj Trpo JJLI^VMV jjiev elKocn Tcpoaicvvov^vov 
, vvv\ 8e 7rpo<pp6/j,evov awr* d&i/crjfjiaTO? /cal 
, evvov%o<; rjv, VTTO TGD/JLW TeO pafji^evo^ 
T>)V /ji'rjTepa Trjv e/JL^v OTTCOS dydyoi Sid 
TWV 'O/jbrjpov teal 'HaioSov Tro^yLtaTw/'. e-rrel 8' 
6/cewr) TTpwTov efjie /cal JJLOVOV Tetcovo-a 
VGTepov oikiyois ereXeuT^cre^ VTTO TT} 
irapOevov TTO\\WV crv/ji(f)opwv eKK\a7rei(ra tcoprj C 
teal vea, //-er' evtavTov /38o/jioi> avTw 7rape&60rjv. 
ef etcelvov raOra dveTretaev a<ywv e? SiSa- 
/Jiiav 6$6v a\\,r)V 8' OVT* avTos elbevai 



there are in Homer many plants more delightful to 
hear of than those that we can see : ' Even so did I 
once see the young shoot of a date palm springing 
up near the altar of Apollo on Delos.' l And 
consider the wooded island of Calypso and the caves 
of Circe and the garden of Alcinous ; be assured that 
you will never see anything more delightful than 

And now do you want me to tell you also my 
tutor's name and the nationality of the man who 
used to say these things ? He was a barbarian, by 
the gods and goddesses ; by birth he was a Scythian, 
and he had the same name 2 as the man who 
persuaded Xerxes to invade Greece. Moreover he 
was a eunuch, a word which, twenty months ago, 3 
was constantly heard and revered, though it is now 
applied as an insult and a term of abuse. He had 
been brought up under the patronage of my grand- 
father, in order that he might instruct my mother 4 
in the poems of Homer and Hesiod. And since she, 
after giving birth to me her first and only child, 
died a few months later, snatched away while she 
was still a young girl by the motherless maiden 5 
from so many misfortunes that were to come, I was 
handed over to him after my seventh year. From 
that time he won me over to these views of his, and 
led me to school by one straight path ; and since 

1 Odysseus thus refers to Nausicaa in Odyssey 6. 162. 

2 i.e. Mardonius ; it was a Sophistic mannerism to use 
such a periphrasis instead of giving the name directly ; see 
vol. i. Introduction, p. xi. 

3 Constant! us was under the influence of the powerful 
eunuchs of his court ; they had been expelled by Julian, but 
Mardonius was an exception to his class. 

4 Basilina. 5 Athene. 



0e\G)V ovr 

e nraaiv vfuv. d\\\ el Bo/cel, 
TT/JO? avrbv eya> re KOI ly-tefc rrjv 
Kvaavres. ovre yap rjiria-raro 
o/jievov ovr\ el ra /jioXto'Ta (fr 
/jL6\\oi[JLi, OTI /cal ap^wv TrpoaeSoica, /cal Toaavrrjv D 
rjVy OCTTJV eSayfcav ol 6eoi, TTO\\CL O/JLOV fitacrd- 
e pot, KOL rov BiSovra teal rov 
. ewfcei, yap rj/jb&v ovSerepos eOe 
ovre o BiSovs rrjv nprjv rj ^dpLv r) o,ri> (f>i\ov v 
avro bvofLa^eiv Sovvai, /cal 6 Xa'/jufidvwv, co? 
ol deol irdvres, d\.r]0a)<; rjpvelro. KOI Si] rovro /j,ev 
OTry rot9 Oeol? (>i\ov e^et re KOL e%ei. rv%bv Be 6 
Tratoayooybs el irpovyvw rovro, 7ro\\r)v av eTroirf- 353 
craro Trpopr'jOeiav, 6V 0)9 o, ri fidXicrra V/MV 

Etlra OVK e%eo~riv arcoQzaQai vvv Kal 
ei n irporepov f]fuv aypoi/cov rjdos 
"E^o?, (fracri, Bevrep^ (frvcrw <j>v&ei, fjid%a0ai, 8' 
epyov, erwv rpudicovra /JLe\err)v afyelvai 7ray%d\- 
TTOV aXX&)9 re /cal perd roaavrrj^ eyyevo^evrjv rr)<; 
^aXe7roT^TO9* epol Be ijSr) 7r\ei(D rovrwv ea-riv. 
Elev d\\d ri TraQcov ai)ro9 eV^^etpet9 aKpoaeOai B 
Trepl rwv <7f//./3oXat&)j/ teal Bi/cd^eiv ; ov yap Brj /cal 
rovro ae 6 TraiBaywybs eBlSaa/cev, 09 ovB' el apgeis 
rj7ri(rraro. Aet^o9 Be dveTreiae yepcov, bv /cal v 


neither he himself desired to know any other nor 
allowed me to travel by any other path, it is he who 
has caused me to be hated by all of you. However, 
if you agree, let us make a truce with him, you and 
I, and make an end of our quarrel. For he neither 
knew that I should visit you nor did he anticipate 
that, even supposing 1 was likely to come here, it 
would be as a ruler, and that too over so great an 
empire as the gods bestowed on me ; though they 
did not do so, believe me, without using great 
compulsion both towards him who offered and him 
who accepted it. For neither of us had the air of 
being willing ; since he who offered that honour or 
favour or whatever you may please to call it, was 
unwilling to bestow it, while he who received it was 
sincere in steadily refusing it. This matter, however, 
is and shall be as the gods will. But perhaps if my 
tutor had foreseen this he would have exercised much 
forethought to the end that I might, as far as 
possible, seem agreeable in your eyes. 

What then, you will ask, is it not possible even 
now for me to lay aside my character, and to ^epent 
of the boorish temper that was bred in me in 
earlier days ? Habit, as the saying goes, is second 
nature. But to fight with nature is hard ; and to 
shake off the training of thirty years is very difficult, 
especially when it was carried on with such painful 
effort, and I am already more than thirty years old. 
"Well and good," you answer, "but what is the 
matter with you that you try to hear and decide 
cases about contracts ? For surely your tutor did 
not teach you this also, since he did not even know 
whether you would govern." Yes, it was that terrible 
old man who convinced me that I ought to do so ; 



OVTCL }Jid\iGTa aiTiwTaTOV TWV e^iMV 

TOVTOV O, V L(TT, 1/77"' aXXft)l> 

ovofjuaTa r/Ki Trpo<$ i/yLta? TroXXaA:^? 

/cal Sft)/eyoar?7? /cal 'AptcrroTeX?;? /cal 

ivois o yepwv OVTOS TreicrOels I/TT' C 
r, erreiTa e'/^e vkov evpwv, epacrTrjv Xoywv, 
&)?, el Ta TrdvTa eiceivwv ij\G)tr)s ye- 
eaofjiai TWV /Jiev d\\a)i> dv0pa)7rcov 
if o"ft) 9 ovBevos' ov yap elvai /AOL rrpos avTovs TTJV 
ejjLavrov Be TrdvTws. e<ya) Be' ov yap 
O,TL iroiw' 7rei(T0els ovK&Ti BvvafMai fieTade- 
crOai, /cal TavTa eOekwv TroXXa/ct?, aXX' oveiBi^co D 
ft), BLOTI p,rj TTOIM Tfadiv dBeiav 1 airdvTwv 
at, Be fjue e/c TWV IlXaTw^o? oaa 

, /j,r) eTurpeTrcav rot? 
7r\eov i} SiTrXacrta? rt/x?}<? a^io? etccfoov 
ydp evo?, 6 Be TroXXwz/ dvrd^io^ eTepwv, 
rrjv TWV aXkwv ro?9 dp^ovcnv a^miav. 6 
Be KOI avyKoXd^wv et? Bvva/jLiv rot9 dp^ovcnv, o 354 
/jieyas dvrjp ev TroXet /cal reXeto?, OVTO? dvayopeve- 
crOb) viKr)(j)opo<; dperfj^. TOV avrbv Brj TOVTOV 
eiratvov fcdl rrepl aw^poavvrf^ %pr) \e<yeiv teal 
Trepl (f>povrf(Ta)S /cal ocra aXXa dyaOd rt? /ceKrrj- 

1 Traffif aSfiai' Cobet, iraai nacrav aSeiov Hertlein, M.SS. 


and you also do well to help me to abuse him, 
since he is of all men most responsible for my 
way of life ; though he too, you must know, had 
in his turn been misled by others. Theirs are 
names that you have often met when they are 
ridiculed in Comedy I mean Plato and Socrates, 
Aristotle and Theophrastus. This old man in his 
folly was first convinced by them, and then he 
got hold of me, since I was young and loved 
literature, and convinced me that if I would 
emulate those famous men in all things I should 
become better, not perhaps than other men for it 
was not with them that I had to compete but 
certainly better than my former self. Accordingly, 
since I had no choice in the matter, I obeyed him, 
and now I am no longer able to change my character, 
though indeed I often wish I could, and I blame 
myself for not granting to all men impunity for all 
wrong-doing. But then the words of the Athenian 
stranger in Plato occur to my mind : " Though he who 
does no wrong himself is worthy of honour, he who 
does not allow the wicked to do wrong is worthy of 
more than twice as much honour. For whereas the 
former is responsible for one man only, the latter is 
responsible for many others besides himself, when 
he reports to the magistrates the wrong-doing 
of the rest. And he who as far as he can helps 
the magistrates to punish wrong-doers, himself being 
the great and powerful man in the city, let him 
I say be proclaimed as winner of the prize for 
virtue. And we ought to utter the same eulogy 
with regard to temperance also, and wisdom and 
all the other good qualities that such a man 
possesses, and which are such that he is able 



, BvvaTa /A}) /AOVOV avTov e%eiv t XX<z KCU 

Tavra eBiBaaKe //,e vofjii^tov IBicoT'rjv eaeaOai' 
il yap ovBe irpovyvw ravTrjv CK Ato9 /AOI rrjv B 
<TOfjLevr)v, 49 YJV vvv o Oeos (frepaiv Kareffrrj- 

Xore/9O9 elvau \e\rj6a efiavrov, ovBev Beov, V/MLV 
T/}9 dypoiKias fLeraBiBovs rr}9 epavrov. xai fie 
erepos TWV n\drwvos VO/JLWV vTro/^vijadevra e/u,av- 
TOV TreTToirjKev inre.'^Odv&dQai 7rpo$ vfid^, 09 <^?;cri 
Belv alBa) Kal a'wcfrpoo'vvrjv dcrKeiv rovs dp^ovras 
Kal rou9 Trpefffivrepovs, Lva rd 7r\tj0r) ?rpo9 avrovs C 

Be vv 6\iyoi<> eTTiTrjBevovri vvv TOVTO Trpbs Odrepa 
TrepLea-Tfj Kal yeyovev OVK aTreLKoraxi ev oveiBei. 
7rrd yap ea/Jiev otBe Trap* V/JLLV evoi veri\vBe<;, et9 
Be Kal 7roXtT^9 vjjLerepos, 'ftp/Ay $1X0$ Kal e/Aoi, 
\6ycov dyaOos Brj/uLiovpyos, 049 ovBev ecrn Trpos riva 

rd TWV 6e(av iepd, Kal 6\iydKi<>, ov irdvre^, et9 rd D 
Oearpa, TreTroLrj/^evot- TO Bva-K\eecrTaTOv TMV epycov 



not only to have them himself but also to impart 
them to other men." l 

These things he taught me when he thought that 
I should be a private citizen. For he certainly did 
riot foresee that there would be assigned to me by 
Zeus this lot in life to which the god has now 
brought me and has set me therein. But I, because 
I was ashamed to be less virtuous as a ruler than 
I had been as a private citizen, have unconsciously 
given you the benefit of my own boorishness, 
though there was no necessity. And another of 
Plato's laws has made me take thought for myself 
and so become hateful in your eyes : 1 mean the law 
which says that those who govern,, and also the older 
men,, ought to train themselves in respect for others 
and in self-control, in order that the masses may 
look to them and so order their own lives aright. 
Now since I alone, or rather in company with a 
few others, am now pursuing this course, it has had 
a very different result and has naturally become 
a reproach against me. For we here are only 
seven persons, strangers and newcomers in your 
city, though indeed one of our number is a fellow- 
citizen of yours, a man dear to Hermes and to 
me, an excellent craftsman of discourses. 2 And 
we have business dealings with no man, nor do we 
go by any road that does not lead to the temples of 
the gods ; and seldom, and then not all of us, do 
we go to the theatres, since we have adopted the 
most inglorious line of conduct and the most 

1 Plato, Laio* 730 D. 

2 Julian refers to Libanius the famous rhetorician ; with 
him were also Maximus of Ephesus, Priscus, Himerius and 
Oreibasius the physician. 


H H 2 


teal CTTOveiBia-TOTaTov l TOV ftiov reXo?- 
.fyoval fJLOi TTOLVTW^ ol TWV e Ei\\r}vwv (rotpol fy 
TI TWV Trap vfuv 7ri7ro\a6vTO)v ov jap 
TTCO? av avTO ad\\ov evo~eiai/Ar)i>' eVl T??? 
reta? avrovs erdga/juev, ovrw Trepl TroXXou TTOLOV- 
/jieQa TO Trpo&Kpoveiv vfjiiv /cal aTre'xddvecrOai, Seov 
dpecrfcetv /cal Owjreveiv. o Belva efttdcraTO TOV 
Seiva. Tt TOVTO, a) fjiwpe, Trpo? a~e; Koivwvelv e^ov 
fjbT evvoias TWV dSi/cijfjidTcov, a^el? TO /cepSos 
e^Opav eTravaipff, KOI TOVTO TTOIWV opOws olei 355 
iroielv Kal fypovelv inrep TMV aeavTov. \oyua-a- 
a6ai e%p7iv, OTI TOJV JJLGV dSi/covfjuevcDv 
aiTiaTai TOV<> ap^ovTas, aXXa TOV d 
6 5' dSiKwv etra elpyo/jievos, a^>et? /jie/ji(f)6a0ai 
TOV d^LKOVfJievov, et? TOL/? dp^ovTa^ Tperrei TO 

'E^oi^ ovv VTTO TT}? v\o<yi(TTia<> 
adai jj,ev TOV TCL Su/caia Troielv 

8' e/cdaTW TrpaTTdv 6, TL av ede\r) Kal B 

TO ydp T>;9 7roX,e&)9 rjOos ol^ai TOLOVTOV 
e&Ttv, \ev0epov \lav crv Se ov gvvels d 

ocrr) /cal jJ&XP L r v ovwv ecrTiv e\evOepia Trap 

avTols Kal TWV KafJirfKwv; dyovcri TOL Kal 

ol fjuaOwTol Sid TCOV (JTO&v axTTrep ra? 

ol yap VTraWpioi o~Teva)7rol Kal al TrXaretat TU>V 

oS&v OVK errl TOVTM STJTTOV TreTroirjvTai, TOO 

1 ^irot>eiSiffr6raTov Hertleiu suggests, eVoi/eiSjoroj/ MSS. 


unpopular aim and end of life. The wise men 
of Greece will surely allow me to repeat some of 
the sayings current among you ; for I have no 
better way of illustrating what I mean. We have 
stationed ourselves in the middle of the road, so 
highly do we prize the opportunity to collide 
with you and to be disliked, when we ought rather 
to try to please and flatter you. " So-and-so has 
oppressed So-and-so." "Fool! What business is it 
of yours ? When it was in your power to win his 
good-will by becoming the partner in his wrong- 
doing, you first let the profit go, and incur hatred 
besides ; and when you do this you think that you 
are doing right and are wise about your own affairs. 
You ought to have taken into account that, when 
men are wronged, not one of them ever blames the 
magistrates but only the man who has wronged him ; 
but the man who seeks to do wrong and is prevented 
from it, far from blaming his proposed victim, turns 
his grievance against the magistrates. 

" Then when it was in your power by the aid of this 
careful reasoning to refrain from compelling us to do 
what is just; when you might have allowed every 
man to do whatever he pleases and has the power to 
do, for the temper of the city is surely like that, 
excessively independent do you then, I say, fail to 
understand this and assert that the citizens ought to 
be wisely governed ? Have you not even observed 
what great independence exists among the citizens, 
even down to the very asses and camels ? The 
men who hire them out lead even these animals 
through the porticoes as though they were brides. 
For the unroofed alleys and the broad highways 
were certainly not made for the use of pack-asses, 



o~0ai avTais TOVS KavOrfkiovs , aXX' eKelvai aev 
aiVo 8?) TOVTO Koo~aov TLVOS everca Trpo/ceiVTat, Kal 
7roXuTeXeta9, x/o^cr&u Be VTC e\ev6epias ol ovoi C 
/3ov\ovrai rai9 <rroat9, eipyei B' avTovs ovBel? 
ovBevos, Iva arj Trjv e\ev@epiav a<f>e\Tfrai' OUTW? 
Y] 7roXt9 ecrTlv e\ev9epa. av Be d^Loi^ roi'9 ev avT-fj 
veavicrKOV? dyeiv r)o~v%iav Kal AtaX^rra aev (f>po- 
velv 6, TI croi (f>i\ov, el Be urj, fyOeyyeadaL 6a~fov 
av 77860)9 dKova-rjs. 1 ol Be VTT eKevOepias elwdao-i 
Kcoud^eiv, del aev eViet/co>9 avTo TroiovvTes, ev Be 
rat9 eopTals Tr\eov. 

TTore TMV TOIOVTWV (TKayaaaTwv f P&)- 
TapavTivoi BiKas, OTI aeOvovTes ev rot9 D 

vftpiaav avTWv TTJV Trpeafteiav. 
vael<? Be e'crre TMV TapavTivwv TO, TrdvTa evBai- 
<,, dvTi aev 6\tycov rjaepwv o\ov evira- 
eviavTov, dvTi Be TMV %evMV Trpea/Sewv et9 
aurot'9 e^vftpl^ovTes TOi/9 ap^ovTas Kal TOVTMV 
et9 Ta9 eTrl TOV yeveiov Tpi^as Kal TO, ev rofc 

^apdyaaTa. ev ye, w TroXmu O-M- 356 
o" TC Tral^ovTes TO, TQiavTa Kal ol TMV 
TroBe^oaevoL Kal dTro\avovTe<^. Brj\ov 
yap, OTL rot9 aev rjBovrjv Trape^ei TO \eyeiv, rov9 
8e TO ciKpoacrQai TMV TOIOVTMV aKwaaaTwv ev- 

Kal ev ye Trotetre /ata Brj 7roXt9 OVT$ TCL TOiavTa, 
a>9 efceivo ye ovBa/jiov crTrovBaiov ovBe ^rfKwTov 
elpyeiv Kdl tco\deiv TMV vecov TO d/coXaaTov. B 
Trapaipelcr9ai yap e'crrt Kal aTcoOpaveiv TTJS e\ev- 
Oepias TO tce(f)d\ai,ov, el r^9 d<j)e\OLTO TOV \eyeiv 

1 aKovffris Hertlein suggests, aKoixrais MSS. 


but they are provided merely for show and as an 
extravagance ; but in their independence the asses 
prefer to use the porticoes, and no one keeps them 
out of any one of these, for fear he should be robbing 
them of their independence ; so independent is our 
city ! And yet you think that even the charming 
youths in the city ought to keep quiet and, if possible, 
think whatever you like, but at any rate utter only 
what is agreeable for you to hear ! But it is their 
independence that makes them hold revels ; and this 
they always do handsomely, but during the festivals 
they revel more than usual." 

Once upon a time the citizens of Tarentum paid 
to the Romans the penalty for this sort of jesting, 
seeing that, when drunk at the festival of Dionysus, 
they insulted the Roman ambassadors. 1 But you are 
in all respects more fortunate than the citizens of 
Tarentum, for you give yourselves up to pleasure 
throughout the whole year, instead of . for a few 
days ; and instead of foreign ambassadors you insult 
your own Sovereign, yes even the very hairs on his chin 
and the devices engraved on his coins. 2 Well done, 
O wise citizens, both ye who make such jests and ye 
who welcome and find profit in the jesters ! For it 
is evident that uttering them gives pleasure to the 
former, while the latter rejoice to hear jests of this 
sort. I share your pleasure in this unanimity, and 
you do well to be a city of one mind in such matters, 
since it is not at all dignified or an enviable task to 
restrain and chastise the licentiousness of the young. 
For if one were to rob human beings of the power to 

1 In 272 B.C. the Romans took Tarentum. 

2 The people of Antioch ridiculed the Pagan symbols, such 
as the figures of Helios, the sun-god, which Julian had 
engraved on his coinage. 



/cal Trpdrretv '6,ri ftovXovrai TOL/? dv 

0/3060? OVV V/Jieis TOVTO eiOOTeS, OTL Oel TCi TTaVTCL 

\.v6epov$ elvai, TrpwTov eTrerpetyare rat? ywai^lv 
avT&v, iva V^JLLV cocrt \iav eXevOepai KOL 
, etra eiceivais ^vve^wprfcraTe avdyeiv ra 
^ TTOTC vfuv /5%>}9 7Tipwfj,6va rpa^vrepas 
(uroffiavdf) BovXa, tcai yevo/jieva 

alSelcrQai Bi^a^Ofj rovs 
VTTO 6e T?}? ovTO) KaKr)$ avvriQdas evXa/Bearepa 
TT/JO? rou? ap^ovras, KCU reXo? OVK et? 
, aXX* et? dvSpaTroSa reKecravres KOL yevo- 
(TOMppoves /cal eTTieticels KOI tfocr/uot \dOcocn 
8ia(f)0apevTes TTavrdiraa-i. ri ovv at yvvattces; eVl 
ra cr(f)6Tpa a-e^da-^ara ayov<n.v avra 8t' 7780^7)9, 
o 877 fjuaKapLcorarov elvai (fraiverai, fcal 7ro\VTi/jirj- D 


evOev olfjuai (rvfiftalvei /xaXa vfuv evBai/jLoaiv elvat 
Trdaav dpvovfjievois &ov\eiav, djro TT}? et9 roi/9 
Oeovs dp^a/jievois l Trpwrov, elra TOU9 VO/JLOVS /cal 
rptrov TOV9 vo[JiO(^v\aKa^ 77^9. CLTOTTOI re av 
etr)/jiv ?7yLtet9, el rwv 6ewv Trepiopwvrwv ovra)s 
\ev6epav rrjv Tro\iv teal OVK 7r$i6vT(OV dyava- 
KToivffjiev Kal ^akeTraivoi/jiev. ev yap i<rre OTI 357 
TauT7i9 r]fMv eKoivtovrjGav ol deol rf)? drifjiias 
Trapd rfj TroXet. 

To Xt, fyaalv, ovoev rjSiKrjcre rrjv iroKiv ov&e TO 

KttTTTTa. TL [JLV <TTl TOVTO TT)S V/jLTepa<> (70<^ta9 

TO alviy/Jia ^vvelvai ^aKeirov, TV^OVTCS 8' 

1 apa/j.(vois before irpwrov Hertlein suggests, Klimek a-rro- 
raffi T^S for a?rJ) rrjs. 



do and say what the} 7 please, that would be to take 
away and curtail the first principle of independence. 
Therefore, since you knew that men ought to be 
independent in all respects, you acted quite rightly, 
in the first place when you permitted the women to 
govern themselves, so that you might profit by their 
being independent and licentious to excess ; secondly, 
when you entrusted to them the bringing up of the 
children, for fear that if they had to experience any 
harsher authority they might later turn out to be 
slaves ; and as they grew up to be boys might be 
taught first of all to respect their elders, and then 
under the influence of this bad habit might show too 
much reverence for the magistrates, and finally 
might have to be classed not as men but as slaves ; 
and becoming temperate and well-behaved and orderly 
might be, before they knew it, altogether corrupted. 
Then what effect have the women on the children ? 
They induce them to reverence the same things as 
they do by means of pleasure, which is, it seems, the 
most blessed thing and the most highly honoured, 
not only by men but by beasts also. It is for this 
reason, I think, that you are so very happy, because 
you refuse every form of slavery ; first you begin by 
refusing slavery to the gods, secondly to the laws, 
and thirdly to me who am the guardian of the laws. 
And I should indeed be eccentric if, when the gods 
suffer the city to be so independent and do not 
chastise her, I should be resentful and angry. For 
be assured that the gods have shared with me in the 
disrespect that has been shown to me in your city. 

"The Chi," say the citizens, " never harmed the 
city in any way, nor did the Kappa." Now the 
meaning of this riddle which your wisdom has 



drro TT}? vfierepas TroXew? e 
a$ ovo/Jbdrcov elvai ra ypd/jifjiara, BrjXovv 6 
TO fjuh Xpio-rov, TO Be Kwvo-rdvriov. 

ovv fj,ov \eyovros fiera Trapprjcrias. B 
ev fjiovov vfjuas 6 Kcova-rdvTios rj&L/crjo-ev, OTL 
/JL6 Ka'icrapa Tronjo-as OVK aireKreivev co? ra 76 
a\\a vfuv /jLovoLS etc Trdvrwv 'Pw/jiaicov 7ro\\wi> 
Soiev ol Oeoi ^.wvaravTiwv ireupaOrivai, /jid\\ov 
Be rwv e/ceivov (f)c\a)v T^? TrXeoveJ; [as . Cfjiol yap 
6 dvrjp /cal dvetyios eyevero KOI <^tXo?. evrel 
Be TTpo rr)? <f)i\Las etXero rrjv e^Opav, elra rf/Jilv 
ol Qeol rov TT/DO? d\\r)\ov<s dy&va \iav eftpd- 
ftevo-av <f)L\av0pw7rws, eyevofaqv avrw Tria-rorepos C 
r) Trpoa-eSofcrjcrev e^eiv fjue irplv e^dpov 
u,. T'I ovv oieaOe //-e rot? e/ceivov \vireiv 
y 09 a^OofJLai rot? \oiBopov/jievoi<> avrq); 
8e dyairwvre^ e^ere TTO\IOV%OV dvrl 
rov Ato? Kal rov &a(f>vaiov /cal rrjs 
} TO cro^>tcryLta vfAwv cnreyvfjivwcrev. 
Xpicrrbv erroOovv ol rrvp e/z-ySaXo^Te? Tot? rd<j)ois 
rwv Ta\L\aiO)v; e\vrrrj(Ta 8' eycb rivas ' E/JLKTTJVWV 

; V/JLWV fjbevroi 7ro\\ov<> Kal o\iyov Sea) D 
rrdvras, rrjv ftov\r)v, TOL/? evrropovs, rov 
6 fjiev yap S^/AO? d^derai /mot, rw rr\eLcrr(D 
fiepei, na\\ov B' arras dOeorrjra 



invented is hard to understand, but I obtained inter- 
preters from your city and I was informed that these 
are the first letters of names,, and that the former is 
intended to represent Christ, the latter Constantius. 
Bear with me then, if I speak frankly. In one thing 
Constantius did harm you, in that when he had 
appointed me as Caesar he did not put me to death. 
Now for the rest may the gods grant to you alone 
out of all the many citizens of Rome to have 
experience of the avarice of many a Constantius, or 
I should say rather, of the avarice of his friends. For 
the man was my cousin and dear to me ; but after 
he had chosen enmity with me instead of friendship, 
and then the gods with the utmost benevolence 
arbitrated our contention with one another, I 
proved myself a more loyal friend to him than he 
had expected to find me before I became his enemy. 
Then why do you think that you are annoying me 
by your praises of him, when I am really angry with 
those who slander him ? But as for Christ you love 
him, you say, and adopt him as the guardian of your 
city instead of Zeus and the god of Daphne and 
Calliope 1 who revealed your clever invention ? Did 
those citizens of Emesa long for Christ who set fire 
to the tombs of the Galilaeans ? 2 But what citizens 
of Emesa have I ever annoyed ? I have however 
annoyed many of you, I may almost say all, the 
Senate, the wealthy citizens, the common people. 
The latter indeed, since they have chosen atheism, 
hate me for the most part, or rather all of them hate 
me because they see that I adhere to the ordinances 

1 There was a statue of Calliope in the market-place at 

2 The people of Emesa burned the Christian churches and 
spared only one, which they converted into a temple of 



on TO<? Trarpiois opa Tr 
7rpo(7KeifjLevoi>, ol Be Svvarol KwXvofjuevoi 
7rdvra 7rci)\eiv dpyvpiov, irdvres Se vjrep TOJV 
WV KOI rwv Oedrpwv, ov% on, TOL/? aXXou? 

TOVTWV, a)OC on fjueXei pot, TWV TOLOV- 358 
rjTTOv rj TWV ev rot? reX/^acrt /Sarpd^wi'. 
eira ovtc et/corco? /jLavrov KaT7)<yopw rocravras 
aTre^Oeia^ Xa/3a? Trapacr^ovro^; 

'AX\' o 'PwyLtato? ILdrcov, OTTW? jjiev X WV 
Trwywvos OVK olSa, Trap* ovnvovv 8e TWV CTTL 
(Tay(f)poa-vvrj KOI /jLeja\o^v^La /cal TO pe^icrrov 
avSpeia /j,e<ya (j) povovvrwv a^o? eiraivelcrOaL, 
Trpoaiwv Tyoe TTJ 7ro\vav9p(t)7ra> KOI rpvtyepa /cat 
7T\ovcrlq TroXei TOU? e</>^/9of9 ISwv ev TW irpo- B 
acrreicD yu-era TMV dp^ovroiv ecrTaX-yLtevof? co? eVt 
Sopv(j)opiav evofjuvev avTOV %dpiv V/JLWV rou? 
rrjv TrapafTKevrjv jraaav 7re7roifjcr0ai' 
teal Oaffcrov aTro/Sa? roO 'LTTTTOV Trpor/yev ayu-a 
leal 7T/?o? rou? 7rpo\a/36vTas TWV <f)i\wv Sucr^e- 
paivwv a>5 jjuYjvvTas yevo/jievovs avrois, on Karcoz/ 
Trpocrdyet, Kal dvaTreicravTas eK^papelv. 6Wo? 
S' eV TOiovrois avrov Kal SiaTropovvTOS r^pe/Jia 
fcal epvOpLWvros, 6 jvfjLvacriap^o^ TrpocrSpa/juwv, 
*fl fez^e, </>?;, TTOU Arj/jujrpios; rjv S' OUTO? C 
air e\ev6 epos TlofjiTrrjiov, /ce/crrj^evo^ ovalav TTO\- 
Trdvv fjuerpov 6' avrrjs el TroOelre p,a6elv 
yap vpa^ etc irdvrwv TMV \eyofJLevwv vrpo? 



of the sacred rites which our forefathers observed ; 
the powerful citixens hate me because they are pre- 
vented from selling everything at a high price ; but all 
of you hate me on account of the dancers and the 
theatres. Not because I deprive others of these 
pleasures, but because I care less for things of that 
sort than for frogs croaking in a pond. 1 Then is it 
not natural for me to accuse myself, when I have 
furnished so many handles for your hatred ? 

Cato the Roman, 2 however, how he wore his beard 
1 dcTriaFknow^ but he deserves to be praised in com- 
parison with anyone of those who pride themselves 
on their temperance and nobility of soul and on their 
courage above all, he, I say, once visited this popu- 
lous and luxurious and wealthy city; and when he 
saw the youths in the suburb drawn up in full array, 
and with them the magistrates, as though for some 
military display, he thought your ancestors had made 
all those preparations in his honour. So he quickly 
dismounted from his horse and came forward, though 
at the same time he was vexed with those of his 
friends who had preceded him for having informed 
the citizens that Cato was approaching, and so 
induced them to hasten forth. And while he was in 
this position, and was slightly embarrassed and 
blushing, the master of the gymnasium ran to meet 
him and called out " Stranger, where is Demetrius ? " 
Now this Demetrius was a freedman of Pompey, who 
had acquired a very large fortune ; and if you want 
to know the amount of it, for I suppose that in all 

1 A proverb to express complete indifference. 

'' The anecdote which follows is told by Plutarch in his 
Cato the Younger and also in his Pompeius. 

8 Julian must have known that in Cato's day the Romans 
never wore beards. 


fnd\KTTa mp/jiijcrOaL Trjv d/coijv eya) TOV 

rai avyypd/jLfjiaTa TOiavTa, ev ot? Bpeirofievos CK 
ftifSkwv iro\\wv l elpydaaro \6yovs rjBiaTOVS D 
vew (j)i\r)KOM KOL Trpecrftwrepw' <$n\el jap TO 
777/00,9 eTravdyeiv av8i$ et? rrjv TMV vewv 
Kotav TOU? d<p r r)\iKeo'Tepovs' odev oljjiai 
veovs KOI TTpeo-fivras ef tV??? elvai (fr 
elev. o Be 8rj Karo)^ OTTO)? dTnjvrrjcre TO) <yv/j,va- 
ffidp')(ti) /3ovX,cr0 (frpdaa); /JLIJ fie \oi$opelv VTTO- 

\d/3r)T TrjV TTO\iV ' OVK GOTTIV 6 A-O^O? e/AO?. 

el rt? d(f>l/crai Trepi^epofievr] /cat 6/9 u/Aa9 dtcor) .'if) 9 
Xafcpw^ea>9 dvSpbs etc TOV <f>av\ov yevovs, b 87) 
\eyerat, Trapa TWV d\a^6vwv (friXoarotyov' ov &ij 
/cal auro9 ou/c e(j)iKo/jLr)v fiev, rjv^dfJLr^v Be VTTO 
djjwidias icoivwv^aai /cal fjieTatj^elv. ravra ovv 
eicelvos effrpaaev, 009 o Kdrwv dtreKpivaro pev 
ovBev, /3o^cra9 Be /JLOVOV old Ti9 epm'\r]KTO<; teal 

Br) OavjjLdarjTe, TOVTO el /cal e<yw vvvl 
7T/309 v/jias, dvrjp dypicorepos eKeivov /cal B 
dpaavrepos roaovra) /cal avOaBecrrepos, oaov ol 
KeA/rot 'PcofAaiwv. 6 fj^ev yap e/celae 
eyyvs rj\0e 777/36)9 apa rot9 7roXtrai 
efjiol Be Ke\Tol teal Tep/juavol /cal Spv/j,b<i ' 

<lfJL\V dpTL TTpWTOV 6t9 ai>Bpa<S Te\OVVTl, KCU 

a TTO\VV ijBvj ^povov, wcnrep TI$ /cvvrjyerrjs 
iro\\a>v Hertlein suggests, e'/c TU>V iro\\c>v MSS. 



that I am now telling you are most anxious to hear 
this, I will tell you who has related the story. 
Damophilus of Bithynia has written compositions of 
this sort, and in them, by culling anecdotes from 
many books, he has produced tales that give the 
greatest delight to anyone who loves to listen to 
gossip, whether he be young or old. For old age 
usually revives in the elderly that love of gossip 
which is natural to the young ; and this is, I think, 
the reason why both the old and the young are 
equally fond of stories. Well then, to return to 
Cato. Do you want me to tell you how he greeted 
the master of the gymnasium ? Do not imagine that 
I am slandering your city ; for the story is not my 
own. 1 If any rumour has come round, even to your 
ears, of the man of Chaeronea, 2 who belongs to that 
worthless class of men who are called by impostors 
philosophers, I myself never attained to that class 
though in my fgnorance I claimed to be a member of 
it and to have part in it, well he, as I was saying, 
related that Cato answered not a word, but only cried 
aloud like a man stricken with madness and out of 
his senses, " Alas for this ill-fated city!" and took 
himself off. 

Therefore do not be surprised if I now feel towards 
you as I do, for I am more uncivilised than he, and 
more fierce and headstrong in proportion as the Celts 
are more so than the Romans. He .was born in 
Rome and was nurtured among Roman citizens till 
he was on the threshold of old age. But as for me, I 
had to do with Celts and Germans and the Hercynian 
forest 3 from the moment that I was reckoned a 
grown man, and I have by now spent a long time 

1 cf. Fragment of a Letter 299 c, note. 2 Plutarch. 

a cf. Caesar, Gallic War, 6. 24. 479 


dypiois ofjLi\wi> Kal (rvfJUTrXeKOfjievo^ Orjpioi^, i']deaiv C 
evrvy%dv(v ovre 6a)Treveiv ovre Ko\aKeveiv elBo- 
o~iv, o-TrXco? Be Kal eXevdepws CK rov icrov iracn 
Trpoo~fyepea6ai. yeyovev ovv /JLOI f^erd rrjv GK 
TraiBcov Tpotyrjv r) re ev /jieLpaKiois 0809 Sta 
/ecu 'AyOicrroreXou? \6ycov 

^TJyuot? evTV^dveLv olo/j,evo(,<; VTTO 
rpv(f)'f)s ev^aii^oveardroi^ l elvai, rj re ev dv^pdaiv 
avrovpyia Trapa TO?? fjLa^L/jLwrdrot,^ Kal 
raroi? TWV eOvwv, OTTOV T?]V yajjLTj\tav ^ 
Kal rov /jbedvBoTrjv kiovv&ov jd/jiov re 
Kal TraiSoTrodas oivov re 07ro<7?79 eKaara) Bvva- 
rov TTOo-eo)? taao-L (JLOVOV. dveXyeia & OVK GGTIV 
ev rot? Oedrpois ovSe vftpts, ovBe \KGI rt? 
TT}? a~Kr)vr)S rov KopBaKa. 

Aeyerai roi /AiKpw Trpba-Oev 009 evOevBe 
rt9 Ka7T7ra5o/c^9 (frvyds, ev rf) Trap 1 vfMV r 
Tr6\ei Trapa rca ^pvoro^ow- yvwpi^ere 
ov \ey(t)' /jLaOwv OTTOV Kal epadev, &>9 ov Beov 
ofjLi\eiv yvvai^i, /neipaKioi^ 8' eTTi^eipetv, OVK 
olBa OTTOcra evOdBe Bpdaas Kal TraOcav, eireLor) 3 GO 
Trapa rov eKeiae jSacriKea TTpwvjV dfyiKero, fjivrj/jir) 
rcov rfjBe TroXXoi'9 f^ev 6pxr)<Tra<; avrols eVa- 
yayelv, a\\a Be rd evrevdev ay add roiavra, 
Kal Brj Kal reA.09 <9 eveBeijcrev ert, Korv\i<jrov- 

1 eVtTrjSe/'cDj' oiopsvois evSai/j-oi-effrdrois Hertlein suggests, 
7nT7j5ei<p S-ft/j-ois 



there, like some huntsman who associates with and is 
entangled among wild beasts. There I met with tem- 
peraments that know not how to pay court or flatter, 
but only how to behave simply and frankly to all 
men alike. Then after my nurture in childhood,, my 
path as a boy took me through the discourses of 
Plato and Aristotle, which are not at all suited for 
the reading of communities who think that on 
account of their luxury they are the happiest of men. 
Then I had to work hard myself among the most 
warlike and high-spirited of all nations, where men 
have knowledge of Aphrodite, goddess of Wedlock., 
only for the purpose of marrying and having children/ 
and know Dionysus_the^rink-Giver, only for the sake 
of just so much wine as each can~drink at a draught. 
And in their theatres no licentiousness or insolence 
exists, nor does any man dance the cordax on their 

A story is told of them that not long ago a certain 
Cappadocian was exiled from here to that place, a 
man who had been brought up in your city in the 
house of the goldsmith you know of course whom 
I mean, and had learned, as he naturally did learn 
there, that one ought not to have intercourse with 
women but to pay attentions to youths. And when, 
after doing and suffering here I know not what, he 
went to the court of the king in that country, he 
took with him to remind him of your habits here a 
number of dancers and other such delights from this 
city ; and then finally since he still needed a coty- 
list 1 you know the word and the thing too he 

1 We do not know what sort of performance was given 
by a cotylist ; he was evidently a mime and may have placed 
with cups ; Korv\r) = a pint-cup. 

4 8l 


TOVTO S' v/jLei? fore 77/90? TU> epytp TO ovofia' Kal 
TOVTOV evOevbe eKakei TroOw KOI epwri, TT?? cre/jivf)? 
Trap vfjuv BiaiTrjs. ol KeXrol Be TOV pev KOTV- 
\iCTTrjv rjyvorjcrav, eBe^aTo yap avTov avTiKa TO, B 
@a(TL\.(,a, TOL/? 6p%r](rTas Se eTrirpaTrevras ejn- 
Setfcvuo-OaL 1 ev rw Oedrpw rrjv r^v^v eiacrav 
olo/J>evoi rot? vvjju<j)O\ri r n'TOL i $ avrov? eoiicevai. teal 
r)v aurot? etcei 7rap 

rarov TO Oearpov aXX' ol jj,ev oiXiyoi 
v, eyco 8e 

ra Trdvra 

Kal OVK dyava/crw ru) TTpdyparL. KOI yap av C 
aSt/co? el ^ Kal rot? TrapovaL 
povTcos dcrTracrdjjLevos e/civa. KeXrol 
yap OVTW ae 81 o/noiorrjTa rpojrcov rjyd 
OMTT6 eroX^jcrav ov% oVXa JJLOVOV virep eaov 
XaySetv, aXXa /cal ^prj/jLara eSw/cav TroXXa, Kal 
7rapaiTOv/jivov o\iyov Kal eftidoravro \aftelv, Kal 
7T/309 iravra erotyaw? vTrrjKovaav. o Se Srj 
eKeWev ei? vpas etyepero TTO\V TO epov 
Kal ejSowv TTtt^re? dvbpelov, avveTov, SiKatov, ov 

/AOVOV OyLttX^crat Seuvov, aXXa Kal elprjvy I) 

$e];i6v, evjrpocriTov, jrpaov vp,els Se 
vTols dvTi,$e&(jL>KaTe vvv evQevSe Trp&TOv ^ev, OTL 
Trap* e'/u-e ra TOV KOCT/AOV TrpdyjjiaTa dvaTeTpaTTTai' 
Gvvo&a Be ovSev dvaTpejrwv e^avTW OVTC eKaiv 
OVT CLKWV etra, a>? e'/c TOV Trooywvos fjiov %pr) 
7r\6Keiv cr%oivia, Kal OTL TroXe/^w TW Xt, TTO^O? Be 
v/JLas elaeiai TOV KaTTTra. Kal V^LLV ye avTO ol 

1 ^TrtSe'iKwcrdai Hertlein would add. 


invited him also from here, because of his longing 
and love for the austere mode of life that prevails 
with you. Now the Celts never made the acquaint- 
ance of the cotylist, since he was at once admitted 
into the palace ; but when the dancers began to 
display their art in the theatre, the Celts left them 
alone because they thought that they were like men 
stricken with nympholepsy. And the theatre seemed 
to the men in that country highly ridiculous, just as 
it does to me ; but whereas the Celts were a few 
ridiculing many, I here along with a few others seem 
absurd in every way to all of you. 

This is a fact which I do not resent. And indeed 
it would be unjust of me not to make the best of 
the present state of things, after having so greatly 
enjoyed the life among the Celts. For they loved 
me so much, on account of the similarity of our 
dispositions, that not only did they venture to take 
up arms on my behalf, but they gave me large sums 
of money besides ; and when I would have declined 
it, they almost forced me to take it, and in all things 
readily obeyed me. And what was most wonderful 
of all, a great report of me travelled thence to your 
city, and all men proclaimed loudly that I was brave, 
wise and just, not only terrible to encounter in war, 
but also skilful in turning peace to account, easy of 
access and mild-tempered. But now you have sent 
them tidings from here in return, that in the first 
place the affairs of the whole world have been turned 
upside down by me though indeed I am not con- 
scious of turning anything upside down, either 
voluntarily or involuntarily ; secondly, that I ought 
to twist ropes from my beard, and that I war against 
the Chi and that you begin to regret the Kappa. 

i i 2 


T?}? 7TO\6ft)9 Oeol 017T\OVV 

or i, 777909 rovrw Kol Ta? darvyeirovas ecrvKCHpav- 361 
r^crare TroXet? lepas /cal 6fjLO&ov\ovs e//,ot, co? S^ 
Trap' avrwv etrj ra et? eyu,e ^vvreOevra, ov v o!8' 
ort fyikovaiv e/ceivat, yuaXXoi/ 17 rou? eavrwv 
OL ra /jiev TWV Oe&v avearqcrav avri/ca 

rov avvOriiJiaTOS, o Srj Se&orai Trap' 
, ouTo>9 eTrapdevres TOP vovv /cal 
rrjv Sidvoiav, ft>9 real Tr\eov 

T0t9 6t9 TOl/9 #OU9 7r\r)fJl,/Ji\OV(TLV T) 

Ta 8' vjjiTpa' TroAAol ///ei^ eyeipo/jievovs 
vs dverpe-^av, 01)9 ^ 7r/oaoT7/9 ^ 

roi' veicpov r}9 

7T/)09 TOl'9 ^01/9 ef UyLtft)^ dvT$COKav T0t9 V7T6/) 

r)yavaKTr)K6(TL rov veicpov TO re/juevo^ C 
rov &a<pvaiov 6eov, ol Se elre \adovres e'lre pr) TO 
evel&av 1 e/ceivo, TOt9 //.e^ eiTL^ri^ova'L rwv ^evwv 
, vfjbwv Be rw orj/j,w /jLev fjoovrjv Trapacr^ov, 

1 tveiffav Hertlein suggests, flSe/lay MSS. 


Now may the guardian gods of this city grant you a 
double allowance of the Kappa ! l For besides this 
you falsely accused the neighbouring cities, which 
are holy and the slaves of the gods, like myself, of 
having produced the satires which were composed 
against me ; though I know well that those cities 
love me more than their own sons, for they at once 
restored the shrines of the gods and overturned all 
the tombs 2 of the godless, on the signal that was 
given by me the other day ; and so excited were 
they in mind and so exalted in spirit that they even 
attacked those who were offending against the gods 
with more violence than I could have wished. 

But now consider your own behaviour. Many of 
you overturned the altars of the gods which had only 
just been erected, and with difficulty did my 
indulgent treatment teach you to keep quiet. And 
when I sent away the body from Daphne, 3 some of 
you, in expiation of your conduct towards the gods, 
handed over the shrine of the god of Daphne to 
those who were aggrieved about the relics of the 
body, and the rest of you, whether by accident 
or on purpose, hurled against the shrine that 
fire which made the strangers who were visiting 
your city shudder, but gave pleasure to the mass of 

1 i.e. may they have two such rulers as Constantius. 

2 i.e. the sepulchres over which the Christian churches 
were built ; cf. 357 C, note. 

3 Babylas, Bishop of Antioch, had been buried in the grove 
of Daphne, and the priests of Apollo retired from it. When 
the church over his tomb was demolished by Julian he 
removed the body of St. Babylas to Antioch, and that night 
(October 22. 362 A.D.) the people of Antioch burned the 
temple of Apollo which Julian had restored. Cf. Johannes 
Chrysostomos, De S. Baby la et contra Julian urn ; and 
Libanius, Monody on the Temple of Apollo at Daphne. 



VTTO Be Try? /SouX?}? a[jL6\r)Qev /cal elcren dfji\ov- 

/JLCVOV. e/jiol /JLV OVV eBo/Cei KOL TTpO TOV TTf/JO? 

aTro\e\oiTrevai TOV vewv 6 #eo?, eTreo-^/jujve jap 
icre\6ovTL fjioi TrpwTOV TO a<ya\/jLa, /cal TOVTOV 
jjuaprvpa /ca\w rbv fjieyav ' HX/oz; TT^O? rovs 
s Be viro/jivrjcrai jBov\ofJiai KOI 
a7r^0La<; efjuf)?, eVetra, oirep elwOa iroielv D 

, oveiSiaai 6/jLavrw /cal vTrep ravrr)^ /cal 
Karrjyopija-ai /cal ^e^aadai. 

Ae/caro) yap TTOV fjLijvl rw Trap' v/juv apiOjJLOv- 
fJ<V(p' AMOV ol/nai, TOVTOV u/i-et? irpocrayopeveTe' 

(TTTOvSf) 7T/JO? T7)V Ad^VrjV CLTCaVTCiV. y(t) /jiV OVV 

airo TOV Katr/ou Ato? eirl TOVTO eSpapov, OLO/JLCVOS 
\HTTa TOV TT\OVTOV /cal T^}? <f)i\o- 
aTroXavaetv. elra dve7T\aTTOv Trap' 
tjv, wcnrep oveipaTa opwv, iepela /cal 362 
/cal 'xppovs TW dew /cal Bv^ia^aTa /cal 
e/cei Trepl TO Te/J,evo$ 0eo7rpe7recrTara 
fjiev ra? A/rf^a? /caTea-Kevao-fjLevovs, \evtcfj & eaOiJTL 
/cal /Jiya\07rp67rei /ce/coa-fitj/jievovs. a>? Be elo~u> 
TraprfkOov TOV Tefievovs, OVTC 0vfJLtdf^aTa /caTe- 
\a(Bov ovTe Trorravov OVT lepelov. avTL/ca fiev 
ovv edav^da-a /cal yprjv efca TOV Te/jievovs elvai, 
TcepifJieveiv B' v/Aas, e/te Brj TLjJLwvTas 0)9 ap^iepea, B 
TO avvOrj/jia Trap' e/j.ov. eVet Be rjpo^v, TL /jL\Xei 
Qve.iv rj 7roA,9 eviavcriov eopTrjv ayovaa TW dew, 6 



your citizens and was ignored and is still ignored 
by your Senate. Now, in my opinion, even before 
that fire the god had forsaken the temple, for when 
I first entered it his holy image gave me a sign 
thereof. I call mighty Helios to bear me witness of 
this before all unbelievers. And now I wish to 
remind you of yet another reason for your hatred of 
me, and then to abuse myself a thing which I 
usually do fairly well and both to accuse and blame 
myself with regard to that hatred. 

In the tenth month, according to your reckoning, 
Loos I think you call it there is a festival founded 
by your forefathers in honour of this god^,nd it was 
your duty to be zealous in visiting Daphne. Accord- 
ingly I hastened thither from the temple of Zeus 
Kasios, 1 thinking that at Daphne, if anywhere, I 
should enjoy the sight of your wealth and public 
spirit. And I imagined in my own mind the sort of 
procession it would be, like a man seeing visions in a 
dream, beasts for sacrifice, libations, choruses in 
honour of the god, incense, and the youths of your 
city there surrounding the shrine, their souls adorned 
with all holiness and themselves attired in white and 
splendid raiment. But when I entered the shrine I 
found there no incense, not so much as a cake, not a 
single beast for sacrifice. For the moment I was 
amazed and thought that I was still outside the 
shrine and that you were waiting the signal from me, 
doing me that honour because I am supreme pontiff. 
But when I began to inquire what sacrifice the city 
intended to offer to celebrate the annual festival in 
honour of the god, the priest answered, " I have 

1 Kasios was the name of a mountain near Antioch where 
there was a temple of Zeus. 



iepevs elirev eyw /juev r//e<w (frepcov oiKoOev TO> 6eq> 
'Xfiva iepeiov, rj TroXt? Be ra vvv ovBev rjvrpe- 


\aTre^6rf^(av eyw rrpos TTJV ftov- 

OVK aroTTOV KOI vvv /jLwrjfjioveva-ai. 
e(f)7)V eya), " rrjv roaavrrfv 7ro\iv OVTW 
6\i,ya)pa)s e^eiv, &>? ovSej&ia TrapoiKovcra rat? 
e'cr^aTiat? TOV Hovrov KM/JLTJ' p,vpiov<$ K\,rjpov^ C 
77)9 IBia? /ce/crrj/JLevr), rw Trarpia) 0eS> vvv Trpwrov 
e7Ti(TTacr^ eopTijs eviavaiov, 7TtBr) &i<rKeSa(Tav 
ol Oeol rr)<s aOeoTrjros rrjv V(f)e\r}v, f^iav opviv 1 
vjrep avrrj? ov TTpoa-dyei, rjv %pf)v yu-aXtcrra JJLGV 
Kal Kara $v\a<$ ftovOwrelv, el Be fjirj paSiov, eva 
ye 2 KOivy Traaav VTrep avrfj? Trpocrfyepeiv rc3 6ew 
ravpov, VfAOW 5' e'/eacrro? IBia fiev et? ra BeiTrva D 
Kal ra? eopra? ^aipei BaTravcb/Lievos, Kal ev olSa 
wv TrXeicrra et? ra Beiirva TOV Mai- 
aTroKecravra^, vTrep 8' v^wv avrwv 
r^}? TroXea)? ouSet? 6vei ovre 


lepevs, ov ol/jiaL BiKaiorepov rjv UTTO TOV Tr\^6ov<$ 
TWV Trpocrfapo/jLevwv TOJ 6e& Trap 1 V/JLWV oiKaBe 
aTcievai /j,epiBa<> e%ovTa. rot? /JLCV yap lepevaiv 
ol Oeol Ka\oKayadia Ti/mdv avTOvs Kal aperr}? 
vo-eL TrpoaeTa^av Kal \eiTovpyeiv o~<pi(7i TO, 
TrpeTrei B' ol^ai Ty TroXet Oveiv IBia Kal 363 

1 p.iav opviv Hertlein suggests, opviv MSS. 

2 eva 75 Hertlein suggests, ei/a MSS. 



brought with me from my own house a goose as an 
offering to the god, but the city this time has made 
no preparations." 

Thereupon, being fond of making enemies,, I made 
in the Senate a very unseemly speech which perhaps 
it may now be pertinent to quote to you. " It is a 
terrible thing," I said, " that so important a city 
should be more neglectful of the gods than any 
village on the borders of the Pontus. 1 Your city 
possesses ten thousand lots of land privately owned, 
and yet when the annual festival in honour of the 
god of her forefathers is to be celebrated for the first 
time since the gods dispelled the cloud of atheism, 
she does not produce on her own behalf a single bird, 
though she ought if possible to have sacrificed an ox 
for every tribe, or if that were too difficult, the whole 
city in common ought at any rate to have offered to 
the god one bull on her own behalf. Yet every one 
of you delights to spend money privately on dinners 
and feasts ; and I know very well that many of you 
squandered very large sums of money on dinners 
during the May festival. Nevertheless, on your own 
behalf and on behalf of the city's welfare not one of 
the citizens offers a private sacrifice, nor does the city 
offer a public sacrifice, but only this priest ! Yet I 
think that it would have been more just for him to 
go home carrying portions from the multitude of 
beasts offered by you to the god. For the duty 
assigned by the gods to priests is to do them honour 
by their nobility of character and by the practice of 
virtue, and also to perform to them the service that 
is due ; but it befits the city, I think, to offer both 
private and public sacrifice. But as it is, every one 

1 cf. Themistius 332 p. 



vvv e V/JLWV e/cacrTos 7rirp7rL fjiev rj 
yvvat/cl TrdvTa efccfrepew ev$o0V et? rou? FaXt- 
Xa/ou9, /cal Tp<f)OV(rai CLTTO TWV v/juerepcav eicelvai 
irevrjTas iro\v TT}? dOeoTrjTos epyd^ovrai 


roiovrov ol/JLCiL TO 7r\el<TTov TWV av0 PMTTCOV 
ls S' avrol TTpwrov /jLev TMV et? TOU? 

a/LteXco? e^o^re? TTpdrreiv ov$ev aroTrov 

e' Trpocreicri S' ouSel? rwv Seofiei'wv B 
rot? iepois- ov yap e&Tiv ol/jucu irbOev SiaTpa(f)f). 
/cal yeve0\i,a /J,ev rt? ecmwv l/cavw? Trapa&fcevd^ei 
SeiTrvov fcal apicrrov, eirl TroXureX?} rpajre^av rot'? 
7rapa\ajj,(3dva)v eviavcriov 8' eoprf)^ ouo-rj^ 
ev e\auov et? ~h,v%vov TW Oew ovBe 
ovS* lepelov ov$ \ipavwrbv. eyw fiev 
ovv l OVK olSa, O7rft)9 av Tt? Tavra dvrjp dyados C 
opu)v Trap* v/uiiv diro$e%aiTo, VO/JLL^CO 8' eywye /J,rj8e 
rot? ^eot? dpeo-fceiv." 

Toiavra CLTTODV rore /Ae/jLvij/uai, KOI 6 [lev Oeos 
/JLOV rofc Xoyot?, a>9 

TO TTpodcTTeiOV, O 7TO\VV 

%d\rj Tpeifras d\\a^ov TWV Kpa- 
TOVVTWV Tr)i> ^lavoiav /cal T&) 
vfilv o' dTnj^Oo/jbrjv eyci) TTOIWV 
yap (TiWTrdv, wcrTrep olfiai TroXXot KOL aXXot 

aXX' L'TTO TT poireTeia^ yco /ca 
ovv Hertlein suggests, /lev MSS. 



of you allows his wife to carry everything out of 
his house to the Galilaeans, and when your wives 
feed the poor at your expense they inspire a great 
admiration for godlessness in those who are in need 
of such bounty and of such sort are, I think, the 
great majority of mankind,, while as for yourselves 
you think that you are doing nothing out of the 
way when in the first place you are careless of the 
honours due to the gods, and not one of those in 
need goes near the temples for there is nothing 
there, 1 think, to feed them with and yet when any 
one of you gives a birthday feast he provides a dinner 
and a breakfast without stint and welcomes his 
friends to a costly table ; when, however, the annual 
festival arrived no one furnished olive oil for a lamp 
for the god, or a libation, or a beast for sacrifice, or 
incense. Now I do not know how any good man 
could endure to see such things in your city, and 
for my part I am sure that it is displeasing to the 
gods also." 

This is what I remember to have said at the time, 
and the god bore witness to the truth of my words 
would that he had not ! when he forsook your 
suburb which for so long he had protected, and again 
during that time of storm and stress 1 when he 
turned in the wrong direction the minds of those 
who were then in power and forced their hands. 
But I acted foolishly in making myself odious to you. 
For I ought to have remained silent as, I think, did 
many of those who came here with me, and I ought 
not to have been meddlesome or found fault. But 

1 Julian probably alludes to the riot which took place at 
Antioch on account of the famine in 354, when the populace 
killed Theophilus the Governor and were punished for the 
murder by Constantius. 



rfjs Karaye\d<rrov KoXatceias' ov yap orj VO/M- 
crreov vrr evvoLas e/xol Tore elprjardat rou? TT/OO? 
uytta? \6yovs, aXX' olpai So^av Orjpevwv e 
re et? TOI>? Oeovs KOI et9 w/za? evvoias 
TOUTO S' eVrti^ ot/xat TrayyeXoio? /co\aKia' 

/jbdrrjv Kare^ea. SiKaia rotvvv epyd&aOe 364 


ra ^wpia. 6ya> /ze^ VTTO 
) /cat rot? ToO dyaXfjiaTos 
ev 0X170^9 t'yu-w^ Kare^pa^ov vpels 8' eVl TT}? 
dyopds ev rw ^^ft> Sta TWZ/ l/cavwv rd TOICLVTCL 
'Xapievrl^eaOai TroXtrw^. ev yap 'la-re, irdvres 
ol \eyovre$ Kotvovvrai rrpos rou? d/covovras TOU? 
\6yovs, Kal 6 %vv rj&ovf) rwv ^Xaa^/jiLMV dfcpoa- 
crdfjievos, fiere^cov r^}? IV-?;? rjSovfjs drrpayfjbo- B 
vecrrepov rov \eyovro<$, KOIVWVOS eari TT}? atr/a?. 

i' oX,?;? /cat rjKpoarai rfjs 
orroaa et? rovrovl rrkrraiKrai rov (j>av\ov 
rrcoywva KOI rov ovSev emSei^avra VJMV /ca\bv 
ovBe emSei^ovra rporrov. ov yap embei^ei fiiov 
V/JLLV, orrolov v/Jiels del fiev ^re, rroOelre Se opdv 
Kal ev rot? ap%ov<riv. vrrep jnev 8^ rwv ^\ao-<p^- 
fjLiwv, a? loia re /cal Brj/jioa-ia Kare^eare JJLOV C 
rral^ovres ev rot? avarcai<J f roi'$, e/juavrov rrpocricar- 


I poured down all these reproaches on your heads 
to no purpose, owing to my headlong temper and a 
ridiculous desire to natter, for it is surely not to be 
believed that out of goodwill towards you I spoke 
those words to you then ; but I was, I think, hunting 
after a reputation for piety towards the gods and for 
sincere good-will towards you, which is, I think, the 
most absurd form of flattery. Therefore you treat 
me justly when you defend yourselves against those 
criticisms of mine and choose a different place for 
making your defence. For I abused you under the 
god's statue near his altar and the footprints of the 
holy image, in the presence of few witnesses ; but you 
abused me in the market-place, in the presence of 
the whole populace, and with the help of citizens 
who were capable of composing such pleasant 
witticisms as yours. For you must be well aware 
that all of you, those who uttered the sayings about 
me and those who listened to them, are equally 
responsible ; and he who listened with pleasure to 
those slanders, since he had an equal share of the 
pleasure, though he took less trouble than the 
speaker, must share the blame. 

Throughout the whole city, then, you both uttered 
and listened to all the jests that were made about 
this miserable beard of mine, and about one who 
has never displayed to you nor ever will display any 
charm of manner. For he will never display among 
you the sort of life that you always live and desire 
to see also among those who govern you. Next 
with respect to the slanders which both in private 
and publicly you have poured down on my head, 
when you ridiculed me in anapaestic verse, since I 
too have accused myself I permit you to employ that 



V/MIV eTTirpeTrco ^prjadai, fjuera 

avry TrappTja-ias, co? ovBev v/juas eyco Sia rovro 
TTWTTOTe Beivbv epydcrofjiai (T^>drrwv rj TVTTTCOV 
TI Swv rj d7TOK\eia)V r) Ko\d^wv. TTCO? yap; 05, 
e/juavTov evriBeifae /xera TWV $i\wv 
, <pav\OTarov ISelv v/nlv Kal drjSe- 
, ovSev eTrebei^a Ka\ov Qkapa, /jLeTacrrfjvai 
TroXeft)? 1 eyvcofca real VTro^wprja-ai,, TreireL- 
/lev ovSafMws, OTI Trdvrws e/ceivot? dpeaw, 
7T/J09 01)9 Tropevo/Aai, Kplvwv 8' alpeTwrepov, el 
SiafjidpTOL/Ai rov Bo^at, yovv eKeivois raXo? tcdya- 
#09, ev /Jiepei /JLeraSovvai iraai T>}9 drjBia^ r^9 
e/JiavTov Kal fJi'T] Trjv evbaijjiova Tavrrjv diroKval- 
dai iro\iv wcrirep VTTO SvacoSias T^ 

T7/T09 Kal TWV 6/jiWV eTTlTrjSeLWV T7}9 

e }ifA(ov yap ouSeW dypbv ovBe K,r\irov eTrpiaro 365 
Trap' V/JLLV ovSe oliclav wKoSd/jirjcrev ou8' eyrj/j^e 
Trap' vfjt,a>v ov& egeScoKev eh VyLt9 ovBe r)pda-0r)/j,ev 
Trap vfjilv Ka\wv, ovS' e' 

TrapaBvva&Teveiv rjjuv r)vea%6fjL0d Tiva<$ TMV ev 

77 dedrpwv, ov ouT&)9 eiroLrjcra^ev rpvfyav, 
axrre aycov a"%o\r)v ajro T7}9 evSetas rot'9 dva- B 
7ra/<TTOL'9 et9 rot/9 oliiov^ avTW T^9 ev6r)via<t 
ev, ov& eTreypd^ra^ev ^pvauov ovSe yrrf- 
dpyvpiov ovSe rju^cra/jLev (f>6pov<f d\\d 

1 TTJS ir6\(as Hertlein suggests, rfy v6\iv MSS. 


method with even greater frankness ; for 1 shall 
never on that account do you any harm, by slaying 
or beating or fettering or imprisoning you or punish- 
ing you in any way. Why indeed should I ? For 
now that in showing you myself, in company with 
my friends, behaving with sobriety, a most sorry 
and unpleasing sight to you I have failed to show 
you any beautiful spectacle, I have decided to leave 
this city and to retire from it ; not indeed because I 
am convinced that I shall be in all respects pleasing 
to those to whom I am going, but because I judge it 
more desirable, in case I should fail at least to seem 
to them an honourable and good man, to give all 
men in turn a share of my unpleasantness, 1 and not 
to annoy this happy city with the evil odour, as it 
were, of my moderation and the sobriety of my 

For not one of us has bought a field or garden in 
your city or built a house or married or given in 
marriage among you, or fallen in love with any of 
your handsome youths, or coveted the wealth of 
Assyria, or awarded court patronage ; 2 nor have we 
allowed any of those in office to exercise influence 
over us, or induced the populace to get up banquets 
or theatrical shows ; nay rather we have procured for 
them such luxurious ease that, since they have respite 
from want, they have had leisure to compose their 
anapaests against the very author of their well-being. 
Again, I have not levied gold money or demanded 
silver money or increased the tribute ; but in 

1 Demosthenes, Against Meidias 153 aironvaiei yap 

2 irpoffTaffla is sometimes used of the Imperial protection 
of a municipal guild, and that may be Julian's meaning here. 



rot? eet/Ayu.acrti' veTai iracn TWV e 
elo~(f)opwv TO Tck^TCTQV. ov/c ol/jiai 
egap/celv TO crwfypovelv e/Jbe, d\\d /cal 1 
%co val fjid Ata real Oeovs, o>? e/jiavTov 
TOV {,aayj\ea, /caA-w? vfi VJJLWV eTTLTL/Ji 
BIOTI ryepcav &v /cal <f)a\a/cp6<> rjpe^a ra irpoaw 
Sia SvarpOTTiav ala-^vveraL Kopav e^oTTiaOev, C 
wa-Trep "O/Arjpos eVot^cre rov? v A/9a^ra?, ovSev 
& eiceivov (f)av\orepov^ av$pa<$ olicoi Trap epavTw 
Bvo KOI rpels, a\\a /cal rerrapa^, el (3ov\ea6e 
Be vvvl /cal Tre/jLTrrov. 

f O Be fjioi 6elo<$ /cal oyicajz/uyuo? ov Si/caioraTa 
/jiev vfjiMV TTpovcrTti, /Lt%/ot? 7reTp7rov ol Oeol 
%vvelvai ^/Jblv avrbv /cal ^vfjiTrpdrTeiv; ov Trpo/jLtj- 
Oecrrara Be Trdcrais 7re'fj\0 rat? olicovo^iaL^ 
TT}? TToXea)?; rjfjulv f^ev ovv eBo/cei Tavra /ca\d, 

ap^bvTwv jJLera awfypoavvris, w6/j,e0d re D 
1/cavMS Bia TOVTWV /ca\ol fyavel 
eirel Be vfias tf re 

aTrapecncei TOV yeveiov /cal TO aTr)fj,e\r)Tov 
Tpi^MV /cal TO /A?) 7rapa/3d\\eiv rot? 
/cal TO aj^iovv ev rot? iepols elvai O-/JLVOV<; /cal 
Trpo TOVTCOV aTcavTWv TI Trepl ra? Kpiaeis rj/Jiwv 
aa"xp\ia /cal TO TT}? d'yopds eipyeiv Trjv TT\eov- 
e^iav, e/c6vT<> V/MV e^iaTa/jieda Tr)? TroXea)?. 366 
ov yap olfjLau pdBiov ev yrfpa fJiGTadefJievw Bia- 
(frwyeiv TOV \eyofjievov virep TOV IKTIVOS /JLV&OV. 
\eyeTai ydp TOL TOV l/CTtva (f)covrjv e^ovra Trapa- 
Tr\^(TLav rot? aXXot? Qpvicriv emOeo-dai, TW ^pe- 
/jL6Tieiv, wcnrep ol yevvaioi TWV 'ITTTCCOV, etra TOV 

1 o\Aa /cal Reiske would add. 


addition to the arrears, one-fifth of the regular 
taxes has been in all cases remitted. Moreover I 
do not think it enough that I myself practise self- 
restraint, but i have also an usher who, by Zeus and 
the other gods, is moderate indeed, as I believe, 
though he has been finely scolded by you, because, 
being an old man and slightly bald in front, in his 
perversity he is too modest to wear his hair long 
behind, as Homer made the Abantes wear theirs. 1 
And I have with me at my court two or three men 
also who are not at all inferior to him, nay four or 
even five now, if you please. 

And as for my uncle and namesake, 2 did he not 
govern you most justly, so long as the gods allowed 
him to remain with me and to assist me in my work ? 
Did he not with the utmost foresight administer all 
the business of the city ? For my part I thought these 
were admirable things, I mean mildness and modera- 
tion in those who govern, and I supposed that by prac- 
tising these I should appear admirable in your eyes. 
But since the length of my beard is displeasing to 
you, and my unkempt locks, and the fact that I do 
not put in an appearance at the theatres and that I 
require men to be reverent in the temples ; and 
since more than all these things my constant atten- 
dance at trials displeases you and the fact that I try 
to banish greed of gain from the market-place, I 
willingly go away and leave your city to you. For 
when a man changes his habits in his old age it is 
not easy, I think, for him to escape the fate that is 
described in the legend about the kite. The story 
goes that the kite once had a note like that of other 
birds, but it aimed at neighing like a high-spirited 

1 Iliad 2. 542. 2 Julian, Count of the East. 




67ri\a66/jivov, TO Be ov BvvTjOevra e\eiv 
d/A(poiv crrepeo'Oai, KOI <frav\orepav rwv 
a\\cov opviOwv elvai rr)v (fraywtjv. o Brj KOI B 
avTO? evKafSovfiai, TraOelv, dypoiKias re apa real 
Sefto'n/To? dfj,aprelv. rjBr] yap, a>? Kal u/i-et? avrol 
avvopare, 7r\r)o-lov ecr/iev eQeXovrcov 6ewv, 

Eure /AOL \evfcal fj,eX,aivoi<> a 

d\\a T^? dxapiGTias, TT^OO? 6ewv Kal 
Aio? dyopaiov Kal TTO\IOV^OV, VTroa-^ere \6yov. 

TL Trap e/jiov Koivy TraiTrore r) KOI l ISta, 
BIKINI* VTrep rovrov \a/3eiv ov Swdfj-evoi, C 

Sia TWV dvaTraiaTcov r)fj,ds, axrTrep ol 
rov ( HpaK\ea Kal rov kibvvaov e\KovcTi 
Kal 7Tpi<f)epova-iv, OUTO) Be Kal uyuet? eV rat? dyo- 
pals eTTiTpiftere \oiSopovvres; rj rov /JLCV TTOLCLV TI 
f ^a\e r JTov et? u/xa? tt7re<r^6yLt^^, rov \eyeiv 8e v/-ta? 
KaKws OVK direa"%bfJLriv, Iva pe Kal vfjiels Bid rwv 
avrwv lovres d/JLvvrjaOe; rt? ovv V/JLLV icmv atria 
rov 7T/30? 77/^a? TrpocrKpoixr/jLaTOS Kal T^? aTre- 
'XOeias; eyob yap ev olBa Beivbv ov&eva VJLLWV ovBev D 
ovBe dvriKecrrov epyaad/Aevos ovre IBia TOL/? dvBpa? 
ovre KOtvfj rrjv 7r6\iv, 01$* elTrwv . ovBev (f)\avpov, 
d\\d Kal eTraiveo'as, a)? eBo^e /j,oi Trpoa-tJKeiv, Kal 
fjueraBovs xprjarov TWOS, oaov eiVo? r)V rov 7ri- 
Ov/jiovvTa fjieTa rov Bvvarov TroXXou? ev Troieiv 
dv6 po)7rovs . dBuvarov 8' ev lare Kal TO?? ela(f>- 

1 T) KU\ Hertlein suggests, KO,\ MSS. 


horse ; then since it forgot its former note and could 
not quite attain to the other sound, it was deprived 
of both, and hence the note it now utters is less 
musical than that of any other bird. This then is 
the fate that I am trying to avoid, I mean failing 
to be either really boorish or really accomplished. 
For already, as you can see for yourselves, I am, 
since Heaven so wills, near the age " When on my 
head white hairs mingle with black," as the poet of 
Teos said. 1 

Enough of that. But now, in the name of Zeus, 
God of the Market-place and Guardian of the City, 
render me account of your ingratitude. Were you 
ever wronged by me in any way, either all in common 
or as individuals, and is it because you were unable 
to avenge yourselves openly that you now assail me 
with abuse in your market-places in anapaestic verse, 
just as comedians drag Heracles and Dionysus on 
the stage and make a public show of them ? 2 Or can 
you say that, though 1 refrained from any harsh 
conduct towards you, I did not refrain from speaking 
ill of you, so that you, in your turn, are defending 
yourselves by the same methods ? What, I ask, is 
the reason of your antagonism and your hatred of 
me ? For I am very sure that I had done no terrible 
or incurable injury to any one of you, either separ- 
ately, as individuals, or to your city as a whole ; nor 
had I uttered any disparaging word, but I had even 
praised you, as I thought I was bound to do, and 
had bestowed on you certain advantages, as was 
natural for one who desires, as far as he can, to 
benefit many men. But it is impossible, as you know 
well, both to remit all their taxes to the taxpayers 
1 Anacreon/r. 77, Bergk. 2 cf. Oration 7. 204 B. 


K K 2 


povai, (rvyxwpelv aTrawra KOI SiBovai iravra rot? 367 
\a/ji/3dvei,v. orav ovv (fravw fjuySev e\ar- 
TCOV Srjfjioaiwv avvrd^ewv, oo"a? elwOev rj 
r) vepeiv Sairavr), vfMv $ avels rwv elafyo- 
OVK 6\L<ya, ap OVK alviy/AaTi TO 

'AXX' ovroo-a fjbev KOLVTJ TT/OO? Trdvras 

TOU9 dp%OfjL6VOV$ VTT CflOV, TTpeTTOl CLV (TlWITaV, 'iVO. 

fir] BoKoirjv wa-jrep e^eTrirrjSe^ auroTrpoo-coTro? eirai- B 

fjiavTov, /ecu ravra eTrayyeiXdiuevos 
KOL do-e\yeaTdra^ vftpeis /cara%ear ra 
8e l&ia IJLOL 7T/OO9 vyaa? TreTroi^/jieva TrpoTrercos fiev 
Kal az/07?Tft>?, TIKIO-TCL Be v$ V/JLWV a^ta d^api- 
<TTel<r0ai, TrpeTTOi av ol/j,at itrpofyepeLv wairep rtva 
e/jia oveiSr) TocrovTw TWV e/jLTrpocrOev ^dKeira)Tepa, 
TOV re av^jJiov TOV Trepl TO TrpocrooTrov real Trjs 
dvcKfrpoBicrias, oaw KOI aXrjOecrrepa ovra ry tywxfj 

/jLd\L(TTa 7TpO(T1JKei,. Kal $7) TTpOTGpOV CTTyVOVV G 

a>9 eveSe^ero /AOL <^)tXoTtyu,ft)9 OVK 
Treipav otS' 

, e/jiavrbv Be, el /cal 761/09 ecrrL [JLOL pa/ct,ov, 
7049 eTTiTySev paaiv V7re\d^avov, on 
fj,d\icrTa d\\tf\ov<? dya'jrrfa'OfJLev. ev fJiev Srj TOVTO 
earco JJLOI r}9 TrpoTrereias oveioo?. eireiTa 7rpeo~- 
jSeva-a/jievoi,? V/MV Trap ejjie Kal CL^LKO^VOI^ vare- 
ov TCOV d\\G)v jjiovov, aXXa Kal 'AXe^avSpewv D 


and to give everything to those who are accustomed 
to receive gifts. Therefore when it is seen that 
I have diminished none of the public subscriptions 
which the imperial purse is accustomed to con- 
tribute, but have remitted not a few of your taxes, 
does not this business seem like a riddle ? 

However, it becomes me to be silent about all 
that I have done for all my subjects in common, lest 
it should seem that I am purposely as it were singing 
my praises with my own lips, and that too after 
announcing that I should pour down on my own head 
many most opprobrious insults. But as for my actions 
with respect to you as individuals, which, though the 
manner of them was rash and foolish, nevertheless 
did not by any means deserve to be repaid by you 
with ingratitude, it would, I think, be becoming for 
me to bring them forward as reproaches against 
myself; and these reproaches ought to be more 
severe than those 1 uttered before, I mean those 
that related to my unkempt appearance and my lack 
of charm, inasmuch as they are more genuine since 
they have especial reference to the soul. I mean 
that before I came here I used to praise you in the 
strongest possible terms, without waiting to have 
actual experience of you, nor did I consider how we 
should feel towards one another ; nay, since 1 
thought that you were sons of Greeks, and I myself, 
though my family is Thracian, am a Greek in my 
habits, I supposed that we should regard one 
another with the greatest possible affection. This 
example of my rashness must therefore be counted 
as one reproach against me. Next, after you had 
sent an embassy to me and it arrived not only later 
than all the other embassies, but even later than 


TWV TT' AlyvTTTW, TTO\V fjiev dvrj/ca ^pvcnov, TroXu 
8' dpyvpiov, <f>6povs Be 7ra/jL7r\r)0ei<; IBia jrapa ra? 
aXXa? TToXet?, eVetra TOV /3ov\evTrjpiov TOV Kard- 
\oyov SiaKoariois ftovXevrais dv7r\r)pco(ra </)et- 
ovSevos. ea-fcoTrovv jap OTTWS 77 TroXt? 
earat /jueifav /cal Svvarcorepa. 

ovv vfj,iv /cal OLTTO TWV 67riTpO7revcrdvT(in> 
Brjaavpov^ rov? e'/iou? KCLI cnro TWV epyaaa- 368 
v TO vbfJLiafJba rou? TrXouo-^wTaro 
v/jiis S' eKeivwv fjiev ov TOVS 
i\(T0, \a/36fJLevoi Be TT)? d(f>op/jLfj<; eipydaacrOe 
TrapaiT\r)(Tia TroXet /xei' ovSafiS)^ evvofjLov/j.evr), 
TrpeTrovTa 8' t'/iwi/ aXXft)? TW T/OOTT&). {3ov\ea0 
ez/o? u/ia? vTrofjivrjcrQ) ; f3ov\VTr)V o^Oyuacra^re?, 

7T/Dt^ TTpOO-ypCHpfjVai, TW KaTO\6j(f), /JLT(t)pOV Ti}? 

Si/crjs over?]?, v7T/3d\T \t,Tovp<yia TOV avOpwrrov. 
a\\ov air dyopas etX/cucrare TrevrjTa KOI K TWV B 
aTravTa^ov fiev d7ro\e\i/jLfj,ev(tyv, Trap' vfuv Be Bia 
TrepiTTrjv (fipovrjcrLV d/jLet/Bofievwv TT^O? 
o-vptyeTwv evTropovvTa /jLCTpias oucrta? 
KOLVWVOV. TroXXa TotavTa irepl ra? o 
Ka/covpyovvTCDV V/JLWV, eTreiBrj fjirj TT/JO? airavTa 

wv re e elpyacrd/jue 
, /cal wv avrecr^oyue^a 

Kal TavTa fj,ev rjv TWV fjLi/cpwv irdvv /cal OVTTW C 
Bwdpeva Trjv 7r6\iv e'/C7roXe/iaicraf TO Be Brj 



that of the Alexandrians who dwell in Egypt, I 
remitted large sums of gold and of silver also, and 
all the tribute money for you separately apart from 
the other cities ; and moreover I increased the 
register of your Senate by two hundred members 
and spared no man ; l for I was planning to make 
your city greater and more powerful. 

I therefore gave you the opportunity to elect and 
to have in your Senate the richest men among those 
who administer my own revenues and have charge of 
coining the currency. You however did not elect 
the capable men among these, but you seized the 
opportunity to act like a city by no means well- 
ordered, though quite in keeping with your character. 
Would you like me to remind you of a single instance ? 
You nominated a Senator, and then before his name 
had been placed on the register, and the scrutiny of 
his character was still pending, you thrust this 
person into the public service. Then you dragged 
in another from the market-place, a man who was 
poor and who belonged to a class which in every 
other city is counted as the very dregs, but who 
among you, since of your excessive wisdom you 
exchange rubbish for gold, enjoys a moderate 
fortune ; and this man you elected as your colleague. 
Many such offences did you commit with regard 
to the nominations, and then when I did not 
consent to everything, not only was I deprived of 
the thanks due for all the good I had done, but 
also I have incurred your dislike on account of all 
that I in justice refrained from. 

Now these were very trivial matters and could not 
so far make the city hostile to me. But my greatest 

1 The Senatorship was an expensive burden. 



, % ov TO /jLeya tjpOrj /ucro?, a 
777)09 u/xa? o S?)/zo9 eV TO> Oedrpw, 7rviy6fj,vo<; 
VTTO TWV irKovcrlwv, d<f)fj/c <J)(0vr)v irpwrov 
" Havra <ye/jUi, irdwra TroXXou." T?}? 
SteXe^#77i> 70) rot? Svvarois vfiwv 
ireiQeiv, OTL /cpelrrov ecmv vTrepi&ovTa? dSi/cov 
/CT^creo)? ev Troifjaai TroXtra? KOI feVof?. ot Oe 
7rayjt\d/iiVOi rov Trpdy/jLaros 
ILTJVWV ^779 rpiwv vTrepiSovros JJLOV KCLI 
T09 ouTO)? oXt70)/)G)9 e7%oi> roO 7rpa 
ouSet9 af rfKiTicrev. 7rel 8' ea)pa)v d\rj0r/ rrjv TOV 
8rffj,ov ifrcovrjv /cal rrjv dyopav ou% UTT' evSeias, aXX' 
UTT* d7r\r)(TTLa<; TWV Kefcrrj^evwv crrevo^copov/jLevrjv, 369 
erafa perpiov ercda-rov rl^fjia /cal &fj\ov eTroirjara 
Traaiv. 7rel ' ^z^ ra yu,ez> aXXa Trap' avrois TroXXa 
Trdvv KOI yap rjv olvos /cal e\aiov /cal rd \onrd 
Trdvra' a-irov S' eVSece)9 el%ov, 
VTTO rd)V epsrrpocrOev av^/juw 

XaX/ct'Sa /cat 'le/oa^ TTO\LV teal 7roXet9 
evdev elcr^yayov V/JLIV /jberpwv rer- 
rapd/covra pvpidSas. 009 S' dvaXcoro /cat TOVTO, 
Trporepov jj,ev Trevrd/cis %i\iovs, evrra/a? %iXtou9 3' 
varepov, elra vvv /jivpiovs, 01)9 eTri^wpiov eo"rt 
\onrov ovofjid^eiv poUovs, dvakiatcov cr'nov, irdv- 
ra9 OL/codev e^wv. diro rfjs A^lyvTrrov /co/jLiadevra 
[tot, crirov eBa)/ca rp TroXei, 7rpaTTO/ze^o9 dpyvpiov 
OVK 7rl Setca /JLC'Tpwv, 1 aXXa Trevre/caiSe/ca ro- 

1 OUK enl fiT/)a)j/ Hertlein suggests, ou /cara fj-erpa MSS. 


offence of all, and what aroused that violent hatred of 
yours, was the following. When I arrived among 
you the populace in the theatre, who were being 
oppressed by the rich, first of all cried aloud, " Every- 
thing plentiful ; everything dear !" On the follow- 
ing day I had an interview with . your powerful 
citizens and tried to persuade them that it is 
better to despise unjust profits and to benefit the 
citizens and the strangers in your city. And they 
promised to take charge of the matter, but though 
tor three successive months I took no notice and 
waited, they neglected the matter in a way that no 
one would have thought possible. And when I saw 
that there was truth in the outcry of the populace, 
and that the pressure in the market was due not to 
any scarcity but to the insatiate greed of the rich, I 
appointed a fair price for everything, and made it 
known to all men. And since the citizens had 
everything else in great abundance, wine, for instance, 
and olive oil and all the rest, but were short 
of corn, because there had been a terrible failure 
of the crops owing to the previous droughts, I 
decided to send to Chalcis and Hierapolis and the 
cities round about, and from them I imported for 
you four hundred thousand measures of corn. And 
when this too had been used, I first expended five 
thousand, then later seven thousand, and now again 
ten thousand bushels " modii " 1 as they are called 
in my country all of which was my very own 
property ; moreover I gave to the city corn which had 
been brought for me from Egypt; and the price 
which I set on it was a silver piece, not for ten 
measures but for fifteen, that is to say, the same 
1 The modius was a bushel measure. 



(rovrov, oorov erri rwv Se/ca rrporepov. el Be 
roaavra fierpa Qepovs r)v Trap V/JLLV rov z/o/uVyita- 
T09, TI rrpoa&o/cav eSei rtjvi/cavra, rjvu/ca, cfrrjalv 6 

rjs, %a\67rbv yeveadai, rov \ifjuov C 
; ap" ov irevre /noji^ KOI 
re real rrf\LKovrov ^eifjiwv 
TL ovv V/JLWV ol 7r\ov(ri,oi; rov fj,ev 7rl 
ro!)V dypwv alTov \d6pa djreSovTO 7r\eiovos, 
@dpr)(rav 8e TO KOIVOV rot? IStois dva\(*)/jia(Ti' 
KOI ov% r; TroXi? povov eVt rovro avppel, ol D 
TrXetcrrot Be /cal etc TWV dypwv (rvvrpe^ovonv, 
o povov earli* evpelv rro\v KOI evwvov, aprov<$ 
aivovfjLevoi. Kairoi rt? fjLe/jivrjrai trap vfuv evOrj- 
vovjjLewrjs rfjs TroXeo)? rrevreteal&eKa /jLerpa airov 
rrpaOevra rov y^pvaov; ravrrjs eveicev VJMV drrr]- 
yBo^riv eyw TT}? rrpd^ews, on rov olvov v 
OVK eTrerpe^jra /cal ra \d%ava teal ra? orrw 
%pv<rov, /cal rov VITO rwv 

ev TCU? drroO^Kai^ arlrov apjvpov 
aurot? /cal xpvcrbv eai(J3vr)s Trap 1 V/JLWV yevecrffai. 370 
eicelvoi fjiev yap avrov ego) rijs TroXew? BieOevro 
tfaXw?, epyacrd/uievoL rot? dvOpu>rroL<; \L[JLOV d\oi- 
Tjrrjpa ftporeiov, to? o #605 ecfrr) rou? ravra emrr)- 
Sevovras e^eKey^wv. rj 7roXt9 S' ev dfydovia 
yeyovev dprcov eve/ca JJLOVOV, a\\ov S' ovBevos. 

/j,ev ovv /cal rore ravra rroiwv on, fir) B 
dpeaoi/jii, 7r\rjv jj,e\ev ovBev efioi' r& yap 



amount that had formerly been paid for ten measures. 
And if in summer, in your city, that same number of 
measures is sold for that sum, what could you 
reasonably have expected at the season when, as the 
Boeotian poet says, "It is a cruel thing for famine to 
be in the house." 1 Would you not have been 
thankful to get five measures for that sum, especially 
when the winter had set in so severe ? 

But what did your rich men do ? They secretly 
sold the corn in the country for an exaggerated 
price, and they oppressed the community by the 
expenses that private persons had to incur. And 
the result is that not only the city but most 
of the country people too are flocking in to buy 
bread, which is the only thing to be found in 
abundance and cheap. And indeed who remem- 
bers fifteen measures of corn to have been sold 
among you for a gold piece, even when the city 
was in a prosperous condition ? It was for this con- 
duct that I incurred your hatred, because I did not 
allow people to sell you wine and vegetables and 
fruit for gold, or the corn which had been locked 
away by the rich in their granaries to be suddenly 
converted by you into silver and gold for their bene- 
fit. For they managed the business finely outside 
the city, and so procured for men " famine that 
grinds down mortals," 2 as the god said when he was 
accusing those who behave in this fashion. And the 
city now enjoys plenty only as regards bread, and 
nothing else. 

Now I knew even then when I acted thus that I 
should not please everybody, only I cared nothing 

1 This does not occur in Hesiod or Pindar. 

2 A phrase from an unknown oracular source. 




rot? d<f)i/cvov/jLvoi<> ^evots, e/jiov re eve/ca KOI TWV 
avvbvrwv rjpZv dp%6vTO)v. evret 
vei TOU? fj,ev aTTievai,, TTJV ir6\iv $ elvat, TO, 
e/jL6 yvwfjirjs fiLa^' ol /Jiv yap fuaovcriv, ol 8' vir 
Tpa<t>evre<; a^apLarovaiv \\8paa-reia Trdvra 
tyas e? aXXo eOvos ol^rja-ofjiai /cal STJ/JLOV ere- 
pov , ovSev vfjicis v7TO]jLvrf(ra<> wv eviavrols e/Jirrpoa6ev C 
evvea Si/ccua Spwvres a? aXX^Xou? elpydaaa-Qe, 
(freptitv jJLtv 6 877/^0? eVfc ra? olicias TWV &vi>arwv 
%vv ftof) rrjv <f)\6ya KOI CLTTOKTIVVV^ rov dp^ovra, 


^"o/xe^o? Sitcaicos eirpa^ev ov/cen 

'Tirep TIVOS ovv irpo^ Oewv 

on TpecfrojjLev uyua? olicoOev, o ^XP L & 1 ll JLe P ov 
ovSe/jbia vroXei, /cal rpe^ofjuev ovrw 

OTi TOP /cardXoyov V/MWV 
OTL K\67rrovTa<; eXoz^re? OVK 
rj Bvo (BovXeaOe v/jid^ VTro/jLvrfcro), fj,r) rt? 
/cal p^ropeiav elvai /cal 
; 7779 /c\ijpovs ol/ubai 

ivai Kal r)Tr)(TaaOe \af3elv, 



about that. For I thought it was my duty to assist 
the mass of the people who were being wronged, and 
the strangers who kept arriving in the city both on my 
account and on account of the high officials who were 
with me. But since it is now, I think, the case that 
the latter have departed, and the city is of one mind 
with respect to me for some of you hate me and 
the others whom I fed are ungrateful I leave the 
whole matter in the hands of Adrasteia 1 and I will 
betake myself to some other nation and to citizens of 
another sort. Nor will I even remind you how you 
treated one another when you asserted your rights 
nine years ago ; how the populace with loud clamour 
set fire to the houses of those in power, and mur- 
dered the Governor ; and how later they were pun- 
ished for these things because, though their anger 
was justified, what they did exceeded all limits. 2 

Why, I repeat, in Heaven's name, am I treated 
with ingratitude? Is it because I feed you from 
my own purse, a thing which before this day has 
never happened to any city, and moreover feed 
you so generously ? Is it because I increased the 
register of Senators ? Or because, when I caught 
you in the act of stealing, I did not proceed 
against you ? Let me, if you please, remind you 
of one or two instances, so that no one may think 
that what I say is a pretext or mere rhetoric 
or a false claim. You said, I think, that three 
thousand lots of land were uncultivated, and you 
asked to have them; and when you had got them 

1 The avenging goddess who is more familiarly known as 

2 In 354 A. D. there was a riot at Antioch in consequence of 
scarcity of food ; Constantius sent troops to punish the 
citizens for the murder of Theophilus the Governor of Syria. 



o fjt,rj eo/jievoi. TOVTO e- 
raadev dvetydvrj cra<j6&>9. d(f)e\6fjL6VO<i S' avrovs 
eyco TWV e^ovTwv ov Sitcaiays, KOI 7ro\v7rpa<ytJ,o- 
vr}o~a<s ovBev VTrep TWV e/ATrpoaOev, a)V ea"%ov 
areXet?, 01)9 yu,aXto-ra e%pf)v v7TOT6\6is elvai, 371 
rat9 fiapvrdTaw evei/JLa \enov pyiais avrovs 7-779 
7ro\ec()9. teal vvv drekeis e^ovcnv ol /caO* etcaarov 
eviavrbv l7T7rorpo(f)ovvT<; 7^9 /cXrfpovs e<yyv<> 
eTTivolq /juev real ol/covo/jiia rov Oeiov 

TOV/AOV KCU OfJL&VV/jLOV, ^dpLTL 8' /J>fj, 09 &7) TOU9 
TTCLVOVpyOVS KOI /C\67TTa^ OVT(O KO\d^WV 6t/COTft)9 (fraivo/jiai TOV /coa/jiov dvarpeTreuv. v <ydp B 
tcrre ort Trpbs rou9 TOIOVTOVS rj Trpaorrjs av^et 
teal rpecfrei rrjv ev rot9 dvOptoTrois Katciav. 

'O Xo709 ovv IJLOL teal evravQa Trepua-Tarai, irdKiv 
et9 oirep (SovXo/JiaL. Trdvrwv <ydp eyu-avTW rcov /catcwv 

voas ovv ea~ri r9 /JLT^ TOVTO 
teal ov TTJS v/jLerepas ekevdepias. <ya> /JLCV Brj 
ra Trpos vfjids elvai TreipdaofjiaL rov \OITTOV crvve- 
Tcoreyoo9* vjjLiv Be ol Oeol rfjs et9 ^//,a9 evvoLas C 
teal Tififjs, r)v 


you all divided them among you though you did 
not need them. This matter was investigated and 
brought to light beyond doubt. Then I took the 
lots away from those who held them unjustly, 
and made no inquiries about the lands which they 
had before acquired, and for which they paid no 
taxes, though they ought most certainly to have 
been taxed, and I appointed these men to the 
most expensive public services in the city. And 
even now they who breed horses for you every 
year hold nearly three thousand lots of land 
exempt from taxation. This is due in the first place 
to the judgment and management of my uncle 
and namesake x but also^to my own kindness ; and 
since this is the way in which I punish rascals 
and thieves, I naturally seem to you to be turning 
the world upside down. For you know very well 
that clemency towards men of this sort increases 
and fosters wickedness among mankind. 

Well then, my discourse has now come round 
again to the point which I wished to arrive at. 
I mean to say that I am myself responsible for 
all the wrong that has been done to me, because 
I transformed your graciousness to ungracious ways. 
This therefore is the fault of my own folly and 
not of your licence. For the future therefore in my 
dealings with you I indeed shall endeavour to be 
more sensible : but to you, in return for your good 
will towards me and the honour wherewith you have 
publicly honoured me, may the gods duly pay the 
recompense ! 

1 cf. 340 A, 365 c. 

5 11 


ABANTES, the, 497 

Abaris, 245 

Abderos. 113 

Academies, the, 231 

Academy, the, 125 

Achaeans, the, 317 

Acheron, 129 

Achilles, 91, 189, 191, 387, 409 

Acropolis, the, 259 

Actium, 389 

Adonis, gardens of, 399 

Adrasteia, 509 

Aegean, the, 205 

Aegina, 19 

Aeschines, 153 

Aeschylus, 107, 133, 141, 333 

Aesop, 81, 347 

Aetios, 47 

Aetolians, the, 387 

Africanus, 257 

Agamemnon, 317 

Agathocles, 405 

Agesilaus, 157 

Agrippina, city of, 271 

Ajaxes, the, 191 

Alcaeus, 421 

Alcibiades, the, 27 

Alcibiades, 21, 209 

Alcinous, 461 

Alcmena, 367 

Alexander the Great, 63, 91, 93, 

191, 193, 203, 211, 229, 231, 367, 

373, 375, 377, 379, 381, 389, 393, 

399, 403, 407, 413 
Alexander, Severus, 361 
Alexandrians, the, 503 
AlpsTottian, the, 287 
Ammianus Marcellinus, 241, 253, 

257, 265 

Amphiaraus, 333 
Anacharsis, 245 
Anacreon, 421, 499 

Anatolius, 121 

Anaxagoras, 179, 181, 185, 229 

Anthology, Palatine, 53 

Anticyra, 121 

Antilochus, 193 

Antinous, 357 

Antioch, 295, 418, 419, 427, 429, 


Antiochus, 447, 449 
Antipater, 131 
Antisthenes, 2, 5, 23, 25, 85, 99, 

103, 105, 169, 229 
Antoninus Pius, 357 
Antony, M., 387 

Aphrodite, 155, 351, 357, 413, 481 
Apollo, 25, 37, 87, 91, 157, 159, 

193, 245, 351, 355, 365, 371, 413, 

418, 439, 445, 461, 475 
Apollodorus, 111 
Appian, 383 
Arabs, the, 451 
Araxius, 217 
Archidamus, 93 

Archilochus, 79, 89, 131, 325, 421 
Areius, 233, 391 
Ares, 283, 409, 413 
Arete, 217 

Argentoratum (Strasburg), 271 
Ariovistus, 379 
Aristides the Just, 245 
Aristides the rhetorician, 153, 301 
Aristophanes, 175, 219, 355, 457 
Aristotelian Paraphrases of Themi- 

stius, 200 
Aristotle, 15, 31, 51, 63, 105, 155, 

157, 200, 211, 221, 227, 231, 325, 

363, 465, 481 

Asclepiades, the Cynic, 123 
Asclepius, 149 
Asia, 213, 377, 379 
Asmus, 70, 165 
Ate, 129 



Athenaeus, 111 

Athene, 111, 125, 137, 139, 141, 

143, 145, 147, 247, 249, 259, 283, 

301, 441, 461 
Athenians, the, 19, 131, 181, 213, 

221, 241, 451, 457 
Athenians, Letter to the, 242-291 
Athenodorus, 353, 391 
Athens, 15, 87, 93, 95, 175, 183, 217, 

219, 241, 243, 259 
Athos, Mount, 173 
Augustus, Emperor, 233, 353 
Aurelian, 361, 363 
Alitolycus, 453 

Babylas, 485 
Bacchanals, the, 113 
Basilina, 461 
Bernays, 2 
Bithynia, 479 
Bosporus, 205 
Brigantia (Bregentz), 287 
Britain, 271, 279 
Brutus, 389, 405 
Burton, 423 

Cad means, the, 333 

Cadmus, 113 

Caesar, Caius, 405 

Caesar, Julius, 351, 367, 369, 375, 

379, 381, 389, 397, 403, 413 
Caesarea, 418 
Caesars, The, 344-415 
Caligula, 353 
Calliope, 103, 425, 475 
Callisthenes, 169 
Calypso, 461 
Cappadocia, 251, 257 
Capri, 353 
Caracalla, 359, 367 
Caria, 72 
Carians, the, 377 
Carterius, 217 
Carus, 365 
Cassius, 389, 405 
Cato, 209 

Cato the Younger, 477, 479 
Cebes, 231 
Celts, the, 195, 279, 377, 429, 433, 

451, 479, 483 
Centumcellae, 287 
Chaeronea, 479 
Chalcis, 505 
Chamavi, the, 273 

Charmides, 175 

Charybdis, 51 

Chnodomar, 271 

Chrisostomos, Johannes, 485 

Christ, 475 

Chrysippus, 209, 325 

Chrysostom, Saint, 419 

Chytron, 123 

Cicero, 245, 259, 427 

Circe, 461 

Citium, 17 

Claudius, Emperor, 355, 361, 413 

Clazomenae, 229 

Cleinias, 209 

Cleisthenes, 9 

Cleitus, 403 

Cocytus, 51, 129, 355 

Commodus, 359 

Constance, Lake, 287 

Constans, 367 

Constantino, 131, 367, 371, 397, 
399, 411, 413 

Constantine II, 367 

Constantinople, 3, 205, 342 

Constantiua, 2, 70, 121, 143, 165, 
175, 197, 200, 241, 251, 253, 255, 
257, 259, 267, 269, 271, 273, 275, 
279, 281, 285, 367, 418, 427, 429, 
461, 475, 485, 491, 509 

Constantius Chlorus, 365, 413 

Crassns, 383 

Crates, 2, 17, 53, 55, 57, 59, 83, 
89, 95, 97 

Cratinus, 427 

Crete, 77, 193 

Crito, the, 27 

Critoboulos, 181 

Croesus, 435 

Cyclades, the, 455 

Cyclops, the, 191 

Cynics, the, 2, 3, 231 

Cynics, To the Uneducated, 4-65 

Cyprus, 17 

Damophilus, 479 

Danube, the, 271, 377, 391, 393, 


Daphne, 418, 439, 445, 475, 487 
Daphnis, 425 
Darius, 63, 213 
Darius III, 377 
Decentius, 281 
Deioces, i>45 
Delos, 153, 461 


Delphi, 363 

Delphic oracle, 189 

Demeter, 35, 445 

Demetrius, the freedman, 477 

Democritus, 21, 179, 229 

Demodocus, 459 

Demonax, 2 

Demosthenes, 65, 131, 153, 175, 

237, 253, 291, 495 
Dio of Sicily, 209, 313 
Dio Chrysostom, 63, 70, 71, 77, 93, 

111, 165, 175, 189, 203, 391, 423 
Diocletian, 365, 367 
Diogenes, the Cynic, 2, 3, 5, 19, 23, 

25, 27, 29, 33, 35, 37, 39, 43, 49, 

53, 57, 59, 61, 63, 83, 89, 91, 93 

157, 159, 161, 211 
Diogenes Laertius, 43, 53, 125, 

159, 177, 179, 181 
Diomede, 219 
Dionysius, 405 
Dionysus, 70, 73, 107, 109, 111, 

113, 115, 117, 203, 335, 349, 353, 

363, 371, 395, 403, 407, 427, 475, 

481, 499 

Domitian, 165, 357 
Dynamius, 257 
Dyrrachium, 385 

Egypt, 155, 233, 355, 379, 389, 

503, 505 

Egyptians, the, 167 
Emesa, 361, 475 
Empedocles, 129 
Empedptimus, 313 
Bpameinondas, 159 
Epicharmus, 183 
Epictetus, 2, 153 
Epictetus Bishop, 287 
Epicurus, 43, 207, 217, 327 
Erasistratus, 447, 449 
Eretria, 229 
Euboea, 179 
Euclid of Megara, 231 
Euphrates, the, 391 
Eupolis, 73 
Euripides, 5, 47, 49, 57, 95, 97, 113, 

133, 185, 205, 249, 323, 333, 361, 

397, 403 

Europe, 377, 379 
Eurycleia, 441 
Eusebia, 255, 257, 261 
Eusebius, 253, 257 

Fates, the, 135, 137 

Faustina, 359 

Felix, 257 

Florentius, 271, 273, 279, 281 

Frazer, 87, 399 

Furius Carmllus, 383 

Gadara, 23 
Gades, 381 
Galba, 355 
Galilaeans, the, 37, 123, 327, 337, 

475, 491 
Gallienus, 361 
Gallus, 269, 253, 255, 429 
Ganymede, 357 
Gaudentius, 257, 277 
Gaul, 121, 165, 183, 195, 257, 267, 

269, 271, 279, 287, 289, 377, 379, 


Gauls, the, 385 
Genesis, 37, 301 
Germans, the, 269, 385, 389, 397, 


Geta, 359 

Getae, the, 357, 377, 393 
Gintonius, 279 
Glaucon, 209 
Glaukos, 219 
Graces, the, 351 
Greeks, the, 385, 387, 451 

Hades, 103 

Hadrian, 357, 418 

Harrison, J., 87 

Hector. 171, 401, 441 

Helen, '167 

Heliogabalus, 361 

Helios, 83, 119, 121, 135, 137, 139, 

141, 143, 145, 147, 261, 283, 363, 

379, 471 

Hera, 77, 113, 151, 349 
Heracleitus, 15, 23, 103, 129 
Heracles, 23, 70, 73, 91, 103, 105, 

109, 111, 113, 203, 229, 347, 367, 

375, 387, 413, 499 
Heraclius, To the Cynic, 73-161 
Heraclius the Cynic, 69, 70 
Hercynian forest, 479 
Hermes, 9, 113, 125, 139, 141, 147, 

149, 157, 347, 349, 357, 365, 367, 

369, 371, 373, 375, 399, 403, 405, 

407, 411, 415 
Herodotus, 9, 353, 435 



Hesiod, 79, 83, 149, 177, 179, 363, 
443. 447, 507 

Hierapolis, 505 

Himerius, 153, 467 

Hippocleides, 9 

Hipponax, 325 

Homer, 13, 33, 37, 45, 73, 81, 83, 
87, 119, 131, 137, 145, 167, 171, 
175, 177, 183, 187, 189, 191, 193, 
197, 211, 219, 229, 409, 425, 435, 
441, 443, 447, 451, 453, 459, 461, 
467, 497 

Horace, 63, 121, 325, 421 

Hylas, 113 

Hymettus, 169 

Hyperboreans, the, 245 

lamblichus, 25, 47, 105, 117, 151 

Iberians, the, 379 

Illyria, 183, 195 

Illyrians, the, 377 

Illyricum, 241 

India, 77, 115, 387, 401 

lolaus, 113 

Ionia, 183 

Ionian Sea, the, 205 

Iphicles, 51 

Ismenias of Thebes, 423 

Isocrates, 150, 275 

Isthmus, the, 93 

Italians, the, 377 

Italy, 121, 287 

Ithaca, 459 

Ixion, 77 

Jesus, 327, 413 

Jews, the, 313 

Julian, Count, 249, 429, 497 

Jupiter Capitoline, 355 

Juvenal, 11, 125, 355, 383 

Kasios, Mt , 487 
Kronia, the lost, 343 
Kronia, the, 343, 345 
Kronos, 213, 215, 345, 347, 369, 
371, 413 

Lacedaemonians, the, 191, 243 

Laelius, 177 

Laestrygons, the, 191 

Lais, 127 

Lesbos, 421 

Leto, 153 

Letter, Fragment of a, 296-339, 343 

Libanius, 200, 241, 301, 418, 419, 

467, 485 
Lichas, 113 
Licinius, 367, 397 
Livy, 161, 179 
Loos, the month, 487 
Lotos-Eaters, the, 15 
Lucian, 2, 5, 23, 245, 323, 343, 353, 

375, 383, 391, 401 
Lucilianus, 279 
Lucius Gellius, 383 
Lucius Verus, 359 
Lucretius, 29 
Lucullus, 383 
Lupicinus, 275, 279, 281 
Lutetia (Paris), 429 
Lyceum, the, 125, 157, 231 
Lycurgus, 205, '225 
Lydians, the, 435 

Macedonians, the, 213 

Macellum, 251 

Macrinus, 361 

Magnentius, 367 

Magnesia, 89 

Mallians, the, 401 

Mammaea, 361 

Marathon, 457 

Marcellus, 267 

Marcus Aurelius, 203, 359, 371, 

395, 399, 407, 409, 411, 413 
Mardonius, 169, 259, 461, 463 
Marinus, 257 
Marius, Caius, 383 
Martial, 349 
MaWiew, Gospel of, 7 
Maxentius, 397 
Maximians, the, 365, 367 
Maximus of Ephesus, 151, 467 
Maximus of Tyre, 71, 175 
Medes, the, 245 
Mediterranean, the, 379 
Megarian philosophy, 231 
Megarians, the, 189 
Memmorius, 121 

Menander the dramatist, 433, 453 
Menander the rhetorician, 30 
Menedemus, 229 
Messalina, 355 
Metroum, the, 5, 19 
Milan, 257, 261 
Milton, 395 
Minos, 359, 361, 367 
Misopogon, the, 49, 371, 420-511 



Mithras, 415 

Mithridates, 383 

Moses, 299 

Mother of the Gods, 5, 113 

Multan, 401 

Murray, 69 

Muses, the, 65, 153, 157, 349, 421, 


Musonius, 233 
Mykonos, 455 
Mysians, the, 451 
Mysteries, the, 103, 105, 107, 109, 

119, 161 

Narcissus, the freedman, 355 

Nausicaa, 461 

Naxos, 421 

Nebridius, 281 

Nemesis, 509 

Neocles, 207 

Nero, 233, 355 

Nerva, 357 

Nestor, 15 

Nicolaus, 233 

Nicomedia, 200, 418 

Nireus, 191 

Octavian, 351, 389, 397, 399, 405, 

Odysseus, 171, 189, 191, 441, 459, 


Oedipus, 133 
Oenomaus, 23, 53, 85, 91 
Olympia, 91, 93, 97, 159, 225 
Olympus, 109, 129, 147, 323, 325, 


Oreibasius, 265, 467 
Orpheus, 99, 105, 167 
Otho, 355 

Paeonians, the, 451 

Pallas, the freedman, 355 

Pan, 83, 105, 113, 149, 425 

Paris (Lutetia), 241, 279 

Parisians, the, 429 

Paros, 421 

Parthians, the, 357, 387, 395 

Patroclus, 191, 459 

Paul, St., 309 

Paul, a sycophant, 277 

Peirithous, 173 

Peleus, 193 

Penelope, 457 

Pentadius, 277, 281 

Pentheus, 117 

Pericles, 179, 181, 187 

Peripatetics, the, 25 

Perseus, 105 

Persia, 155, 231, 295, 387 

Persia, king of, 43, 63, 91 

Persians, the, 213, 385, 439 

Pertinax, 359 

Petavius, 29, 30 

Peter, St., 145 

Petulantes, the, 279 

Peucestes, 401 

Phaeacians, the, 435, 459 

Phaedo, 229, 231 

Phaethon, 83 

Phalaris, 357 

Phemius, 459 

Philebus, the, 155 

Philippi, 389 

Philiscus, 19, 91 

Philostratus, 301 

Phoenicians, the, 113 

Phrygia, 219, 431 

Phryne, 127 

Pindar, 77, 113, 149, 301, 507 

Pittacus, 205, 225 

Plato, 9, 21, 25, 27, 31, 39, 41, 51, 
63, 70, 77, 79, 81, 93, 99, 101, 
103, 105, 117, 119, 133, 139, 145, 
149, 155, 157, 169, 173, 179, 181, 
213. 221, 223, 231, 263, 307, 317, 
325, 345, 347, 353, 363, 365, 369, 
409, 457, 465, 467, 481 

Pliny, 401 

Plotinus, 117 

Plutarch, 55, 83, 89, 125, 131, 231, 
245, 383, 385, 401, 423, 427, 447, 
449, 477, 479 

Pnyx, the, 207 

Polemon, 169 

Pompey, 377, 381, 383, 385, 389, 
405, 477 

Pontus, the, 489 

Porphyry, 117 

Portico, the, 125 

Poseidon, 373, 389 

Praechter, 70 

Priam, 441 

Priscus, 467 

Probus, 363 

Prodicus, 70, 105 

Prometheus, 9, 41 

Propontis, the, 195 

Protagoras, the, 41 



Protarchus, 155 

Pylos, 15 

Pyrrho, 327 

Pyrrhus, 387 

Pythagoras, 15, 22, 25, 33, 41, 51, 

63, 155, 161, 179, 195, 325, 353 
Pythagoreans, the. 47, 155, 231 
Pythian oracle, li, 15, 23, 33, 53, 


Quadi, the, 271 

Quirinus, 347, 355, 367, 369, 383 

Rhadamanthus, 363 

Rhea, 349 

Rhine, the, 269, 271, 273, 377, 423 

Rhodes, 301 

Romans, the, 379, 385, 397, 471, 


Rome, 241, 331, 391, 475, 479 
Romulus, 347 

Salii, the, 273 

Sallust, Address to, 166-197 

Sallust, 69, 70, 121, 165, 277, 279, 


Salmoneus, 149 
Samoa, 81, 155, 179, 447 
Sardis, 435 
Sarmatians, the, 271 
Saturn, 345 
Satyrs, the, 113 
Scipio Africanus, 177, 179 
Scipios, the, 383 

Scythians, the, 245, 305, 391, 397 
Selene, 261 
Seleucus, 353 
Semele, 70, 109, 113, 115 
Serapis, 355 

Serenianus, the Cynic, 123 
Severus, Emperor, 359, 367 
Sextus Empiricus, 29 
Sextus Pompeius, 389 
Sicilians, the, 313 
Silenus, 21, 349, 351, 353, 355, 357, 

359, 361, 363, 365, 369, 373, 393, 

395, 399, 401, 403, 405, 407, 409, 


Silvanus, 257, 259 
Simmias, 231 
Simonides, 407 
Sinope, 5 
Sirens, the, 167 

Sirmium, 257 

Smicrines, 453 

Socrates, 5, 21, 25, 27, 31, 33, 85, 
157, 159, 161, 169, 173, 175, 189, 
207, 217, 229, 231, 313, 365, 465 

Solon, 55, 205, 225, 435 

Sophroniscus, 229 

Sparta, 241 

Spartacus, 383 

Stoa, the, 231 

Stoics, the, 17 

Stratonice, 449 

Suetonius, 351, 353, 381, 389, 391 

Sulla, 383 

Sura, 393 

Synesius, 427 

Syracuse, 313, 405 

Syria, 509 

Syrians, the, 451 

Tacitus, 233, 353, 355 

Tarentum, 471 

Tartarus, 51, 139, 323, 325, 355 

Taurus, 287 

Telamon, 113 

Teos, 499 

Termerus, 89 

Thebans, the, 379 
Thebes, 25, 333 

Themistius, Letter to, 202-237, 43, 

97, 103, 383, 391 
Themistius, 9, 71, 153, 167, 175, 

200, 201, 363, 391, 423, 48'J 
Themistocles, 63, 245 
Theocritus, 155, 177, 189, 197, 357, 

399, 425 
Theodosius, 200 
Theognis, 107, 185, 455 
Theophilus, Governor of Antioch, 

491, 509 

Theophrastus, 15, 465 
Theseus, 89, 105, 173 
Thesmophoria, the, 35 
Thessalonians, 145 
Thessaly, 75 
Thrace, 75, 183, 195 
Thracians, the, 353, 391, 451, 457 
Thrasyleon, 453 
Thrasyllus, 233 
Thucydides, 81, 191 
Tiberius, 233, 353 
Tigris, the, 387 
Timaeus, 157 
Timaeus, the, 155 



Titus, 357 

Trajan, 357, 369, 373, 395, 397, 

405, 413 
Tralles, 251 
Trojans, the, 167 
Troy, 191, 441 

Valerian, 361 
Vespasian, 355 
Vienne, 267, 279 
Vindex, 355 
Vitellius. 355 
Vosges Mts., 271 

Xenophon, 51, 85, 87, 105, 153, 

181, 209, 229, 459 
Xerxes, 63, 173, 213, 461 

Zamolxis, 175, 353, 393 

Zeller, 200 

Zeno, 25, 63, 177, 325, 351 

Zeus, 17, 41, 43, 83, 93, 105, 109, 
111, 113, 115, 135, 137, 141, 145, 
149, 197, 283, 305, 307, 351, 367 
369, 395, 409, 411, 413, 445, 467, 
475, (Kasios) 487, 499 

Zonaras, 425 

Zosimus, 241